Introduction - University of Alberta

What Makes WWI a World War? Local Impact and Post-War Politics World War I: The Great War Local Impact: the Colonies Africa: [refer to Oct. 14 lecture]

- War itself fought in various parts of Africa (in/near German territories) - Worst campaign was East Africa that drew in White and Black South African troops, British East Africans, Africans from West Africa Africa and Africans in WWI German Colonies

in Africa 1914 Togoland Cameroon German East Africa South West Africa

Local Impact: the Colonies Africa: - South Africans: whites who fought were mostly of British heritage (Afrikaners generally opposed to war or would have preferred to fight on side of Germans) - South Africa had only become a Union 1910 following Afrikaner defeat (Boer War): British South Africans in political, economic control black south Africans no rights at all

- Role in War affirmed (to South Africa) its right to demand more autonomy: accentuated Afrikaner and Black resentment Local Impact: the Colonies Africa: - long-term destruction local economies where war fought, where recruitment of men was high -Largest impact would occur when soldiers who fought elsewhere (whether Africa or Europe) returned home [video

Story of Africa, addl rdgs] -Initiated new generation of Nationalists who would succeed by the 1950s-1960s. Local Impact: the Colonies India: - In spite of British worries, India major supporter of war: both in men (fought in Europe and Middle East) and as base from which campaigns launched into Ottoman

territories - Huge losses on Western Front - home front also felt war: because of concerns that those who did not support war might be tempted by religious cause or simply resent British rule enough to use war as moment to resist. Local Impact: the Colonies India: - 1914-18: British government had put in place repressive

emergency laws (e.g. imprisonment without trial) - Meant to temporarily control potential subversive activities. - Assumed locally that measures would be revoked by the end of the war - Also expected more political autonomy as reward for wartime sacrifices (at home and in the trenches) Local Impact: the Colonies India:

- 1918: report presented to British Parliament did recommend limited local self-government. - Instead: Government passed the Rowlatt Acts 1919 which essentially extended repressive wartime measures - Nothing was offered in terms of political rights Local Impact: the Colonies India: - Response: widespread anger, discontent all regions

- April 1919: prominent leader Gandhi (more next week) called for country-wide strike - In Punjab: local arrests of leaders (in connection with strike) sparked massive public protest - buildings looted, burned; several foreign nationals killed, Christian missionary beaten . Local Impact: the Colonies India:

- Return to Order: a military task included complete ban on public gatherings - Amritsar: protest against ban brought at least 10,000 people out [video says 20,000] - Military fired on them: about 400 killed, at least 1200 wounded Local Impact: the Colonies India: - Dead and wounded left in square

- Martial law declared: gave rights to public flogging, other humiliating punishments - As narrator says in video: a turning point in Indias history Amritsar marked point-of-no-return with respect to British-India relations - Marked beginning of generation Indian Nationalism that would bring about Independence Local Impact: Asia Japan: [see lecture Oct. 16; 19th c. Industrialization,

modernization, militarization Mejii Reforms Text 800-6] - Success of Mejii Reforms seen in late 1890s victories in China; 1905 most important (in terms of regional/international profile) rapid victory over Russia - WWI: Actively engaged in ousting Germany from China foothold - Navy protecting Allies supply/troop ships: effectively targeting German submarines Local Impact: Asia

China: [see lecture on Qing Dynasty 19th C.] - late 1895: defeat by Japanese on heels humiliating treaties forced on Qing by European powers - Led to strong reaction against traditional monarchy - Emperor convinced to move towards Constitutional Monarchy but Empress Dowager determined to protect traditional position: imprisoned Emperor Local Impact: Asia China:

- violence swept across country: by 1900 secret society Boxers emerged as leaders - movement attributing countrys economic, political weaknesses on Foreigners - Led to social, political chaos - But generated huge domestic support: enough to enact siege of Foreigners neighbourhood in Capital Local Impact: Asia China:

