James L. Roark Michael P. Johnson Patricia Cline Cohen Sarah ...
James L. Roark Michael P. Johnson Patricia Cline Cohen Sarah Stage Susan M. Hartmann The American Promise A History of the United States Fifth Edition CHAPTER 26 Cold War Politics in the Truman Years,
1945-1953 Copyright 2012 by Bedford/St. Martin's I. From the Grand Alliance to Containment A. The Cold War Begins 1. An antagonistic relationship Western Allies delay in opening a second front in Western Europe aroused Soviet suspicions during the war; Soviet leader Joseph Stalin wanted to make Germany pay for the rebuilding of the Soviet
economy, to expand Soviet influence in the world, and to have friendly governments on the Soviet Unions borders in Eastern Europe; in contrast, the United States emerged from the war with a vastly expanded productive capacity and a monopoly on atomic weapons, making it the most powerful nation on the planet. 2. Spreading capitalism 3. Avoiding appeasement 4. The future of Eastern Europe Stalin considered U.S. officials hypocritical for demanding democratic elections in Eastern Europe
while supporting dictatorships friendly to U.S. interests in Latin American countries; the Allies issued sharp protests but failed to prevent the Soviet Union from establishing satellite countries throughout Eastern Europe. 5. The future of Germany 1946, wartime Allies also contended over Germanys future; U.S. policymakers wanted industrial revival there to promote European recovery, while the Soviet Union wanted Germany weak militarily and economically; resulted in the division of Germany. 6. The iron curtain
March 1946, Truman, with Winston Churchill, traveled to Fulton, Missouri, where the former prime minister denounced Soviet suppression of the popular will in Eastern and central Europe and famously declared that an iron curtain had descended across the continent. 7. Containment 1946, career diplomat George F. Kennan wrote a comprehensive rationale for a foreign policy of containmentthe idea that Soviet expansion could be checked in the face of superior force; not all public figures accepted the toughening line, but those who criticized the administrations policy
met stiff resistance from Trumans cabinet. I. From the Grand Alliance to Containment B. The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan 1. The domino theory the domino theory, Truman warned that if Greece fell into the hands of leftist rebels, confusion and disorder would spread throughout the entire Middle East and eventually would threaten Europe. 2. The Truman Doctrine
the United States would not only resist Soviet military power but also support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures; would aid any kind of government if the only alternative appeared to be communism. 3. The Marshall Plan Congress authorized aid for Greece and Turkey and later followed with a much larger assistance program for Europe; in March 1948, Congress approved the European Recovery Program, which came to be known as the Marshall Plan; over the next five years, the United States spent $13 billion to restore the economies of sixteen Western European nations; invited the Soviet Union to participate, but, as the United States expected, the Soviets declined.
4. Opportunities for American investment 5. The Berlin airlift February 1948, the Soviets staged a brutal coup against the government of Czechoslovakia, installing a Communist regime; then staged a blockade of Berlin; the United States circumvented the blockade by airlifting goods to West Berliners for nearly a year; Berlin was divided into East Berlin, under Soviet control, and West Berlin, which became part of West Germany; the Soviet abandonment of the blockade lent credence to the containment policy. I. From the Grand Alliance to Containment
C. Building a National Security State 1. Developing atomic weapons after learning that the Soviets had successfully detonated an atomic bomb, thus ending the U.S. monopoly on nuclear weapons, Truman approved development of an even deadlier weapon, a hydrogen bomb; the Soviets soon followed with their own hydrogen bomb; from the 1950s to the 1980s, deterrence formed the basis of American nuclear strategy; created an everescalating arms race. 2. Strengthening traditional military power second component of U.S. defense strategy was to beef up its conventional military power;
formed the National Security Council to advise the president; united military branches under a single secretary of defense; enacted a peacetime draft; made womens military branches permanent; increased defense expenditures. 3. Forging military alliances with other nations in 1949, the United States joined its first peacetime military alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); pledged to go to war if one of its allies was attacked. 4. Strengthening friendly countries 1949 Congress approved $1 billion of military aid to its NATO allies, and the government began economic assistance to nations in other parts of the world.
