Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 4e Edward F. Bergman William H. Renwick Chapter 4: Biogeochemical Cycles and the Biosphere Victoria Alapo, Instructor Geog 1010 Biogeochemical Cycles
Pathways by which energy & matter are transformed & recycled in Earth systems. See Fig. 4-1, pg 133 (next slide). In the Atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere e.g. water cycle. Law of conservation of energy and matter matter cannot be destroyed or created under ordinary conditions, but it
may be changed from one form to another. Two important biogeochemical cycles Hydrologic cycle Carbon cycle Hydrologic Cycle Flows (cycles) of water among land (lithosphere), sea
(hydrosphere) and air (atmosphere). See next slide, but use the simpler version for exam. Water changes between 3 states, but the amount remains constant. Gas Solid Liquid
All living things are primarily water Water Storage and Sources on Earth Water Budget An accounting of inflows and outflows of water within a given system over some time period.
Evapotranspiration Sum of evaporation and transpiration Seasonal variation
Low in winter High in summer Local water budgets Compares precipitation and evapotranspiration Vegetation and Hydrologic Cycle
Trees and forests require large amounts of water. E.g. one tree in the Amazon can transpire an average of 1000 liters per day into the atmosphere! Therefore, trees play key role in returning rainwater to the atmosphere So deforestation affects water balance of regions. Ex. Amazon, and other parts of the world.
The Carbon Cycle Processes that cycle carbon and oxygen between the environment and living things (next slide). Photosynthesis
Respiration Opposite reaction of photosynthesis (Oxygen is used) Combustion
Determined by climate/ more in summer Coal, oil, natural gas Industrial Revolution The lithosphere stores carbon (from 1000s of years e.g. coal). Soil
Is a dynamic, porous layer of mineral and organic matter Six principal components of soil
Rocks and rock particles Humus Dissolved substances Organisms Water from rainfall Air Soil Formation
Weathering The first step in soil formation Mechanical and chemical Soil horizons (next slide)
Layers of substances found in soils Formed through vertical movement of water, minerals and organic matter Soil Horizons Types of Soils Soil orders
11 orders (next slide) 47 suborders
230 great groups 1,200 subgroups 6,000 families Thousands of soil series Theres nothing simple about ordinary dirt! USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service maps (soils maps used in Planning Commissions & by farmers). Ecosystem
Includes all living organisms and the physical area in which they exist Fundamental elements
Producers Consumers Decomposers Material/energy needed for production Food Chains Food that plants produce are distributed via a food chain (distribution)
Trophic level each step in the food chain. Biomagnification e.g. when persistent chemicals remain in animal tissues and magnifies as it goes up the food chain. As in the case of humans, lions, etc. Food Chains
These 3 are all consumers (i.e. theyre just types of consumers): Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores What category does a Venus fly trap fall in???
Community Succession Sequence how comm. succession happens
Succession each plant community is succeeded by a new one until Climax community when the community or environment becomes stable Biomes Named for dominant vegetation/climate Major Biomes
Forest Tropical & temperate rainforest (based on location). Boreal needle leaf/coniferous evergreen found closer to poles e.g. Alaska & Canada. Called Taiga in Russia. Savannah Woodland & Scrubland
Location of the Serengeti National Park (Safari) found in Tanzania & Kenya also a world heritage site. Grassland Prairies Desert Tundra
Human & Natural Effects on the Environment Humans influence ecosystems 37% of land area = cropland or pasture (see next slide) Desertification when a previously nondesert area becomes one over time. E.g.
fringes of the Sahara, etc. See further slide. This could be due to misuse by humans or because of global warming. Desertification Hazard The most severe desertification hazards are in northern Africa, central Australia, and the southwestern parts of Africa, Asia, North America, and South America (the fringes of the major deserts of the world).
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