Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology

Perception The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information Perceptual Organization: Gestalt an organized whole tendency to

integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes Perceptual Organization Figure and Ground organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)

Perceptual Organization Grouping the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups Perceptual Organization: Grouping Principles Perceptual Organization: (Closure)

Gestalt grouping principles are at work here. Perceptual Organization Depth Perception (seeing objects in 3D)

Binocular cues Retinal disparity: Brain compares perception of both eyes for close objects Monocular cues Distance of object determines which is in effect Perceptual Organization

Monocular Cues relative size smaller image is more distant interposition

object that partially blocks another perceived as closer relative clarity hazy object seen as more distant texture coarse --> close fine --> distant Perceptual Organization Monocular Cues (cont.)

relative height higher objects seen as more distant relative motion closer objects seem to move faster linear perspective

parallel lines converge with distance Light and shadow the darker the farther away Perceptual Organization Perceptual Adaptation: our brains ability to change its ideas and expectations about how things should be Perceptual Organization:

Based on many factors: experience culture emotions

beliefs context individual motivation perceptual sets Pain Biological influences Psychological influences Social-cultural influences

= Our pain experience Extra Sensory Perception Four main types: telepathy

thought transference from one person to another clairvoyance the perception of objects, events, etc., that do not provide stimulus to the known senses Extra Sensory Perception Four main types:

precognition perceptions of a future event psychokinesis manipulation of objects by mental will without intervention of any known physical force

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