Kingdom Animalia - Fulda

Kingdom Animalia - Fulda

Kingdom Animalia, Porifera& Cnidarians How Are Animals Classified? All are Multicellular Eukaryotes All animals are consumers No producers or decomposers Scientists generally look at several things: 1. Absence or presence of backbone 2. Symmetry

3. Presence of organ systems 4. Embryonic Development #1 Presence or Absence of Backbone. The backbone is called the vertebrae Invertebrates lack vertebrae Vertebrates have a backbone #2: Symmetry If an organism has no symmetry, it is asymmetrical

Radial symmetry-Organism is arranged in a circle around a central point Bilateral symmetry-2 sides that are mirror-images #3: Presence of Organ Systems Some organisms are very simple Sponges do not have tissues or organs Insects have some organ systems, but humans have more No lungs! Lungs! #4: Embryonic Development

Beyond level we are at Deals with what portion of the tube (mouth to anus) of the body forms first as the organism develops from fertilization Most animals form the mouth first Vertebrates and sea stars form the anus first Invertebrates Animal Phyla We Will Study: Porifera (Sponges) Cnidarians (Jellyfish, coral, Portuguese Man-Of-War

Mollusca (Mollusks) Annelida (Worms) Arthropodq (Insects, Arachnids, Millipedes and NOT their creepy cousins) Tardigrada (Coolest organisms ever!) Echinodermata (Sea Stars) Chordata (Vertibrates) Phylum Porifera

The sponges Yes, they are considered animals Not plants Invertebrates Usually asymmetrical Lack tissues, organs, and organ systems Sessile (does not move) except in larval form

Filter feeders Collect tiny organisms and debris that flow through it https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RmPTM965-1c Porifera Reproduction Can be sexual or asexual Sexual Sponges are hermaphroditic as adults

One sponge will release millions of sperm in the water It then lands on the ground nearby, and never moves again Asexual Budding A baby sponge grows on the parent sponge, breaks off, then grows where it landed Regeneration They reach another sponge and fertilize the egg The baby (called a larva) grows a flagella and swims out of the parent sponge

Can produce both sperm and eggs A part of the sponge breaks off and grows into a new sponge https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xj-C52c9qlI (audio quality not good; visuals are) Phylum Cnidaria Invertibrates Can be radially or bilaterally symmetrical Jellyfish, hydras, Portuguese Man-of-War, and coral Get their names from cnidocytes (stinging cells)

Have a Digestive system No nervous system because no brain Most live in salt water, few in freshwater Two Body Forms in Cnidarians Cnidarians come in 2 different body types Some transition between these forms in their lifetime Polyp form

Sessile form (does not move) Radially symmetrical Tentacles on top Medusa form Mobile (moves) Radially or bilaterally symmetrical Tentacles on bottom Reproduction

Can be sexual or asexual Polyps can reproduce by budding Sexual reproduction is similar to sponges Release millions of sperm into water Also release eggs into water When the egg meets a sperm, it grows a polyp in that place Medusa forms start from polyp form They break free as they develop, and become free-swimming

Jellyfish https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-UZxEo8k894 Come in many varieties Can be bioluminescent Stings are painful, and can be deadly One of the most venomous organisms on Earth is the Box Jellyfish https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-2KR8LypESI Portuguese Man-Of-War

Interestingly, not a single organism, but a floating colony of tiny organisms Tentacles can be 30 meters (nearly 100 feet) long Each of these organisms relies on the others, and cannot survive independently Stings are very painful, but usually not deadly https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPbQs4Zc85k Coral Sessile cnidarians Form colonies

Coral reef Have tiny tentacles around their mouth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47vGQh4BGKM

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