- created unprecedented Foreign response (including Japanese who had interests in Qing territory): united military forces to lift siege - Qing forced to pay indemnity of 450 million oz silver - Suspend civil service exams: hit at core of power/class structure of Qing Dynasty - Ultimately more important than loss of territory per se Local Impact: Asia China: 1911: the Last Emperor overthrown

- Late 19th-century class of foreign educated (US, ironically Japan) intellectuals became active early 20th C. - Sun Yatsen: US educated, continued education in (British) Hong Kong, politically active, acquired foreign funding - Change, if it was to happen, had to be Revolutionary The 1911 REVOLUTION overthrew not only the Qing Dynasty but Chinas whole history of political tradition Local Impact: Asia China:

- nationalist regime followed but failed under influence of military man similar to those in South America who did not with to relinquish power but rather used it to build his own - As WWI began, China was essentially under a warlord dictatorship: following his death 1916 decentralized system of warlords - in turn Their wars, taxes and corruption created terrible suffering [Text p 902]

Local Impact: Asia China: - This is context in which we must see Japans expansion into Chinas Shandong and southern Manchuria provinces (taking of German territory but pushing it further into Manchuria) - Growing middle class, young Chinese patriots increasingly enraged [Text 902-3] Local Impact: Asia

China: - May 4 1919: 5000 students in capital city exploded against decision of Paris Peace Conference (below) to leave Shandong Peninsula in Japanese hands [Text 902] - Beginning of May Fourth Movement: fighting both foreign control and local warlordism - Looked to similarly anti-Imperialist movement from Russia Bolshevik Revolution: but Post-War China would take different path

Local Impact: Russia Russia: - Impact of defeat in Russian-Japanese war 1904 significant: led to first moderate revolution 1905 - Institution of a duma (sort of limited representative assembly) but still under control Tsar [equivalent of Constitutional Monarchy in many ways] - Industrialization recent but successful in creating working class; still most of the population (80%) peasant seasonal urban labour increasingly common

Local Impact: Russia Russia: -1906-11: efforts made to modernize agriculture create capitalist farmers out of feudal peasants. Overnight. -Internal dissension between an elite --including landlords, royalty, intellectuals, new middle class, wealthy military officer; and the rest urban workers, rank-and-file military, peasants -WWI: Tsar Nicholas II embraced opportunity to protect

Russia! Seen as opportunity to overcome domestic class differences, re-establish authority of Royal House Local Impact: Russia Russia: -Turn to military nationalism was as disastrous in WWI as it had been in 1904 only worse as WWI was of a totally different magnitude -In spite of relatively rapid advances militarily: no match for Germany

-Also lacked leadership [text 864,5]: Tsar attempted to use war to reinforce his own position failed miserably Local Impact: Russia Russia: -Fact that Tsarina was German born did not help -Worse: she relied on council (almost magical) of the infamous Rasputin -Failures on war front, combined with distasteful Tsarina/Rasputin . . .

Local Impact: Russia Russia: - In context of ongoing problems for peasants: landlords NOT willingly giving up land - And workers: not being paid, literally lacking bread - Led to demands for PEACE, LAND and BREAD - 1916-17: widespread, frequent strikes, demonstrations, protests, marches.

Local Impact: Russia Russia: - Petrograd, march 1917: womens march for bread sparked riots that spread - Soldiers/police ordered to restore peace joined the protesters - Duma declared its own govt: Tsar abdicated Local Impact: Russia Russia:

- New provisional government had only partial support - Another group representing the masses formed in St Petersburg Petrograd Soviet [Text p.867] - Challenged what was now seen as middle class government - One key decision: Duma supported continuing Russias role in WWI Local Impact: Russia Russia:

- Socialist ideals, especially as developed by Marx and Engels [see 1848 Revolution lectures] had been embraced by young, educated Russians like Vladmir Lenin (born into middle class, like counterparts in Europe and elsewhere) - Tied into late 19th century politics: brother killed for plotting to kill Tsar 1887 - Spent many years in Western Europe exile: introduced to Marxism

Local Impact: Russia Russia: -As law student, studied Marxism: developed interpretation that seemed to fit Russian situation - Capitalism would not destroy itself: revolution was needed - Full industrialization/proletariat (working class) not necessary: peasants in army, navy could be mobilized - Leadership could/should create revolution: vanguard of the proletariat In other words: Revolution could be brought to Russia!

