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Invasive Plants and Weeds Lesson Kam na mauri! What are we going to learn today? 1) What are invasive plants?. 2) 4 common invasive plants. 3) Where the invasive plants came from and how they arrived in our country. 4) The problems they cause to our people, our agriculture and our natural environment.

What are invasive plants? An invasive plant is a plant introduced from somewhere else that causes some sort of harm in a new area. A weed is a plant that is any plant (native or introduced) that is growing in a place where people do not want it to grow. Invasive plants can be found on land, in the rivers and in the sea. Not all introduced plants are invasive All types of plant forms can be invasive: trees, climbing vines, shrub or bush, small plants or grass. In the Pacific region, there are many invasive plants that are a threat to agriculture, people, native animals and plants and the

environment. Activity Time! KWL Part 1 KWL (Know-Want to know Learned) Instructions K = Know What I already know about the topic at hand. W = Want to know What I hope to learn, questions I have, things I want to see or experience.

L = Learned What I actually learned. Possibly answers to my questions but maybe totally new things I hadnt thought of. Problems caused by invasive plants Invasive plants can harm native plants, animals and the environment. Some invasive plants can produce chemicals that affect

the seed germination, growth and reproduction of native plants. Invasive plants can also harm native animals by reducing the quality and availability of food, shelter and nesting places. Invasive plants can replace Problems caused by invasive plants Invasive plants may be poisonous

or harmful to livestock or humans. Some invasive plant species grow quickly but have a weak root system. This makes them likely to fall over or uproot in strong winds or heavy rain. These falling trees can damage houses and hurt people, increase soil erosion, cause poor water quality, flooding and mud deposits covering reefs, mangroves or other marine areas.

Some invasive plants in Kiribati River Tamarind - te kaitetua A small fast-growing tree. Used to feed cattle. Fast growing and invasive. Considered one of the 100 worst invasive species. Grows so quickly it can crowd out native plants. Originated from Mexico and Northern Central America.

Leucaena leucocephala - te kaitetua Some invasive plants in Kiribati Lantana camara - te kaibuaka White Sage - te kaibuaka A shrub that can grow up to 2m. Planted as an ornamental plant. Grows quickly and resistant to fire. High seed production 12000

seeds per plant per year. Reduces the productivity in pastures. Originated from Central and South America. Some invasive plants in Kiribati Casuarina equisetifolia - te burukam Australian Pine Tree - te burukam

An evergreen tree growing to 6-35m with slim leaves. Originated from a large area between Thailand and Australia. Fast-growing plant and displaces native plants. It has many uses including planting for erosion control. Easily spread as the fruits travel far on water. Seeds can survive for many years before germinating.

Some invasive plants in Kiribati Sphagneticola trilobata - Singapore daisy Singapore daisy A herb growing up to 30cm. Able to grow in a wide range of environments. It rapidly forms a dense ground cover, preventing other plant species from growing.

Considered one of the 100 worst invasive species. Originated from Mexico and Central America. Where did the plants come from? Plant species are usually introduced, or spread, to new locations via: Intentional introduction: timber species, edible fruits or crops, ornamentals.

Unintentional introduction: as contaminants on machinery or imported produces and human travel. Natural introduction: wind and water seed dispersal. Both intentional and unintentional introductions are increasing with Fruits and seeds of some invasive plants

Fruits and seeds of Leucaena leucocephala - te kaitetua Fruits and seeds of Casuarina equistifolia - te burukam Invasive plant management This often involves the use of a combination of the below control methods: Cultural control: maintaining an environment that doesnt encourage plant invasions through reducing disturbance and protecting beneficial plants,

insects and birds that help keep out invasive plants. Manual and mechanical control: includes hand pulling, digging, mowing, mulching, burning, ring barking (girdling), etc. Biological control: involves the use of biological agents (e.g. insects, rusts) introduced from the area where the invasive alien plants originated. Chemical control: involves the use of herbicide. Activity Time! KWL (Part 2)

KWL Instructions K = Know What I already know about the topic at hand. W = Want to know What I hope to learn, questions I have, things I want to see or experience. L = Learned What I actually learned. Possibly answers to my questions but maybe totally new things I hadnt thought of. Sharing Time!

