Introduction to Bonding

Introduction to Bonding

Hybridization of Orbitals Sections 9.1 and 9.5 March 14, 2007 Tetrahedral

Experimentally we know the bond angles (109.5). But our current understanding of orbitals doesnt allow us to achieve these bond angles. sp3 Hybridization

Molecules that have tetrahedral geometry like CH4, NH3, H2O, SO42-, and ClO3exhibit sp3 hybridization on the central atom. Methane with Hybridized

Orbitals Overlap of the Hydrogen 1s orbitals with the hybridized sp3

orbitals from the central Carbon. Trigonal Planar sp2 Hybridization

Molecules with trigonal planar geometry like SO3, C2H4, SeS2, CO32-, exhibit sp2 hybridization on the central atom. Hybridized and Unhybridized

Orbital View Rotate 90 degrees

Bonding and hybridized orbitals Hybridized orbitals make sigma bonds Unhybridized orbitals make pi bonds Linear geometry - sp

Hybridization Molecules that have a linear geometry like CO2, N2O, BeH2, HCN, C2H2 all exhibit sp hybrization on the central atom.

CO2 Structure sp Hybridization Pi bonds and Sigma Bonds

CO2 exhibits sp hybridization on the C and sp2 hybridization on the Oxygens. N2 Hybridization Diatomic Nitrogen has a Lewis structure

showing a triple bond. Hybridized Orbitals When Exceeding the Octet Rule

PCl5 dsp Hybridized 3 Trigonal bipyramid

geometry SeF4, PCl5, BrF3, XeCl2 Octahedral Geometry

d2sp3 hybridization XeF4, BrCl5, SeI6 Delocalization of Electrons (9.5)

In molecules that show resonance structures, we have a delocalization of electrons. The available unhybridized p orbitals all overlap and stabilize the structure through

the interactions. NO3-

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