5. Establishing a secret spy network to subvert communist expansion government improved espionage capabilities; created the Central Intelligence Agency to gather intelligence and perform sabotage, propaganda, and other anti-Communist activities; would topple legitimate foreign governments and violate the rights of U.S. citizens. 6. Capturing hearts and minds I. From the Grand Alliance to Containment D. Superpower Rivalry around the Globe
1. National liberation movements United States promoted the idea of self-determination, granted independence to the Philippines, and encouraged European nations to withdraw from their Asian and African empires; at the same time, both the United States and the USSR strived to cultivate relationships with emerging nations governments that were friendly to their own interests. 2. Adopting communist ideas 3. Chinese civil war Communists led by Mao Zedong fought the corrupt and incompetent official Nationalist government under Chiang Kai-shek; after providing almost $3 billion in aid to the Nationalists,
Trumans advisers believed that further aid would prove fruitless given the ineptness of Chiangs government; in October 1949, Mao established the Peoples Republic of China; formed a mutual defense treaty with the Soviet Union in order to guard against an Americansupported invasion. 4. Japan China in turmoil, the administration reconsidered its plans for postwar Japan; by 1948, U.S. policy had shifted from decentralizing Japans economy to a focus on reindustrializing it; now an economic hub within the American orbit. 5. Palestine Truman committed U.S. support to the new state of Israel despite his administration experts
insistence that American-Arab friendship was critical to protect against Soviet influence in the Middle East and to secure access to Arabian oil. II. Truman and the Fair Deal at Home A. Reconverting to a Peacetime Economy 1. Sustaining wartime prosperity Truman asked Congress to enact a twenty-one-point program of social and economic reforms; Congress approved only one of Trumans key proposalsfull-employment legislation
and even that was watered down. 2. Inflation turned out to be the most severe problem in the early postwar years; shortages and consumer demand drove up prices until industry could convert fully to civilian production. 3. Labor relations unions sought to preserve wartime gains with the weapon they had set aside during the war the strike; 5 million workers went on strike in 1946; although most Americans approved of unions in principle, they became fed up with strikes, blamed unions for rising prices and shortages of consumer goods, and called for more government restrictions on organized
labor. 4. Women workers 8 to 85 percent of women wanted to keep their wartime jobs, but most who remained in the workforce had to settle for relatively low-paying jobs in light industry or the service sector. 5. A stabilized economy 6. The Servicemens Readjustment Act GI Bill was the only large welfare measure passed after the New Deal; offered 16 million veterans job training and education; unemployment; and low-interest loans; sparked a boom in higher education; but the GI Bill discriminated against women because they filled just a
small number of military spots; discriminated against blacks because the funds were administered at the state and local levels. II. Truman and the Fair Deal at Home B. Blacks and Mexican Americans Push for Their Civil Rights 1. A renewed determination to combat racial injustices veterans as well as civilians resolved that the return to peace would not be a return to the racial injustices of prewar America; in the postwar years, individual African Americans broke through the
color barrier, achieving several firsts; in most respects, however, little had changed, especially in the South where violence greeted African Americans attempts to assert their rights. 2. Americas racist reputation Cold War heightened American leaders sensitivity to racial issues, as the United States and Soviet Union competed for the allegiance of newly independent nations with nonwhite populations; the United States was concerned that segregation and discrimination damaged its reputation in the third world. 3. Trumans civil rights program
Truman acted more boldly on civil rights than any previous president, thus appealing more to northern black and liberal voters; created the Presidents Commission on Civil Rights and became the first president to address the NAACP. 4. Lack of implementation president failed to follow up aggressively on his bold words that all Americans should have equal rights to housing, education, employment, and the ballot; but he did desegregate the armed forces in 1950; Truman broke sharply with the past and used his office to set a moral agenda for the nations longest unfulfilled promise. 5. Mexican Americans
routine segregation of children in the public schools, and they too raised their voices after World War II; formed the American GI Forum to battle discrimination against Latinos. II. Truman and the Fair Deal at Home C. The Fair Deal Flounders 1. The Republicans take Congress 2. Targeting organized labor 3. The election of 1948 4. The failure of the Fair Deal
II. Truman and the Fair Deal at Home D. The Domestic Chill: McCarthyism 1. The second Red Scare 2. Joseph McCarthy 3. Revelations of espionage 4. Identifying communists 5. The Smith Act 6. Beyond Washington
III. The Cold War Becomes Hot: Korea A. Korea and the Military Implementation of Containment 1. Korea divided 2. North invades South 3. Committing troops
ruman assumed that the Soviet Union and/or China had instigated the attack; obtained UN sponsorship of a collective effort to repel the attacks; named Douglas MacArthur as commander of UN force; sixteen nations, including many NATO allies, sent troops to Korea, but the United States furnished most of the personnel and weapons, deploying almost 1.8 million troops and dictating military strategy. By mid-October, UN forces had pushed the North Koreans back to the thirty-eighth parallel; the United States was faced with the momentous decision of whether to invade North Korea and seek to unify the country. B. From Containment to Rollback to Containment
1. Crossing the thirty-eighth parallel with UN approval, U.S. forces moved beyond the thirty-eighth parallel; MacArthur sent UN forces to within forty miles of China, disregarding Trumans orders; 300,000 Chinese soldiers crossed the Yalu River and helped the North Koreans recapture Seoul by December 1950. 2. MacArthur relieved three months, UN forces fought their way back to the thirty-eighth parallel; Truman favored a negotiated settlement, but General Douglas MacArthur, commander of the UN forces,
challenged this plan; MacArthur took his case to the public; fed up with MacArthurs insubordination, Truman fired him in April 1951; but many people sided with MacArthur, reflecting American frustration with containment. III. The Cold War Becomes Hot: Korea C. Korea, Communism, and the 1952 Election 1. Eisenhower for president 2. The Checkers speech saves Nixon
3. Republican victory D. An Armistice and the Wars Costs 1. The war ends 2. A success for containment 3. NSC 68 4. U.S. involvement in Asia
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