2/3 Focus: After the death of Muhammad, Arab fighters spread Islam over three continents. Because the Arabs treated conquered people in a fair way, many people converted to Islam willingly Do Now:
Now Identify one of the Five Pillars of Islam? 2/4 Focus: Under the Umayyad Caliphs, Islamic rule spread. However, internal problems weakened the Umayyads and led to their fall
Important Terms: Caliph, Caliphate, Toleration Do Now: Now Who did Muslims refer to as the people of the book?
The Caliphate The period when Muslims were ruled by a caliph and Islam expanded Caliph Successor to Muhammad Abu Bakr was elected
to be the 1st caliph Islamic Expansion Under Abu Bakr and Umar (his successor) Islamic armies conquered:
Parts of the Byzantine empire The Persian empire Egypt Reasons for Muslim
Success Very strong warriors Calvary (horses and camels) Byzantine and Persia were weak Muslim leaders
treated conquered people fairly Led many to convert to Islam Divisions in Islam Divisions developed over how a caliph should be chosen Civil war develops between the
Umayyad clan and the followers of Muhammads cousin Ali Umayyad are victorious Leads to a permanent split in Islam Sunnis Shiites
Shiite followers mark the killing of Imam Husayn by the Umayyad. Husayn lead a revolt against the Umayyad by self flagellation Divisions in Islam Sunnis Believed that the Caliph should be chosen by Muslim
leaders Did not see the caliph as a religious authority Shiites Believed that only the descendants of Muhammad should be caliph
The Umayyad Dynasty Expanded the Islamic empire the Indus Valley
and Chinese border North Africa Spain Defeat at the Battle of Tours stopped their advance into Europe
The Umayyad Dynasty Built the Dome of the Rock Mosque Allowed for religious toleration of Jews and Christians Acceptance; allowed to practice their religion
The People of the Book Restrictions they were not allowed to spread their religion Had to pay heavy taxes End of the Umayyad Dynasty Expansion led to tensions
rich and poor Sunnis and Shiites The Abbasid family unites opposition in a revolt against Umayyad rule Destroy the Umayyad family in 750 Begins the Abbasid Dynasty Closure
What was the name given to Muhammads successors? What are the two major divisions/sects in Islam? Identify two areas where Islam spread after the death of Muhammad.
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