Issues in International Staff mobility in Education

Issues in International Staff mobility in Education

International Positioning Dr Robert Coelen International Positioning Dr Robert Coelen 6 Feb 2020 This presentation - Positioning - Quality perception local &

international - Price Quality link - Internationalisation - Academic vs. Commercial Approach - The Leiden Model De we De De Rijks re l ge RUG unive d a me

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de inte aak ied . we rna . ten ti sch onal ap pe l Positioning, what for ? - Must be clear about the motives

- Are you well positioned ? - Most European universities are currently positioned not as the result of deliberate action in relation to international attention - Must have a clearly defined and realistic goal Strategic positioning: World Class - Want to be world class

The region deserves it - Edinburgh The country must have it Australia Were building it Virginia Tech Must get there in the next decade: The goal of strategic positioning is to make the University of Minnesota one of the top three public research universities in the world within a decade. - How many world class universities can there be ? (250 T. van Raan at Leiden University) - What is world class ?

Strategic Positioning:Regional Relevance - Service the region No aspirations to be world class local issues to service the region Provide opportunity for disadvantaged groups - Specialist environment Tropical environment Great Barrier Reef can be world beater ! Strategic positioning:

Specialisation - University focussed on a few related disciplines Medical Engineering Economics Positioning - How your target market sees you in relation to your competition - It is about the students perception of you - The defining characteristics of your university have placed you where you are now

- Mismatch (?) between how you see yourself and how your prospective students see you Image and Reputation - Reputation: result of past actions (academic) - Image: the portrayal over a short period: snapshot (marketing communication) - Successful service business (high reputation) characterised by high demand and high sales - HE institutions high reputation linked to high demand and low sales (=selectivity) - Reflect: unable to buy a service would deteriorate reputation use pricing to control

demand - quality in service industry is coupled to price Transactional vs Relationship Marketing - Related to international student segment - TM = focuses on one-off interaction - RM = longer term relationships with a network of stakeholders - Framing activities in the: - TM model uses 4Ps: price, place, promotion, product Dependent on snapshot assessment

Significantly affected by ranking - RM model Development of relationships, beyond just exchange of education for money Network of stakeholders including, existing students, colleagues abroad, alumni, captains of industry, etc Less affected by ranking Positioning parameters (PQSDP) - Pricing luxury, quality, good value, low value, cheaper, cheapest

- Quality what is the prospective students perception of your quality ? - Service & Support Important characteristics - Distribution transnational delivery, local consumption, e-delivery - Packaging

your environment and your presentation International Student Concerns - Quality of the education - Prospects of a job - Life style - Personal Security - Affordability Quality and Cost - Undeniably a link - Higher Education: Staff student ratio

Infrastructural resources Quality of academic staff in unregulated remuneration system Rewarding top academics with assistance - Price - Quality - Quality Brands Prestige, Exclusivity What is QUALITY ? - Large number of organisations/jurisdictions are attempting to define this:

UK quality review Professional organisation peer review AUQA - Australia CHE/DAAD - Germany ENQA European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education Visitation programme in the Netherlands - Discipline based international benchmarking

- Output (graduate) based Good quality - Education is an experience good - If the quality is good - Education is a good experience Quality Enhancement - Enhancement is an innate feature of the academic process - Obligation towards alumni - Local/national community expectation

Which quality counts ? - In the current context: - Perceived quality (local & foreign) If based on substance Recommendation by non-local academics Successful alumni Internationally successful staff Big differences between local and foreign perception may exist Local versus International

Perception - Local: - historical, longitudinal perception, slow to change, collective memory - International: - often no history, must resort to snapshot assessment - Country profile very relevant Underpins importance of country strategy Snapshot assessment - Local knowledgeable and trusted sources: Academic community Successful alumni

Agencies - Third party independent and accessible assessment Repetitive occurrence strengthens this type Government issued Ranking lists Q.U.A.L.I.T.Y - Quasi Universal Agreement on a

Litany of Interesting Tests to promote Your university Methods - Ranking groups (SJTU): Top 20, Top 100, >400, not ranked - Countries: USA, UK, Australia, Netherlands - Bachelor level disciplines:

Business, Sciences, Law, Literature, Medicine, Engineering, Computer Science - Master level disciplines: Business, Sciences, Literature, Computer Science - Annual tuition fees expressed in EUR (exchange value) Undergraduate average tuition fees 25000 20000

Sciences Medicine Literature Law 15000 10000 5000 0 USA UK AUS

NL Postgraduate average tuition fees 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000

2000 0 Comp Sci Lit Science Business USA UK AUS

NL Bachelor and Master level by rank 25000 20000 15000 Bachelor Master 10000 5000 0 top 20

top 100 >400 no rank Ranking.. - Public/accessible Global rankings are relatively new: THES Malaysian issue Berlin Principles Universities are also responding: Leiden University Symposium on ranking 16/2/06

International Ranking Symposium in Leiden, 2-3 February 2007: Institutional, National, and International Response to University Ranking - Like it or hate it, we have to deal with it IREG Meeting Berlin - Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher Education Institutes - International Experts Ranking Group (IREG) - http://www.ihep.org/Organization/Press/

Berlin_Principles_Release.pdf - Those who producing rankings and league tables should hold themselves accountable for quality of their own data collection, methodology, and dissemination Internationalisation of:

- Teaching and learning Admission, Credit, and support Graduate outcomes Governance and Administration Staff Foreign operations Collaboration Culture and environment Student recruitment Motives for Internationalisation

