Lesson 3 - Weebly

Lesson 3 - Weebly

Humanistic approach third force in psychology Lesson 3 Test: research methods Objectives: You will be able to Outline the assumptions of the humanistic approach Outline and evaluate humanistic qualitative methods

Evaluate the contribution of humanistic approach in terms of strength, limitations, applications and ethical issues. Homework: Monday Revise Biopsychology Issues, Debates and Approaches To Start Are we human? Or are we dancer?

My sign is vital My hands are cold And I'm on my knees Looking for the answer Are we human? Or are we dancer? But which one actually are we? Human or Dancer? Read the following lyrics. What do they mean?

How do they link to psychological approaches? Human or Dancer? Human = Free Will, Free Thinking, Free Choosing Dancer = Determined by forces beyond our control. Why is this important? Cognitive, behaviourist and Biological approach = Deterministic

Cognitive: choose our own thoughts but constrained to limits of our cognitive system (soft determinism) Behaviourist: reinforcement/conditioning (environmental determinism) Biological: ANS/genetics (biological determinism) What is free will? Free will is the idea that we have choices in how we act.

Free will separates out what is the intention of an individual from what has been created by other causes. This means that we are self-determining and free from the causal influences of the past.

How far does everyone have the ability to reach their full potential, be the best they could possibly be and self actualise? Humanistic Psychologists HATE Science! By using science can you 1. Exercise free will? 2. Resist the influence of overriding forces? (Determinism) 3. Measure viewpoints and perspectives openly and subjectively? (Science usually requires objectivity & falsification) 4. Study the whole person rather than a part? (Holism)

5. Look at unique cases rather than groups of people and establishing general laws? The Humanistic Approach It assumes that a healthy psychological attitude is dependant on taking personal responsibility, recognising the existence of free will, and striving towards personal growth and fulfilment. 1. The uniqueness of human beings (concerned with one individual). 2. The importance of subjective experience human behaviour is best understood from the perspective of the individual.

3. Humans have free will we have the ability to make our own choices and these are driven by the need to self-actualise. Abraham Maslow (1908 1970) An American Psychologist who in 1940-1950 developed the Hierarchy as a way for employers to get the best out of their employees by understanding their needs. But it has been adapted to explain needs in general terms. The original Hierarchy has 5 stages but has been

adapted by others and we often use the 7 stage approach There are a number needs in front of you. Can you organise these in order of importance group some together if you wish. Remember, you need to be able to justify your order - 5 minutes NEEDS? FOOD SEX

SLEEP EMPLOYMENT MORALITY SAFETY OF FAMILY HEALTH

FRIENDS FAMILY INTIMACY CONFIDENCE RESPECT ACHIEVEMENT

CREATIVITY PROBLEM SOLVING LACK OF PREJUDICE SECURITY OF PROPERTY

Task 1 1) Organise them in order of importance 2) Justify your decisions 3) Can you categories or group them in any way? Challenge: How far are these applicable to everyone? Maslows hierarchy of needs Task 2: We are going to build Maslows hierarchy of needs by applying it to a story to help us understand what each level of the hierarchy means. Individually,

Decide which parts of the story represent which needs. Annotate your version of the hierarchy with examples from the story. Explain how they exemplify each need. Stage 1 Physiological needs Do note here that sexual needs are those to continue the human race, not really the act of intercourse

Physiological needs air, water, food, drink, warmth, sleep, sex Stage 2 Safety needs Safety Needs protection, security, stability, order, rules, law Physiological needs air, water, food, drink, warmth, sleep, sex

Stage 3 Belonging needs Belonging and love needs Family, affection, relationships, work groups Safety Needs- free from chaos Protection, security, stability, rules, order, law, Physiological needs Air, water, food, drink, warmth, sex, sleep Stage 4 Self-esteem needs

Self-esteem needs Achievement, status, responsibility Belonging and love needs Family, affection, relationships, work groups Safety Needs Protection, security, order, law, limits, stability Physiological needs Air, water, food, drink, warmth, sleep, sex Stage 5 Cognitive Needs (key

term) Cognitive needs Able to think for ourselves, solve problems Self-esteem needs Achievement, status, responsibility Belonging and love needs Family, affection, relationships, work groups Safety Needs Protection, security, order, law, limits, stability Physiological needs

