ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1

ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1

Chapter 5: Ethernet Introduction to Networks v6.0 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1 Chapter 5 - Sections & Objectives 5.1 Ethernet Protocol Explain how the Ethernet sublayers are related to the frame fields. Describe the Ethernet MAC address. 5.2 LAN Switches

Explain how a switch operates. Explain how a switch builds its MAC address table and forwards frames. Describe switch forwarding methods. Describe the types of port settings available for Layer 2 switches. 5.3 Address Resolution Protocol Compare the roles of the MAC address and the IP address. Describe the purpose of ARP. Explain how ARP requests impact network and host performance. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2 5.1 Ethernet Protocol

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3 Ethernet Protocol Ethernet Frame Ethernet Encapsulation Ethernet operates in the data link layer and the physical layer. Ethernet supports data bandwidths from 10Mbps through 100Gbps. Ethernet standards define both the Layer 2 protocols and the Layer 1 technologies. MAC Sublayer MAC constitutes the lower sublayer of the data link layer. Responsible for Data encapsulation and Media access control.

Ethernet Evolution Ethernet has been evolving since its creation in 1973. The Ethernet frame structure adds headers and trailers around the Layer 3 PDU to encapsulate the message being sent. Ethernet Frame Fields The minimum Ethernet frame size is 64 bytes and the maximum is 1518 bytes. Frame smaller than the minimum or greater than the maximum are dropped. Dropped frames are likely to be the result of collisions or other unwanted signals and are therefore considered invalid. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4 Ethernet Protocol Ethernet Frame (Cont.)

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5 Ethernet Protocol Ethernet MAC Addresses MAC Addresses and Hexadecimal MAC address is 48-bit long and expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. MAC Addresses: Ethernet Identity IEEE requires a vendor to follow two simple rules: 1. Must use that vendor's assigned OUI as the first three bytes. 2. All MAC addresses with the same OUI must be assigned a unique value in the last three bytes.

Frame Processing The NIC compares the destination MAC address in the frame with the devices physical MAC address stored in RAM. If there is a match, the framed is passed up the OSI layers. If there is no match, the device discards the frame. MAC Address Representations MAC addresses can be represented with colons, dashes or dots and are case-insensitive. 00-60-2F-3A-07-BC, 00:60:2F:3A:07:BC, 0060.2F3A.07BC and 00-60-2f-3a-07-bc are all valid representations of the same MAC address. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6 Ethernet Protocol Ethernet MAC Addresses (Cont.)

Unicast MAC Address Unique address used when a frame is sent from a single transmitting device to a single destination device. The source MAC address must always be a unicast. Broadcast MAC Address Used to address all nodes in the segment. The destination MAC address is the address of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal (48 ones in binary). Multicast MAC Address Used to address a group of nodes in the segment. The multicast MAC address is a special value that begins with 01-00-5E in hexadecimal. The remaining portion of the multicast MAC address is created by converting the lower 23 bits of the IP multicast group address into 6 hexadecimal characters. Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7 5.2 LAN Switches Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8 LAN Switches The MAC Address Table Switch Fundamentals

An Ethernet Switch is a Layer 2 device. It uses MAC addresses to make forwarding decisions. The MAC address table is sometimes referred to as a content addressable memory (CAM) table. Learning MAC Addresses Switches dynamically build the CAM by monitoring source MACs. Every frame that enters a switch is checked for new addresses. The frame is forwarded based on the CAM. Filtering Frames Since the switch knows where to find a specific MAC address, it can filter the frames to that port only. Filtering is not done is the destination MAC is not present in the CAM. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 9 LAN Switches Switch Forwarding Methods Frame Forwarding Methods on Cisco Switches Store-And-Forward Cut-Through Cut-Through Switching Fast-forward switching Lowest level of latency immediately forwards a packet after reading the destination address. Typical cut-through method of switching. Fragment-free switching Switch stores the first 64 bytes of the frame before forwarding. Most network errors and collisions

occur during the first 64 bytes. Memory Buffering on Switches Port-based memory Share memory Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10 LAN Switches Switch Port Settings Duplex and Speed Settings Full-duplex Both ends of the connection can send and receive simultaneously. Half-duplex Only one end of the connection can

send at a time. A common cause of performance issues on Ethernet links is when one port on the link operates at halfduplex and the other on full-duplex. Auto-MDX Detects the type of connection required and configures the interface accordingly. Helps reducing configuration errors. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11 5.3 Address Resolution Protocol Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12 Address Resolution Protocol MAC and IP The combination of MAC and IP facilitate the End-to-End communication. Layer 2 addresses are used to move the frame within the local network Layer 3 addresses are used to move the packets through remote networks. Destination on Same Network Physical address (MAC address) is used for Ethernet NIC to Ethernet NIC communications on the same network.

Destination on Remote Network Logical address (IP address) is used to send the packet from the original source to the final destination. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13 Address Resolution Protocol ARP Introduction to ARP ARP allows the source to request the MAC address of the destination. The request is based upon the layer 3 address of the destination (known by the

source). ARP Functions Resolving IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses Maintaining a table of mappings ARP uses ARP Request and ARP Reply to perform its functions. Removing Entries from an ARP Table Entries are removed from the devices ARP table when its cache timer expires. Cache timers are OS dependent. ARP entries can be manually removed via commands. ARP Tables On IOS: show ip arp On Windows PCs: arp -a Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

14 Address Resolution Protocol ARP Issues ARP Broadcasts ARP requests can flood the local segment. ARP Spoofing Attackers can respond to requests and pretend to be providers of services. Example: default gateway Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

15 5.4 Chapter Summary Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16 Chapter Summary Summary Explain the operation of Ethernet. Explain how a switch operates. Explain how the address resolution protocol enables communication on a network.

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

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