What we have learnt today An invasive plant is any plant that can grow and spread very quickly when introduced into areas outside its natural range. Invasive plants can be found on land, in the rivers and in the sea and can be a tree, a climbing vine, a shrub, a herb or grass. We learnt about 4 common invasive plants. They are te kaitetua, te kaibuaka, te burukam and Singapore daisy. Plant species are usually introduced, or spread, to new locations via intentional introduction, unintentional introduction and natural introduction. Both intentional and unintentional introductions are increasing with increasing trade and human travel.

Invasive plants impact native species and ecosystem processes. Invasive plants can be controlled using a combination of cultural control, manual and mechanical control, biological control and chemical control. See you next time! Tekeraoi am bong! References A SURVEILLANCE AND RAPID RESPONSE PLAN (SRR) FOR PRIORITY INVASIVE SPECIES IN KIRIBATI (2016) - Report for Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) and the Ministry of Environment, Lands and Agricultural Development (MELAD) of Kiribati.

Denslow, J. S. (2009). Invasive Exotic Plants in the Tropical Pacific Islands: Patterns of Diversity. Biotropica 41(2): 162 170. Meyer, J.-Y. (2000). A Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific Islands (SPREP Member Countries). Pp. 85-114 in G. Sherley (Ed.). Invasive Species in the Pacific. A Technical Review and Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environmental Program, Apia. Pacific Invasive Initiative 2013. Resource Kit for Invasive Plant Management. http://ipm.pacificinvasivesinitiative.org Space J. C., Waterhouse B. M., Newfield M. and Bull C. (2004). Report to the Government of Niue and UNDP: Invasive species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 Niue Enabling Activity. Image Credits

Slide 1: Photo of Leucaena leucocephala courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain), Photo of Sphagneticola trilobata courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain) Slide 2-5,15,17-18: Plant leaves image courtesy of unnamed author - http://pngimg.com/download/3725, License: Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Plant drawing courtesy of unnamed author - http://pngimg.com/download/3486, License: Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Slide 6: Photo of Leucaena leucocephala courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain) Slide 7: Photo Lantana camara courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain) Slide 8: Photo of Casuarina equistifolia courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain) Slide 9: Photo of Sphagneticola trilobata courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain) Slide 10: Image of Republic of Kiribati Flag courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain), Unknown author - http://pngimg.com/download/23557 Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Birds image courtesy of unnamed author - http://pngimg.com/download/66, License: Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Seeds image courtesy of unnamed author - http://pngimg.com/download/42956, License: Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Bush image courtesy of unnamed author http://pngimg.com/download/7223, License: Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Slide 11: Picture of seed pods of Leucaena_leucocephala licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, Fruits of Casuarina equisetifolia by Eric Guinther Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

Slide 12: Flowers image courtesy of unnamed author - http://pngimg.com/download/662 License: Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Birds image courtesy of unnamed author - http://pngimg.com/download/66, License: Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Butterfly image courtesy of unnamed author - http://pngimg.com/ download/1025, License: Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Bush image courtesy of unnamed author - http://pngimg.com/download/7223, License: Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Slide 13: Photo of village by Top1963 / Tryfon Topalidis - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9918812, Photo of soil erosion by Katharina Helming - Given to me by the photographer, CC BY-SA 1.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=42387941, photo of coral reef by Copyright (c) 2004 Richard Ling, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=78275, Bush image courtesy of unnamed author http://pngimg.com/download/7223, License: Creative Commons 4.0 BY-NC, Slide 14: Photo of Leucaena leucocephala courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain), Photo Lantana camara courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain), Photo of Casuarina equistifolia courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain), Photo of Sphagneticola trilobata courtesy of wikicommons (Public domain). Slide 19: Image courtesy of arztsamui at FreeDigitalPhotos.net

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