Language and Thought

LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT SWIMS LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT The quick, brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.

LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious is not the longest word in English, it is: LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT

Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoco niosis LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT What is the shortest word in English? I am!

LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT sixth sick sheiks sixth sheeps sick LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT Cognitive psychologists study memory, language, problem-solving, decisionmaking and reasoning remember, cognition which

refers to all the mental processes related to thinking, knowing, remembering, communicating made a comeback in the 1950s LANGUAGE STRUCTURE Language refers to written, spoken, or signed symbols/words and the rules

for combining these symbols/words to communicate meaning language is built from basic sounds which are combined into meaningful units, which are combined into words, then phrases, then sentences

LANGUAGE STRUCTURE Phonemes are the smallest distinctive sound units in a language (phones(sound)/phonemes); phonemes arent the same as letters (example: ch is a phoneme) English uses about 40 of over 100 basic identified phonemes * Censenent phenemes generelly cerry mere enfermeteen

then de vewel phenemes LANGUAGE STRUCTURE Morphemes are the smallest units that carry meaning in a given language (m = meaning); may be a word (luck) or part of a word (un-luck-y: prefix/root/suffix) a words meaning is based on its morphemes;

semantics is the study, rules, and understanding of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences LANGUAGE STRUCTURE Finally, syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically correct sentences (noun and verb phrase) Consider the sentence: Stephanie kissed the crying

boy Semantics tells us why Crying, Stephanie kissed the boy. has a different meaning Syntax tells us why Kissed the crying boy Stephanie is incorrect LANGUAGE

DEVELOPMENT Infants (in fantis not speaking) at 3 months can distinguish phonemes from different languages and by 7 months can recognize word forms after the first few months, babies begin the babbling stage, making non-language-specific sounds corresponding to

phonemes LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT around their first birthday, babies begin uttering sounds that correspond to words and communicate meaning (the oneword stage) by 18 months babies vocabularies begin to explode and by the age of two they can utter basic verb/noun sentences (want juice), aka telegraphic speech

* babys receptive vocabulary matures quicker productive (speech) (comprehension) than their LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Language is learned by trial and error, as shown by overextension (applying a word in too broad a way juice for all beverages) and/or underextension (juice only for orange juice) LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Overgeneralization (called

overregularization in your book) is common after the third year when children incorrectly use grammatical rules in cases where they dont apply first the correct word is learned (feet, went), then as grammar is learned mistakes are made (foots, goed), and then mastery brings the correct word back

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Overgeneralization shows kids actively work to learn grammar in small steps by school-age, kids gradually gain the ability to reflect on the use of language (metalinguistic awareness), such as double-meanings What kind of lights did Noah have on the arc?

fLoOd Lights! BILINGUALISM Bilingual children generally have smaller vocabularies in each of their languages than monolingual children, but have equal or larger combined vocabularies bilinguals may lag in processing speed and

verbal fluency, but the effort to focus on one language and resist distractions results in better attentional control THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Language acquisition theories center around the good old nature vs. nurture debate

Our behaviorist buddy Skinner predictably proclaimed language was learned via environmental factors: correct responses are positively reinforced and shaped to perfection THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Noam Chomsky disagreed with Skinner

and proclaimed humans to have an inborn capability to learn language: we learn language just as birds learn to fly this nativist theory says we have a Language Acquisition Device LAD - (brain/neural structures) allowing us to quickly and easily learn THEORIES OF LANGUAGE

DEVELOPMENT Because the LAD idea is vague and undefined, others have proposed interactionist theories of language acquisition: nature and nurture both contribute LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT: WHICH COMES FIRST?

Benjamin Lee Whorfs linguistic determinism (relativity) hypothesis suggests that language determines how we think bilingual people may think and describe themselves differently in each language

LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT: WHICH COMES FIRST? Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception have given credence to Whorfs theory: cultures that dont distinguish between blue and green think about them differently than those that do

LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT: WHICH COMES FIRST? debates on Whorfs ideas are focused on his original extreme version or a less extreme version that says language doesnt determine, but it does influence thought LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT:

WHICH COMES FIRST? Semantic slanting: deliberately choosing words to create specific emotional responses pro-life rather than anti-choice/pro-choice rather than anti-life or pro-abortion collateral damage from air support for civilians killed by bombing raids Nothing is certain in life except negative patient care outcome and revenue enhancement.

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