Local Impact: Russia Russia: -Terms treaty (seen as humiliating peace, yes but not at ANY price) - Bolsheviks had lost power in first elections following takeover: effectively Lenin ruled as dictator, constituent assembly (of soviets) disbanded - led to military opposition from all sides (south, Ukraine, Siberia, west of Petrograd): White Armies - country plunged into Civil War Nov 1917 to Oct 1922

Local Impact: Russia Russian Civil War 1917-22 Local Impact: Russia Russia: -As Allies met in Paris to shape post-war world, Russia at

war with itself - Bolsheviks applied total war concept: no distinction between civilian, military everyone was part of army in some fashion - seized grain stocks from peasants to feed army, nationalized banks, industry: total mobilization for war Local Impact: Russia Russia: -Made use of Tsarist police to hunt down subversives:

1918-20 executed some 250,000 class enemies -Western governments supported White armies: ineffective but added to Bolsheviks patriotism - 1922: Red Army victorious but 125,000 Reds and 175,000 Whites (and Poles) killed in battle -Soviet Russia joined with Transcaucasia, Byelorussia, Ukraine to become Soviet Union Post-War World: the Treaties Paris Peace Conference:

-between January 1919 ad August 1920, series of treaties, agreements, principles that would reshape post-war world -Most significant: - Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Sevres (followed by Treaty Lausanne) Wilsons Fourteen Points League of Nations Mandates

Post-War World: the Treaties Treaty of Versailles: Controversial treaty dealing with Germany -Stripped it of colonies (in Africa given to France, Britain, South Africa; in Asia to Japan) -Industrial area of Alsace-Lorraine returned to France -Germany prohibited from re-arming, building military - Germany (and Austria) declared Responsible for the war and therefore responsible for its costs: reparation payments to be made (actual amount not yet decided)

Post-War World: the Treaties Treaty of Versailles: Controversial: why? - France wanted more, including buffer-zone to protect it from Germany: had to settle for defense agreement with US and Britain as compromise -Britain wanted some revenge but agreed to go along with US: worried about revolution/war in Russia - Also: Germany had been important pre-war market wanted it rebuilt

Post-War World: the Treaties Treaty of Versailles: Controversial: why? - not interested in punishing Germany -more concerned about international issues: League of Nations (below) -In the end: US senate refused to ratify treaty or Defense agreement [Britain then followed suit re: defense leaving France vulnerable] - never joined League of Nations created by own President

Post-War World: the Treaties Treaty of Versailles: Controversial: why? - Germany: resented the Treaty and everything it represented - debate (today) about how unfair it was or wasnt - Reparations key point of disagreement: Germany unable to make required level annual payment -Requested three-year moratorium: France refused

Post-War World: the Treaties Treaty of Versailles: Controversial: why? - 1922-3: France, Belgium occupied industrial-rich Ruhr Valley - led to international incident, economic disaster for Germany: solution to print money led to uncontrollable inflation crisis with long-term consequences [later lecture] -1924: Dawes Plan linking payments to Germanys economic performance, international circulation of loan dollars had quick but short-term impact [see Textbook p.874]

Post-War World: the Treaties Treaty of Sevres 1920: - immediately war ended French, British troops occupied Constantinople: imposed Treaty of Sevres -Broke up what was left of Ottoman Empire: divided it between Britain, France, Italy and Greece - Greece brought into war with promises of Ottoman territories with large Greek populations resurrection of old Byzantine Empire

Post-War World: the Treaties Treaty of Sevres/Lausanne (1923): Post-War World: the Treaties Greece According to Treaty of Sevres

