Key Points from the Rebellions Main Causes in both Colonies General anger with decisions made by the Governor and Exec. Council. Land distribution issues Entitlement and privilege of Family Compact and Chateau Clique A lack of responsible government Dysfunctional government structure Colonial Government Structure Lower and Upper Canada
Appointed Elected Rebellion of 1837-1838 in Lower Canada Rise of the Parti Patriote 1830-36 Discontent and the Ninety-Two Resolutions The Ten Resolutions Protests
Rebellion Rise of the Parti Patriote 1830-36 When the Legislative Assembly was blocked by the other levels of government it was seen by many French-Canadians as proof that their colony was being controlled by the English minority. Rise of the Parti Patriote 1830-36 For example, French MLAs might vote to
spend money on a rural area of the colony. French farmers in that area might want better roads. Rise of the Parti Patriote 1830-36 But, English members of the
Council would block such a bill, and instead, would spend money to improve roads or canals that helped English speaking merchants. Rise of the Parti Patriote 1830 - Papineau stepped up his attacks on the nonelected Legislative Council and
declared himself a republican. He became an advocate of independence for Lower Canada and became increasingly critical of imperial authority. Joseph Louis Papineau
What is a Republic? 1.A state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them. 2.A state in which the head of government is not a monarch or other hereditary head of state. What is Republicanism? Advocating for, or adhering to, republican ideology. Discontent and the 92 Resolutions The early 1830s was a period of widespread economic
distress, fueled by a rapidly worsening agricultural crisis which brought many French Canadian habitants to the verge of starvation. Discontent & the 92 Resolutions At the same time, the province also saw a rapid increase in emigration from the British Isles, which gave the British minority close to a numerical majority in the urban centres of Montral and Qubec.
92 Resolutions In 1834, Louis-Joseph Papineau and other leaders presented the Ninety-Two Resolutions to the Lower Canada Assembly; the document included: All the Patriote demands, including responsible government and control of the executive branch It was adopted by a vote of 56 to 32. Discontent & the 92 Resolutions This new group
chose the maple leaf as their symbol because farmers knew that the maple tree grew where the best soil was to be found.
The motto of the Society was Nos institutions, notre langue nos droits (Our own institutions, language and The 10 Resolutions On March 1, 1837, Colonial Secretary Lord John Russell announced to Parliament that he was presenting his own Ten Resolutions
to handle the situation. Lord John Russell The 10 Resolutions Russell ignored all the grievances and reforms put forward by the Parti Patriot and the Reformers. The Ten Resolutions gave the Governor complete control of the public purse.
The 10 Resolutions The Ten Resolutions rejected the only real power left to the Assembly, that of refusing to vote on money bills. The only options left for the people of Lower Canada were to refuse to pay taxes entirely, or armed rebellion. Protests On May 15, 1837, Papineau began to speak
more openly against the British government. He called for French Canadians: to start smuggling goods from the United States into Lower Canada, and to boycott imports from England. Protests Dr. Wolfred Nelson,
an anglophone Patriot, held an meeting and declared "the time has come to melt our spoons into bullets." Dr. Wolfred Nelson Rebellion on the Rchelieu The first battle of the Rebellion saw a victory for the Patriotes.
British troops crossing the Richelieu S o re l r L ow er C anada ve Ri
e ce n La wr S t.
S t-A n to in e S t-D e n is S t-E u s ta c h e e u R i er v S t-C h a r les L o n g u e u il R ic h
However, the British prevailed in St. Denis and St. Eustache. Papineau who had fled to the US wanted the Patriotes to stop fighting. M o n tr a l C h a m b ly
S t-J ea n -su r -R ic h elieu e li Battle at St. Eustache Nearly 100 rebels were killed in the battle, including other leaders of the Patriote forces. Rebellion of 1837 Upper Canada
Discontent Rebellion Reprisal Defeat Discontent in Upper Canada Most immigrants, some of whom were wealthy
merchants and farmers, resented the Family Compact because found they were denied power. People who wanted change were called reformers. Robert Gourlay, one of the first reformers, was a land agent who discovered discontent among farmers, and drew up a list of grievances and a petition.
Discontent in Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie Some reformers were more radical, most notably William Lyon Mackenzie.
They would work with the government, but if nothing improved, the radical reformers were not afraid to use violence to get what they wanted. Discontent in Upper Canada Mackenzie was accused of being a traitor to Britain for wanting these things.
By asking for an elected Legislative Council and an Executive Council that was chosen from the majority party he was coming very close to republicanism. King William IV of England (1830-1837) Discontent
Not all the Reformers supported Mackenzie. The moderate reformers thought that Mackenzie was hurting their cause. Becoming angry and attacking the Family Compact, they believed, was not the way to change the government. Discontent in Upper Canada Egerton Ryerson
Robert Baldwin, thought that slow change would attract more people to the Reform movement. Another important moderate was Egerton Ryerson. He was a Methodist minister who supported the Baldwin.
Discontent The Legislative and Executive Councils both blocked the Reformers new laws. Mackenzie became so angry that he and the other Radicals wrote a report, The Seventh Report on It was the equivalent to Grievances. Papineau's Ninety-Two
Resolutions of a year earlier - and it had equally explosive results. Rebellion Mackenzie wanted to quickly overthrow the government of Upper Canada with a quick attack on York (Toronto).
Once the rebels took control of York, it would ask the United States for help. He hoped that the United States would quickly allow Upper Canada to join, and then protect it from Britain. The Battle
On December 7th, almost one thousand volunteers loyal to Britain, led by James Fitzgibbon, marched north toward the rebel stronghold at Montgomery's Tavern. Site of Montgomerys Tavern in Toronto Reprisal The entire Battle of Montgomery's Tavern was brief, less than half an hour. Reprisal
Fitzgibbon's men fired cannon shots at the building, and the rebels fled, leaving one dead, eleven wounded, of whom four died later of their wounds. A search of the Tavern turned up some of Mackenzie's files listing his supporters. Then the Tavern was burned to the ground. Reprisal Mackenzie and 200 followers fled to Navy Island, outside Buffalo, were they began
organizing a government-inexile. On Dec 13, Mackenzie set up a provisional government and proclaimed "The Republic of Canada on Navy Island in the Niagara River Defeat British troops found the hide out and burned their supply ship
Disgusted by a lack of support, McKenzie fled to New York City. Defeat Mackenzie was later arrested and jailed for 18 months by US authorities for violating neutrality laws.
In 1849, after an unhappy stay in New York, he was allowed to return to Canada under a general amnesty, and in 1851 was elected to the Legislative Assembly of United Canada. The fiery and principled Scot died at his home on
Bond Street, now one of Toronto's historic sites, in1861. William Lyon Mackenzie King *Footnote William Lyon Mackenzie King, politician and prime minister of Canada during the periods of 1921-26, 1926-30 and 1935-48, was the grandson of William Lyon Mackenzie. Britains Response Arrest Rebellion leaders for insurrection against the government
Some were hung; others were deported to Bermuda or Australia Lord Durham appointed to investigate the situation Durhams Actions Not influenced by the oligarchies Treated captured rebels with respect Pardoned many of them This caused anger among those who had property damaged in the Rebellions. Durham resigned and travelled home to complete his report.
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