Air, water, food, drink, warmth, sex, sleep Stage 6 Aesthetic needs (key term) Aesthetic needs Appreciation of beauty & prettiness Cognitive needs Able to think for ourselves, solve problems Self-esteem needs Achievement, status, responsibility Belonging and love needs Family, affection, relationships, work groups

Safety Needs Protection, security, order, law, limits, stability Physiological needs Air, water, food, drink, warmth, sex, sleep Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 7 stage model Self-Actualisation Personal growth , fulfilment Aesthetic needs

Beauty, prettyness, appreciation Cognitive needs Able to think for ourselves, solve problems Self-esteem needs Achievement, status, responsibility Belonging and love needs Family, affection, relationships, work groups Safety Needs Protection, security, order, law, limits, stability Physiological needs Air, water, food, drink, warmth, sex, sleep

Self actualisation is very hard to get toit means ALL your needs have to have been met Does anyone think they know anyone who has reached self actualisation? How far up Maslows hierarchy of needs do you think you are and why? Does it always work? 1. Could it be hard to follow the rules of the society (stage 2 laws and not steal) if you are hungry (stage 1)?

2. It is difficult to enjoy a special relationship (stage 3) if you do not feel safe (stage 2)? Think of children or old people that are abused 3. Can you expect someone to have a high self-esteem (level 4) when they are always left out and do not feel part of a team (level 3)? 4. Can you motivate someone to achieve their target education grade (level 4) when they're having big problems at home with their family (level 3)? Personal Growth Humanistic psychologists see personal growth as an essential part of being human. Personal growth = changing and developing as a human to

become more fulfilled, satisfied and goal orientated. Not everyone will manage to achieve this as their may be psychological barriers in the way to achieve this. Personality Development Central to Rogers personality theory is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as the organised, consistent set of perception and beliefs about oneself. The self is influenced by the experiences a person has in his or her life, and our interpretations of those experiences.

Lesson 4 Starter: Exam question Referring to two assumptions of the humanistic approach, explain why humanistic psychologists have rejected the scientific method. (Total 4 marks) Referring to two assumptions of the humanistic approach, explain why humanistic psychologists have rejected the scientific method. (Total 4 marks)

Up to two marks for two assumptions of the humanistic approach. Up to two marks for explaining why each assumption is at odds with the scientific method. One mark for each explanation. Each person can exercise free will determinism Each person is a rational and conscious being and not dominated by unconscious primitive instincts A persons subjective experience and understanding of the world is of greater importance to understanding the person than objective reality Humans should be viewed as a whole and not reduced to component parts

Humans strive towards achieving self-actualisation Each person is unique Task draw on the whiteboard Maslows hierarchy of needs Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 7 stage model Self-Actualisation Personal growth , fulfilment

Aesthetic needs Beauty, prettyness, appreciation Cognitive needs Able to think for ourselves, solve problems Self-esteem needs Achievement, status, responsibility Belonging and love needs Family, affection, relationships, work groups Safety Needs Protection, security, order, law, limits, stability Physiological needs

Air, water, food, drink, warmth, sex, sleep Experiences Two primary sources that influence our self-concept are childhood experiences and evaluation by others. According to Rogers (1959) we want to feel and behave in ways which are consistent with our self image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal self. 3 selves which need to integrate to achieve self-actualisation. Self-worth (self-esteem) the way you see yourself Self-Image (real/perceived self) who you actually are

