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Sample return from C-type asteroids: What will we bring back? Paula Lindgren School of Geographical and Earth Sciences University of Glasgow SPACE Glasgow Research Conference University of Glasgow 28th Oct 2014

Asteroids Leftovers from the building blocks of our solar system A few meters to several hundreds of kilometres wide o The Asteroid belt o The Kuiper belt o Near Earth Objects o Trojans, Hildas, Greeks Remote space exploration

Ground-based telescopes from Earth Asteroid Lutetia, ESA Rosetta mission 10 July 2010 Flyby missions Spectral data, imaging Reflects mostly the surface composition No hands-on samples Rosetta Mission

COSIMA Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer Landing on comet 12th Nov 2014 Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko ESA Rosetta mission, 14 Sep 2014 Extraterrestrial sample return JAXA Hayabusa Itokawa S-type asteroid

launch 2003 return 2010 Sample return from C-type asteroids JAXA Hayabusa2 NASA OSIRIS REx Earliest history of water and organics JAXA Hayabusa 2 Asteroid 1999 JU3

Explosive device to dig surface CM1-CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Launch December 2014 return 2020s? NASA OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Bennu C-type asteroid (sub-type B) CM1 carbonaceous chondrite 0.055% chance of colliding with

Earth in 2082 Launch 2016 - return 2020s Sample return from C-type asteroids The only samples of C-type asteroids currently available are from meteorites To understand and make scientific use of the samples that will be returned in future missions, we need a good knowledge of the properties of the meteorite samples we have at hand today.

Meteorites o Asteroids, Mars and the Moon o Hands-on samples o Composition and structure of asteroidal interiors Which asteroid? Where within the asteroid? Heating during atmospheric entry

Terrestrial weathering (Antarctica, hot deserts, museums) Carbonaceous chondrites Solar nebula Accretion Primitive asteroids Carbonaceous chondrites

PRIMITIVE Ordinary chondrites METEORITES Enstatite chondrites Melting Differentiation Evolved asteroids/planets

Stones (achondrites) EVOLVED METEORITES Stony irons Irons Carbonaceous chondrites

Archives for early solar system processes: Accretion and compaction First solids: CAIs and chondrules Carbon bearing organic molecules: building blocks for life Traces of first water in Solar System (CM, CI) 20 m 40 m

Products formed from alteration by water Secondary mineralogy Phyllosilicates (e.g. serpentine, saponite) Hydroxysulphides (e.g. tochilinite) Carbonates (aragonite, calcite, dolomite, siderite, breunnerite) Sulphates (gypsum, epsomite) Iron oxides (magnetite) Sulphides (pyrrhotite, pentlandite) Halides (halite, sylvite) SEM imaging and microanalyses

Calcite grains 60 mm 10 mm Time scale liquid H2O When did liquid H2O first form? For how long time was liquid H2O present?

Time scale liquid H2O Mn- 53Cr dating of carbonates 55 Solar system had an initial ratio of 53Mn/55Mn (9.1 1.7 10-6, Nyqvist et al. 2009) Mn decays to 53Cr with a very short half-life of 3.7 million years

(extinct today) 53 Measuring excess 53Cr in carbonate determine the initial 53 Mn/55Mn of the carbonate time from accretion 4.568 billion years ago to the precipitation of the carbonate

Time scale liquid H2O Mn-Cr dating of carbonates Cameca NanoSIMS 50L; Carnegie Institutions Washington Time scale liquid H2O Mn-Cr dating of single-phase carbonates: a snapshot in time of aqueous alteration Dolomite grain free of inclusions Si K

30 mm Time scale liquid H2O Mn-Cr dating 9 dolomite grains free of inclusions 53Mn/55Mn ratio: 4.37x10-61.9x10-7 (2)) Crystallisation age: 3.93 1.7 Ma

Time scale liquid H2O Liquid H2O present within ~4 Ma after accretion (Mn-Cr dating) Duration? Dating alteration products replacing carbonates 30 mm Phyllosilicate replacing carbonate in LAP 031166 (CM2) calcite

Acknowledgements Martin Lee and Mahmood Sofe, University of Glasgow Darren Mark and Ben Cohen, SUERC, Glasgow Conel Alexander, Carnegie Institutions, Washington DC UK-STFC for funding NASA Antarctic meteorite collection for loan of meteorites Thank you for your attention!

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