Information Technology Project Management by Denny Ganjar Purnama, MTI Universitas Pembangunan Jaya April 2014 Chapter 2 Conceptualizing and Initializing The IT Project (Business Case) Learning Objectives Define what a methodology is and describe the role it
serves in IT projects. Identify the phases and infrastructure that makes up the IT project methodology. Develop and apply the concept of a projects measurable organizational value (MOV). Describe and be able to prepare a business case. Distinguish between financial models and scoring models. Describe the project selection process as well as the Balanced Scorecard approach. Methodology A strategic level plan for managing and controlling IT projects. A template for initiating, planning and developing an
information system. Recommends: phases deliverables processes tools knowledge areas Must be flexible and include best practices learned
from experiences over time. An IT Project Methodology Phases Phase 1: Conceptualize and Initialize Phase 2: Develop the Project Charter and Detailed Project Plan defined in terms of projects: scope schedule budget quality objectives Phases continued
Phase 3: Execute and Control the Project using approach such as the SDLC Phase 4: Close Project Phase 5: Evaluate Project Success Post mortem by project manager and team of entire project Evaluation of team members by project manager Outside evaluation of project, project leader and team members Evaluate projects organizational value IT Project Management Foundation Project Management Processes
Foundation Tools - e.g. CASE, Visio, Microsoft Project, etc Infrastructure Organizational Infrastructure Project Infrastructure Project Environment Roles and Responsibilities of team members Processes and Controls Technical Infrastructure Project Management Knowledge Areas The Business Case Definition of Business Case: an analysis of
the organizational value, feasibility, costs, benefits and risks of the project plan. Attributes of a good Business Case Details all possible impacts, costs, benefits Clearly compares alternatives Objectively includes all pertinent information Systematic in terms of summarizing findings Process for Developing the Business Case Developing the Business Case Step 1: Select the Core Team Advantages:
Credibility Alignment with organizational goals Access to the real costs Ownership Agreement Bridge building Developing the Business Case Step 2: Define Measurable Organizational
Value (MOV) - the projects overall goal. Measurable Organizational Value (MOV) The projects goal Measure of success
Must be measurable Provides value to the organization Must be agreed upon Must be verifiable at the end of the project Guides the project throughout its life cycle Should align with the organizations strategy and goals The IT Value Chain Process for Developing the MOV 1. Identify the desired area of impact (dampak area yg diinginkan) Potential Areas:
Strategic Customer Financial Operational Social Process for Developing the MOV 2. Identify the desired value of the IT project (Nilai-nilai yg diinginkan) Organizational Value: Better? Faster? Cheaper? Do More? (growth)
Process for Developing the MOV 3. Develop an Appropriate Metric (metrik yg tepat) Should it increase or decrease? Metrics: Money ($ ) Percentage (%) Numeric Values Process for Developing the MOV 4. Set a time frame for achieving the MOV
When will the MOV be achieved? Process for Developing the MOV 5. Verify and get agreement from the project stakeholders Project manager and team can only guide the process Process for Developing the MOV 6. Summarize the MOV in a clear, concise statement or table. This project will be successful if _________________.
MOV: The B2C project will provide a 20% return on investment and 500 new customers within the first year of its operation Year MOV 1 20% return on investment 500 new customers 2
25% return on investment 1,000 new customers 3 30% return on investment 1,500 new customers Example MOV Using Table Format Project Goal ? Install new hardware and software to improve our customer service to world class levels.
versus Respond to 95% of our customers inquiries within 90 seconds with less than 5% callbacks about the same problem. A Really Good Goal Our goal is to land a man on the moon and return him safely by the end of the decade. John F. Kennedy Developing the Business Case Step 3: Identify Alternatives Base Case Alternative
Possible Alternative Strategies Change existing process without investing in IT Adopt/Adapt systems from other organizational areas Reengineer Existing System Purchase off-the-shelf Applications package Custom Build New Solution Developing the Business Case Step 4: Define Feasibility and Asses
Risk Economic feasibility Technical feasibility Organizational feasibility Other feasibilities Risk focus on : Identification Assessment Response Developing the Business Case Step 5: Define Total Cost of Ownership Direct or Up-front costs Ongoing Costs Indirect Costs
Developing the Business Case Step 6: Define Total Benefits of Ownership Increasing high-value work Improving accuracy and efficiency Improving decision-making Improving customer service Developing the Business Case Step 7: Analyze Alternatives using financial models and scoring models Payback : Payback Period = Initial Investment Net Cash Flow
= $100,000 $20,000 = 5 years Developing the Business Case Break Even : Materials (putter head, shaft, grip, etc.) $12.00 Labor (0.5 hours at $9.00/hr) $ 4.50 Overhead (rent, insurance, utilities, taxes,
$ 8.50 etc.) Total $25.00 If you sell a golf putter for $30.00 and it costs $25.00 to make, you have a profit margin of $5.00: Breakeven Point = Initial Investment / Net Profit Margin = $100,000 / $5.00 = 20,000 units Developing the Business Case Return on Investment : Project ROI =(total expected benefits total expected costs)
total expected costs = ($115,000 - $100,000) $100,000 = 15% Developing the Business Case Net Present Value : Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Year 4 Total Cash Inflows $0 $150,000 $200,000 $250,000 $300,000
Total Cash Outflows $200,000 $85,000 $125,000 $150,000 $200,000 Net Cash Flow ($200,000)
$65,000 $75,000 $100,000 $100,000 NPV = -I0 + (Net Cash Flow / (1 + r)t) Where: I = Total Cost or Investment of the Project r = discount rate t = time period
Developing the Business Case Net Present Value : Time Period Calculation Discounted Cash Flow Year 0 ($200,000) ($200,000)
Year 1 $65,000/(1 + .08)1 $60,185 Year 2 $75,000/(1 + .08)2 $64,300 Year 3 $100,000/(1 + .08)3
$79,383 Year 4 $100,000/(1 + .08)4 $73,503 Net Present Value (NPV) $77,371 Weight
Alternative A ROI 15% 2 4 10 Payback
10% 3 5 10 NPV 15% 2 4
10 Alignment with strategic objectives 10% 3 5 8 Likelihood of
achieving projects MOV 10% 2 6 9 Availability of skilled team members 5%
External Total Score Alternative B Alternative C Notes: Risk scores have a reverse scale i.e., higher scores for risk imply lower levels of risk Developing the Business Case Step 8: Propose and Support the Recommendation Business Case Template Project Selection and Approval
The IT Project Selection Process The Project Selection Decision IT project must map to organization goals IT project must provide verifiable MOV Selection should be based on diverse measures such as tangible and intangible costs and benefits various levels throughout the organization Balanced Scorecard Approach Reasons Balanced Scorecard Approach Might Fail Non-financial variables incorrectly identified as primary drivers
Metrics not properly defined Goals for improvements negotiated not based on requirements No systematic way to map high-level goals Reliance on trial and error as a methodology No quantitative linkage between nonfinancial and expected financial MOV and the Organizations Scorecard THANK YOU
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