Intelligence: Testing and Individual Differences

Intelligence: Testing & Individual Differences A P P S Y C H O L O G Y: U N I T VIII Designated Unit: Unit VI Learning & Memory New York Times Interviewer: What is your IQ? Physicist Stephen Hawking: I have no idea. People who boast about their IQ are losers.

Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? People with higher IQs have longer life spans True Exceptionally creative architects, scientists, mathematicians and engineers usually score no higher on intelligence tests than do their less creative peers

True Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? Highly educated people die with more synapses than their less-educated peers True There is a slight positive correlation between brain size and intelligence scores

True The concern with individual differences in intelligence is strictly a twentieth-century American phenomenon False Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? Todays Americans score higher on IQ tests than Americans did in the 1930s

True How quickly 2-to-7 month-old babies become bored with a picture is one indicator of later intelligence True Among the mentally retarded, males outnumber females by 50 percent

True Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? As adopted children grow older, their intelligence scores become more similar to those of their biological parents than to those of their adoptive parents. True The Intelligence Question

In your group, create two separate lists that include distinctively characteristic behaviors for each of the following groups INTELLIGENT people UNINTELLIGENT people Each list should include a minimum of 8

behaviors The Intelligence Question Now, walk around the room & look at the ideas of your classmates For each column, both INTELLIGENT & UNINTELLIGENT, you need to choose 1 items you agree with and 1 items you disagree with Intelligence: The Basics PA R T O N E

One aptitude, or many? Intelligence: The Basics Of the following individuals, who is/was the most intelligent..? Leonardo da Vinci Shaquille ONeal

Albert Einstein John Stewart Kanye West Why? Intelligence: The Basics Intelligence The ability to learn from ones experiences, acquire knowledge and use resources effectively in adapting to new

situations or solving problems Intelligence is a social construction Cultures deem intelligent whatever attributes enable success in THOSE cultures what best allows for survival? Intelligence: The Basics Reification

A reasoning error in which we view an abstract immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing She has an IQ of 120 She scored 120 on the intelligence test Which is better given the definition of intelligence?

Intelligence: The Basics Despite general agreement about the nature of intelligence, two controversies remain Is intelligence a single overall ability, or is it several specific abilities? With modern neuroscience techniques, can we locate and measure intelligence within the brain?

Since mental abilities are incredibly diverse, is it justifiable to label these abilities with only one word intelligence..? Intelligence: The Basics Consider the most intelligent person you know On a separate sheet of paper, explain (in detail) why this individual is the most intelligent person

you know Intelligence: Theories PA R T T W O Intelligence: Theories Theories: G Factor Charles Spearman (1863-1945) Viewed intelligence as two different abilities

General Intelligence, or g factor The ability to reason and solve problems Specific Intelligence, or s factor The ability to excel in certain areas Factor Analysis A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test

Used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a persons total score Theories: Primary Mental Abilities L.L. Thurstone (1887-1955) Opponent of Spearman and the g factor Believed intelligence was composed of seven primary mental abilities

Word fluency Verbal comprehension Spatial ability Perceptual speed Numerical ability Inductive reasoning Memory Theories: Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner (1943- present) Believes that intelligence

is multiple abilities that come in a package We do not have AN intelligence, but rather MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Studied people with diminished and/or exceptional abilities, especially those with Aptitude

Exemplar Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence T.S. Eliot, poet Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Albert Einstein, scientist Musical Intelligence Igor Stravinsky, composer

Spatial Intelligence Pablo Picasso, artist Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Martha Graham, dancer Intrapersonal Intelligence Sigmund Freud, psychiatrist Interpersonal Intelligence Mahatma Gandhi, leader

Naturalist (relatively new) Charles Darwin, naturalist EXISTENTIAL INTELLIGENCE A possible ninth intelligence? To ponder large questions about life, death and experience Theories: Multiple Intelligences Savant Syndrome A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental abilities has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing

Often score low on intelligence tests, but are otherwise brilliant 4 out of 5 people with this disorder are male and also have autism Ray Lewis-Clack Theories: Multiple Intelligences

Theories: Triarchic Theory Robert Sternberg (1949-present) Generally agrees with Gardner; however, Sternberg believes that intelligence has three basic components Analytical Intelligence Creative Intelligence Practical Intelligence

Most commonly accepted theory of intelligence Theories: Triarchic Theory Analytical Intelligence (book smarts) The ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving Creative Intelligence The ability to deal with new & different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems

Practical Intelligence (street smarts) The ability to use information to get along in life and become successful Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence PA R T T H R E E P R O V I D E D N O T E S & A N A C T I V I T Y S W B AT D I S C U S S T H E I N F LU E N C E S O F B I O L O G I C A L , C U LT U R A L , A N D E N V I R O N M E N T FA C T O R S O N I N T EL LI G EN C E & DI SC USS T H E H I ST ORY OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING AGENDA:


The ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions Emotionally intelligent people tend to be very selfaware The test for emotional intelligence measures overall emotional intelligence and its four components Perception of emotion Understanding of emotion

Management of emotion Usage of emotion Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence Component Description Perceive emotion Recognize emotions in faces, music and stories Understand emotion

Predict emotions, how they change and blend Manage emotion Express emotions in different situation Use emotion Utililize emotions to adapt or be creative Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence Criticisms

Howard Gardner & others criticize the idea of emotional intelligence and question whether we stretch this idea of intelligence too far when we apply it to our emotions Sex differences draw into question whether the EQ test is sex biased Intelligence: Measuring Intelligence PA R T F O U R

No two persons are born exactly alike; but each differs from the other in natural endowments, one being suited for occupation and the other for another The Origins of Intelligence Testing Intelligence: Measuring Intelligence Psychologists define intelligence testing as a method

for assessing an individuals mental aptitudes & comparing them with others (using numerical scores) Marked by controversy & misuse Began in France during the 20th century

Some students needed more help than others How do we identify those students? Intelligence: Measuring Intelligence The Binet-Simon Scale Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon (French psychologists) Expressed a childs score in terms of mental age Mental Age The chronological age that most typically

corresponds to a given level of performance Example A child who does as well as the average 8 year old, is said to have a mental age of 8 Intelligence: Measuring Intelligence The Intelligence Quotient William Stern (German psychologist) Developed the notion of IQ IQ = (MA/CA) x 100 Example

A child whose mental & chronological ages are the same has an IQ of 100 An 8 year old who answers questions as a typical 10 year old has an IQ of 125 Today? Intelligence: Measuring Intelligence The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

Lewis Terman (Stanford University) Expanded & revised the Binet-Simon Scale Remained fairly loyal to Binets original conceptions; however, Terman incorporated a new scoring scheme based on Sterns intelligence quotient Made it possible to compare different age groups Modern Tests of

Mental Abilities Intelligence: Measuring Intelligence Achievement Tests Tests designed to assess what a person has learned Bleiers AP Biology Exam, EOCTs (?) Aptitude Tests Tests designed to predict a persons future performance; ones capacity to learn

SAT, ACT, GRE, MCAT, GMAT, LSAT Is there a correlation between achievement and aptitude tests? Is there a correlation between intelligence scores and aptitude tests? Intelligence: Measuring Intelligence Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale David Wechsler (American psychologist at Bellevue Hospital) Developed the WAIS in 1939

TWO MAJOR INNOVATIONS Less dependent on verbal ability Discarded IQ in favor of a new scoring system based on the normal distribution Eventually developed an extension for children Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Intelligence: Measuring Intelligence Measures overall intelligence and 11

aspects related to intelligence Designed to assess clinical & educational problems Separate scores for: Verbal comprehension

Perceptual organization Working memory Processing speed Differences in scores? Intelligence Group Discussion In your group you will create a poster addressing several questions in regards to intelligence testing and school. You will present your poster to the class addressing key questions. Intelligence Group Discussion:

School boards, teachers, administrators, scientists, clinicians and parents frequently debate the usefulness of tests that attempt to assess peoples mental abilities, assign them a test score & then compare them to others. Should we use such tests to rank people, as is generally the case with college admissions? Other questions to address in your poster:

Does ones intelligence serve as a solid indicator of future success, either in college or beyond? What is intelligence? Is it an IQ score? Good grades? Being a financial success? Being a social success? Should schools be held accountable for their standardized test scores? What about teachers? Do standardized tests add any value with regards to ones education? Could the current system be maintained without standardized testing?

Objective: 1/11/17 Provided notes and an activity SWBAT distinguish between the reliability and validity of intelligence tests Agenda: Do Now- finish IQ discussions Notes Activity Intelligence:

Test Construction PA R T F I V E For a psychological test to be acceptable it MUST fulfill the following three criteria: 1. Reliability 2. Validity 3. Standardization Intelligence: Test Construction Reliability

The extent to which a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency of scores Procedures for Determining Reliability Split-Half Reliability Test divided into two equal halves Alternate Forms Reliability

Test-Retest Reliability Same test on two different occasions The Stanford-Binet, WAIS & WISC have reliabilities of +0.9 Intelligence: Test Construction Validity The extent to which a test measures or predicts what is it supposed to

Content Validity The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest Predictive Validity (Criterion-Related Validity) The success with which a test predicts the behavior that it is designed to predict Intelligence: Test Construction Standardization of Tests The process of defining meaningful scores by giving the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom the test is designed

Involves uniform procedures Same instructions, questions, time limits, scoring, etc. Like all samples, standardization groups are chosen randomly & must be representative Intelligence: Test Construction Standardization allows for the development of test scores & percentile scores

Test Norms The standards against which all others who take the test will be compared; where one individual ranks in relation to others Typically follow a normal curve (in intelligence testing) Percentile Scores

Indicate the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained Deviation IQ Scores Intelligence tests are periodically restandardized in order to keep the average score near 100 The Flynn Effect?? Intelligence: Test Construction The ability to learn from ones experiences, acquire knowledge and use resources effectively in adapting to new

situations or solving problems Cultural Implications? It is VERY difficult to design an IQ test that is completely free from cultural bias They tend to reflect, in language, dialect and content, the culture of the person or persons who designed the test Intelligence: Test Construction Which one of the five is least like the

other four? DOG CAR CAT BIRD FISH Most westerners would answer? Someone from Japan may answer? Adrian Dove (1971) American sociologist

Created an intelligence test to highlight the problem of cultural bias Known as the Chitling Test The Chitling Test A handkerchief head is: A cool cat A porter An Uncle Tom A hoddi A preacher

What are the Dixie Hummingbirds? Part of the KKK A swamp disease A modern gospel group A Mississippi paramilitary group Deacons The Chitling Test Cheap chitlings (not the kind you purchase at a frozen food counter) will

taste rubbery unless they are cooked long enough. How soon can you quit cooking them to eat and enjoy them? 45 minutes 2 hours 24 hours 1 week (on a low flame) 1 hour Money dont get everything its true But I dont have none

and Im so blue But what it dont get I cant use So make do with what youve got But I dont know that and neither do you Get Smart Log on to the internet and go to the following website: You can find this under AP Simulation Links, it will be under Get Smart http://

sAP1e/PsychSim5%20Tutorials/Get_Smart/get_ smart.htm As you go through the tutorial be sure to answer the questions on your worksheet. Web-Quest Intelligence Go to to sign up for Google Classroom (you need to enter your Long Branch email) If you are new to google classroom, you will need to click the + sign in the top right corner to join a new class. Period A: zah3gfg

Period B: Intelligence: The Dynamics of Intelligence PA R T S I X Does intelligence remain stable over a lifetime or does it change? Are individuals on opposite ends of the spectrum really that different? Intelligence: The Dynamics By age 4, childrens performance on intelligence tests begins to predict their adolescent & adult scores