Ideal self the self you wish to be State of self-actualisation is important for the person to be fully functioning/ Congruence (Rogers) Write down your perceived self on a sheet of paper. On a different sheet write down your ideal self. Compare the two how congruent are you? An important part of achieving congruence (consistency between perceived/real self and ideal self) is unconditional positive regard (not have

conditions of worth placed upon them) Apply It Joyce is a successful teacher and is well liked by her colleagues. However, Joyce has always dreamed of becoming a ballroom dancer. She spends much of her spare time with her partner practicing elaborate lifts, and can often be seen twirling around in the classroom during break times. Joyce is considering leaving teaching and becoming a professional dancer. Her colleagues have described her plans as ridiculous, and her parents, who are very proud of the fact that their daughter is a teacher, have told Joyce that they will not talk to her again if she does. Joyce is beginning to feel sad and

miserable. Referring to features of humanistic psychology, explain how Joyces situation may affect her personal growth. Exam practice (4 marks) Exam practice (4 marks) Evaluate the contribution of humanistic approach in terms of strength, limitations, applications and ethical issues. Task 4: Expand on the evaluation point

1. Reductionism? 2. Practical Application? 3. Culture Bias? 4. Testability? 5. Alternative Approaches? Not Reductionist Humanists refuse to break up behaviour and experience into smaller components. They believe to understand human behaviour fully we need to understand all elements of the persons experience

(according to their own view/interpretation). They advocate a holistic approach. This approach has more validity than its alternatives as it considers human behaviour as meaningful within its real life context. Limited Application The humanistic approach is unlike any of the other mainstream approaches that we have covered so far. It has had an impact on counselling and helping it develop further as a field.

HOWEVER, the humanistic approach has had little to no influence on psychology as an overall discipline. This could be due to the Humanistic approach lacking in empirical evidence, which means it can often be seen as abstract rather than a comprehensive theory. Limited Application Hierarchy of needs influential. However, it is criticised as being culture-specific (individualistic vs. collectivist cultires)

Positive Approach Humanistic psychologists are praised for bringing the person back into psychology as often other approaches have negative views on the person (Freud e.g. a person is a slave of their past and claimed all of us existed between common unhappiness and absolute despair). Humanistic psychologists offer a refreshing and optimistic alternative to these views and sees a person as basically good, free to work towards the achievement of their potential and in control of their lives.

Untestable Concepts Humanistic psychology does include a number of vague ideas that are abstract and difficult to test. Concepts such as self-actualisation and congruence may be useful therapeutic tools but would prove problematic to assess under experimental conditions. Rogers did attempt to introduce more rigour into his work by developing the Q-sort in therapy. However humanists do not see this as an issue as they do not feel measurement is appropriate. Nevertheless, as would be expected of an approach that describes itself as antiscientific, humanistic psychology is short on empirical evidence to support its claims. This can be seen as a strength of the approach rejects the scientific measurement does not try to be objective.

Cultural Bias The ideas promoted by the Humanistic approach can arguably only be seen within individualist cultures ( E.g. USA). Whilst collectivist cultures offer an alternative emphasis on the individual ( interdependency etc.) therefore it would not fit in the humanist values Therefore, we are able to draw the conclusion that this approach would not travel well and is a product of the cultural content it is based on.

Compare and Contrast Essays The compare and contrast essays rely on you having a clear knowledge on the fundamental elements of each approach. What you can identify are similarities and differences between each approach .. A common Problem is: you fail to gain marks in the exam because when asked to refer to another theory/approach you simply describe a different one without making comparisons or contrasts.

Solution: structure your comparisons around key debates and research methods. Use these as the basis for pointing out similarities and differences between theories and approaches. Pattern to use to structure your answer. 1.Write a sentence explaining how the theories/approaches are similar /different. 2. Add a further sentence or two explaining the similarity or difference by pointing out the features of each theory/approach that

relate to the difference/similarity you are discussing. 3. Write a further sentence or two explaining a consequence or implication of the similarity/difference. 4. If appropriate, identify a difference/similarity that relates to the one you have discussed but which contrasts with it (i.e. a similarity within a difference or a difference within a similarity). Example One similarity between the biological and behaviour is that they both use nonhuman animals in their research. (1) For example, behaviourists used rats in Skinner boxes to investigate operant

conditioning and bio psychologists did neurosurgical studies on many species to discover how the nervous system works. (2) The approaches use animal subjects in different ways, however. Behaviourists focus on how the animal responds to changes in its external environment whereas bio psychologists focus on how it responds to changes in its internal structure. (4) In either case a consequence of this is that critics have attacked both approaches on ethical grounds and because the findings they produce may not generalise to humans. (3)

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