Post-War World: the Treaties Treaty of Sevres 1920: - 1919: Greek army (arriving on British ships) established themselves on Smyrna coast and began to move inland - Although exhausted from war, Greek occupation stirred remnants of nationalism [see quotation from young Turkish woman, textbook 893] - War hero Mustapha Kemal began resistance movement

in face of Sultans cowardice as it was seen Post-War World: the Treaties Treaty of Sevres 1920/Lausanne 1923: - year of Treaty was also year of war, defeats for Turks - 1921: Kemals forces successful in Ankara (nationalist centre) - British/Greeks requested peace on new terms: Treaty of Lausanne - Independent Turkey recognized without Arab provinces

Post-War World: the Treaties Kemal known as Ataturk father of the Turks - Modern Turkey not only about geography: revolution - Secularism decreed, written into new Constitution - Range of social and religious changes, including replacement of Arabic script with Turkish script using Roman letters used to spread literacy - Industrialization, urban growth modernization: new nation state

Post-War World: the Treaties Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: [return to significance] -Treaty of Sevres (1920) had not only been humiliating for the Ottomans, had also reflected strength of western European Imperialism -And tactics by which Britain, France had fought WWI -Treaty based on secret agreement between them from 1917: Sykes-Picot Accord [see Video: Promises and Betrayal]

Post-War World: the Treaties Sykes-Picot Accord 1917 Light Shaded = Indirect Control Influence Dark Shaded = Direct Control Mandate

Post-War World: the Treaties League of Nations: - US President Wilsons main tool for re-ordering international scene - based on idea of graded mandates: territories that were categorized according to how close they were to being able to govern themselves as independent nations - given to European (in this case, South Africa included) powers under whose tutelage they would move towards autonomy

Post-War World: the Treaties League of Nations Mandates: - all German colonies in Africa (divided between Britain, France, South Africa, Belgium) -All Middle East (former Ottoman Territories): - France: Syria (divided into Lebanon, Syria) - Britain: Palestine (divided into Transjordan, Palestine); Iraq Post-War World: the Treaties

Wilsons Fourteen Points: -Suggested as basic principles of new international order (League of Nations represented administration of them) -most controversial, provocative article was Article XII. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development . . .

-Understood by Arabs to include Middle East region: clearly contradicted Mandates Post-War World: the Treaties Massive Arab objection: Syria (French Mandate) Article #3: Considering the fact that the Arabs inhabiting the Syrian area are not naturally less gifted than other more advanced races and that they are by no means less developed than the Bulgarians, Serbians, Greeks and Rumanians at the beginning of their

independence, we protest against Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations placing us among the nations in their middle stage of development which stand in need of a mandatory power. [Resolution of the General Syrian Congress at Damascas, 892] Post-War World: the Treaties Massive Arab objection: Syria (French Mandate) Article #7 We oppose the pretensions of the Zionists to create a Jewish

commonwealth in the southern part of Syria, known as Palestine, and oppose Zionist migration to any part of our country; for we do not acknowledge their title but consider them a grave peril to our people from the national, economical and political points of vie. Our Jewish compatriots shall enjoy our common rights and assume the common responsibilities. [Resolution of the General Syrian Congress at Damascus, 893] Post-War World: the Treaties

Post-War World: the Treaties Mandate of Palestine (left) Emirate of Transjordan Post-War World: the Treaties

Post-War World: the Treaties Palestine: -also declared Mandated Territory but further complicated by another secret correspondence - Responding to Jewish Zionists who offered to act in British interests protecting Middle Eastern territories (Palestine), Lord Balfour expressed promise that British Government would facilitate goal of a homeland -This was not an official document: British used it to leverage homeland for Jews from League of Nations

Post-War World: the Treaties The Balfour Declaration - Declaration original part of informal correspondence November 1917: "His Majesty's Government views with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object. It being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may

prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing nonJewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. Post-War World: the Treaties Consequences: - Arabs felt betrayed - Palestine: contradictory promises of homeland did not satisfy Arabs or Jews - Mandate System was rightly seen as extension of Imperialism under another name!

-[continued in next lecture]

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