High scoring adolescents tend to have been early readers Intelligence scores become stable after about 7 years of age In numerous studies, consistency of intelligence scores has been determined to increase with age Intelligence: The Extremes of Intelligence PA R T S E V E N

Intelligence: The Extremes (Low) Intellectual Disability/Developmentally Delayed (Mental Retardation) A condition characterized by limited mental capacity Indicated by a low test score (<70) and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent living; before the age of 18 1-3% of the population

An estimated 6.2 to 7.5 million Americans Male to female ratio? Intelligence: The Extremes (Low) The three most common biological causes Down Syndrome

A condition of intellectual disability & associated physical disorders 47 chromosomes, as opposed to 46 (an extra 21 st) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fragile X Syndrome A condition in which a male has a defect in a gene on the X chromosome of the twenty-third pair Leads to a deficiency in a protein needed for brain development

Intelligence: The Extremes (Low) Other Causes? Environmental Factors Lead poisoning Prenatal exposure to mercury Poor nutrition Lack of mental stimulation Familial Retardation A developmental delay related to living in

poverty; generally produces relatively mild retardation Intelligence: The Extremes (High) Definitions of giftedness (>130) vary considerably 2% of the population is >130 (gifted) % of the population >140-145 (genius) Misconceptions about the high extreme Early ripe, early rot

Socially awkward, physically weak, more likely to suffer from mental illness, etc. The mad scientists or evil geniuses Intelligence: The Extremes (High) Lewis Terman (1921) Termans Termites Longitudinal Study of 1,528 children IQs ranging from 130 200 Findings Gifted individuals tend to be

above average in Physical health Emotional adjustment Mental health Social maturity Intelligence: Heredity & Environment PA R T E I G H T

Intelligence: Heredity & Environment Early pioneers of intelligence Maintained the nature view of intelligence Todays nature theorists Assert that a childs intelligence CANNOT be changed; genetic destiny Many argue that this downplays the value of special education programs for underprivileged groups

Intelligence: Heredity & Environment Todays nurture theorists Assert that traits with a strong genetic component are not necessarily unchangeable Argue that even MORE funds be allocated for remedial programs, especially in lower-income areas Evidence for Hereditary Influence Intelligence: Heredity &

Environment Family Studies Can determine only whether genetic influence on a trait is plausible Twin Studies The average correlation for identical twins is +0.86 The average correlation for fraternal twins is +0.60 Adoption Studies

Studies indicate that there is more than chance similarity between adopted children and their biological parents Intelligence: Heredity & Environment Heritability Ratio An estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance Can be estimated for any trait

90% for height 85% for weight Intelligence? Intelligence: Heredity & Environment Heritability estimates for intelligence vary considerably High Estimate: 80%

20% of the variation in intelligence is attributable to environmental factors Low Estimate: 40% 60% of the variation in intelligence is attributable to environmental factors Intelligence: Heredity & Environment Limitations of heritability estimates Heritability is a group statistic; CANNOT be

meaningfully applied to individuals A traits heritability may vary from one group to another There really is no single fixed value that represents any true, constant value for the heritability of IQ or anything else Evidence for Environmental Influence Intelligence: Heredity & Environment Twin Studies The average correlation for identical twins raised together is +0.86

The average correlation for identical twins raised apart is +0.72 Adoption Studies There is some resemblance between adoptive parents and their children Siblings reared together are more similar in IQ than siblings reared apart (0.48, as opposed to 0.23) Intelligence: Heredity & Environment

Sandra Scarr (1991) Reaction-Range Model Heredity sets certain limits on intelligence and environmental factors determine where individuals fall within these limits Genetic makeup places an upper limit on a persons IQ Cannot be exceeded; even when environment is ideal Genetic makeup places a lower limit on a persons IQ except in extreme cases

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