- Academic: Utilisation of non-local academic content, principles, or teaching methods to enhance learning; - Cultural: Enhance the accessibility or applicability of the academic process, expand the skill set of our graduates to include cultural acumen; - Political: Position the university or the nation to enhance influence within and

beyond the nation state; - Economical: Enhance the financial well-being of the university to add value, not to support core activities (risk). The mix of motives - Strong determinant in how the university carries out internationalisation; - Influenced by external factors that impinge on the university; - Determines how the university measures progress

Leiden Universitys motives - Internationalisation as a quality enhancement: Attract excellent students Added dimension of intercultural adaptability of our graduates Attract excellent staff Added dimension of intercultural adaptability of our staff

- Better graduates - Better academic environment Internationalisation means to an end - Must lead to improvement in quality and the perception of quality (image/brand) of the university - It must therefore be woven into the processes that enhance the quality of our university and not become an end by itself; - Internationalisation through existing international relationships

Components of a foreign academic relationship driven strategy - Primarily mobility driven, both staff en students - Normal academic activities - Inward and Outgoing mobility - Organically grown, but strategic choice of partners Outcomes of Inter-university Relationships - Students and staff have the opportunity to gain international experience;

- Collaboration in teaching: Recognition of useful mutuality in teaching programs and exclusive specialisations (allowing coordinated exchange and expansion of study options); Synchronised curriculum to allow free-flow of students; Jointly taught programs; - Collaboration in research; - Increased availability of resources. Other Outcomes. - Expands influence of the university - Expands knowledge about the university in other countries

- Can build on the reputation of the university, but: Need to brand activities that are carried out; Ensure home players have an ambassadorial role; Selection of partners is important; Were doing this already - Much of the mobility and collaboration activities have been occurring for a long time - Were internationalised already Were doing this already - Much of the mobility and collaboration activities

have been occurring for a long time - Were internationalised already - Professionalisation and addition of structure and systems to: Streamline existing systems enhance the reputational yield from existing activities - Increasing the extent of internationalisation (depth and breadth) Full Fee-paying International students (a traditional view) - Australia: 80 85% of foreign students are Asian

Business, IT, Engineering, Law 80% - Market segmentation: Power, wealth, status, and prestige: Asia South America - Africa Academic opportunity: North America (degree seeking) Europe - Scholarship Students Life style/study opportunity North America, Europe (study abroad) Academic vs. Commercial approach - Academic approach: overriding foreign activities

(to increase awareness) are academic in nature - Commercial approach: overriding foreign activities (to increase awareness) are commercial in nature - Why not recruit full fee paying students on the basis of commercial marketing techniques ? How does a commercial approach address the issues of concern ? - To a lay audience or a less well informed market an education exhibition approach can impart significant apparent markers of quality

(augmented by input from alumni, agents); - Successful alumni can send a message about job prospects; - Issues of lifestyle, personal safety, and affordability can be very well addressed. Academic approach - Carry out such activities as to enhance the reputation of the university: Increase success research funding, multilateral programs Increase success in commercialisation of IP; Recruit highly talented academics Partner with like-minded institutes to become

locally (and more globally) recognised as having excellent academic qualities: Produce excellent graduates who become successful alumni. - Communicate these successes What approach ? - Begin to build a relationship with the environment of the prospective target Academic approach - Support academic approach to create greater visibility - Building the image with the right

values - Must choose target countries over time (limited resources) - National or supra-national (e.g. EU, consortia) support Make your programs accessible - Leiden teaches almost all of its Master level programs in English (about 80) - Leiden teaches about 200 undergraduate subjects in English

- Research supervision has been possible in English for a long time Primary method - Leiden aims to increase its internationalisation efforts through the use of existing academic relationships: Not to 280 or so agreements in IO Based on working academic relationships - Carry out increased internationally visible academic activities

Leiden Universitys Academic Links We place a high value our programs - Place a realistic value on the cost of tuition - Relate the cost to the quality - Opportunity to provide valuable scholarships - High quality = High value = High selectivity Stringent admission procedures

Environment: Funding & Perception University USD/Student Leiden U$ 26,500 Sydney U$ 14,900

UBC U$ 23,200 UMD U$ 23,800 Warwick U$ 24,000 York

U$ 22,600 What are we doing ? - Improve our processes involved in mobility of staff and students (scalability): Fine tuned IT support for logistics in mobility e-decision facility for visa processes Make process visible to all stakeholders from one database (Oracle/PHP) Include visa, housing, communication Housing, housing, housing - Realise that if you charge fees, you must

provide service & support Students are consumers/customers The Battle for Attention - Leiden wants to decide where this battle will be won - Not on a level playing field: Web, education exhibitions - On a field where we have a natural advantage: Colleagues who value Leiden University Institutes who are linked with Leiden

Synergy between disciplinespecific knowledge and International Office - International Office: models/mechanisms of approach and communication - Academics have discipline specific knowledge: Potential sources of students Good locations to send students Funding opportunities - Combine for synergistic effects Create Country Approach Plans

- Know what your programs want - Allow faculties to bring their strategy to bear on program wishes - Know your real academic links Contacts Academics with extensive in country experience - Combine links knowledge with needs and ambitions, adjusted with country knowledge USP - Globally unique features of the program - European, nationally unique

- The academics involved - Who ? Local Structurally invited - What ? Honours, prizes, grants, etc - Alumni Communication - Difficult to combine local and international - Do not create vastly different

perceptions/expectations - Need one image with different expressions suitability for situation - Web - Print Non-Anglophone EU - Let people know (where it is true) that English outside the classroom is OK !!

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