Improving College Readiness

Improving College Readiness

VIPP Korean Physics Teacher Summer Institute August 9, 2005 International Comparative Assessments: Using TIMSS to illustrate Assessment Types, Purposes, & Goals Leland S. Cogan Michigan State University 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Focusing solely upon cross-national differences in student attainments presupposes that the entire schooling process educational goals, curriculum, and pedagogy are invariant across countries. Such a focus precludes the possibility on constructing useful explanations for these differences explanations necessary to inform policy and practiceThese simple facts must be remembered in the design and execution of any serious cross-national studies of education. Characterizing Pedagogical Flow, 1996, p. 137 The SMSO project tried to marry these two approaches, combining discourse-driven qualitative methodology with traditional quantitative instrument validation methods to develop more sensitive and responsive questionnaire instruments. This hybrid approach is more labor intensive than traditional survey methodology, but the SMSO experience suggests its merits are enough to warrant careful consideration by others engaged in similar enterprises. Characterizing Pedagogical Flow, 1996, p. 23 How long do teachers teach the same students? Population One 1 Year Norway Hungary Iceland Portugal Czech Republic Austia Greece Ireland New Zealand Canada Scotland USA England 1.7 6.6 2.2 21 55.4 72.8 59 76.7 95.7 91.1

2 Years 2.2 12.9 12.9 8.5 33.5 41.9 56.3 33.4 18.8 37.5 22.8 3.8 8.9 Population Two 3 or More Years 97.8 87.1 85.3 84.9 64.3 58.1 22.7 11.1 8.4 3.5 0.6 0.5 1 Year 2 Years 3 or More Years 0.9 41.9 0.6 52.7 2.3 12.5 27.1 34.4 15.4 5.9 38.9 97.7 87.5 72 23.7 83.9 94.1 8.5 86.5 95.4 41.9 94.9

6.3 3.6 55.8 2.7 7.2 1 2.2 2.4 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Norway Hungary Iceland Portugal Czech Republic Austia Greece Ireland New Zealand Canada Scotland USA England Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Critical Aspects of Educational Assessment Assessment Goals Policy Perspective Instructional Management Student Selection/Certification Accountability & Program Evaluation Purposes of Assessments Student Perspective Measuring Learning from Instruction Measuring Aptitude/Competence Documenting Achievement Assessment Types Multiple Choice Short Answers\ Extended Constructed Response 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Tripartite Model of Curriculum Attained curriculum: pupil knowledge, skills, & attitudes Implemented curriculum: goals, strategies, & practices carried out in classrooms Intended Curriculum: system-wide policies, plans, & goals 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Tripartite Model of Curriculum

Attained curriculum: pupil knowledge, skills, & attitudes Textbooks? Implemented curriculum: goals, strategies, & practices carried out in classrooms Textbooks? Intended Curriculum: system-wide policies, plans, & goals Textbooks? 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Tripartite Model of Curriculum Attained curriculum: pupil knowledge, skills, & attitudes Implemented curriculum: goals, strategies, & practices carried out in classrooms Potentially Implemented curriculum: Textbooks published according to a systems intentions Intended Curriculum: system-wide policies, plans, & goals 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Sources of Data From School Districts Topic Trace Maps From Systems Textbooks Intended Potentially Implemented Implemented From Teachers Teacher Content Goals From Students Student Assessment Attained 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 TIMSS Science Framework Examines content and performance expectation Content examines: What topics are intended? When are topics intended? Performance expectation examines:

What student performances are expected? Procedure is designed to be Low Inference 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 TIMSS 1995 Science Framework - An Example 1.1 1.2 Earth Sciences Life Sciences 1.3 Physical Science 1.4 Science, Technology and Mathematics 1.5 History of Science and Technology 1.6 Environmental and Resource Issues Related to Science 1.7 Nature of Science 1.8 Science and Other Disciplines Earth Features Earth Processes 1.1.3 Earth in the Universe 1.1.1 1.1.2 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.3 1.1.1.4 1.1.1.5 1.1.1.6 Composition Landforms Bodies of Water Atmosphere Rocks, Soil Ice Forms Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866

Examining the Curriculum Curricular Variation Across Systems: The Intended Curriculum 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Number of Science Topics Intended by Standards for Each Grade 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 High Achieving Countries Science Standards Grade Topics I ntended by all but one of the top- achieving countries (3 out of 4). l I ntended by all of the top- achieving countries. n Organs, Tissues Physical Properties of Matter Plants, Fungi Animals Classification of Matter Rocks, Soil Light Electricity Lif e Cycles Physical Changes of Matter Heat & Temperature Bodies of Water I nterdependence of Lif e Habitats & Niches Biomes & Ecosystems Reproduction Time, Space, Motion Types of Forces Weather & Climate Planets in the Solar System Magnetism Earth' s Composition Organism Energy Handling Land, Water, Sea Resource Conservation Earth in the Solar System Atoms, I ons, Molecules Chemical Properties of Matter Chemical Changes of Matter Physical Cycles Land Forms Material & Energy Resource Conservation Explanations of Physical Changes Pollution Atmosphere Sound & Vibration Cells Human Nutrition Building & Breaking Energy Types, Sources, Conversions Dynamics of Motion Organism Sensing & Responding 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n l l l l l l l l l l n n n n n n

n n n l l l l l l n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n l l l n l n n n l l l l l l n l l l l l l l l l

l l l n n n n n n l l n n n n n n l l l n n n l l l l l l l l l Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 l n n n n n n l n l l l l n n l l High Achieving Countries Science Standards Grade Topics

1 2 Organs, Tissues Physical Proper ties of Matter Plants, Fungi Animals Classification of Matter Rocks, Soil Light Electr icity Lif e Cycles Physical Changes of Matter Heat & Temperatur e Bodies of Water I nterdependence of Lif e Habitats & Niches Biomes & Ecosystems Repr oduction Time, Space, Motion Types of For ces Weather & Climate Planets in the Solar System Magnetism 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, 3 4 5 6 7 8 n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n

l l l l l l l l l l n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n l l n n n n n n n n n l l l l l l l n l n n

n l l l l l l n l l l l l l l l n n n n n n l l n n Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 High Achieving Countries Science Standards Earth' s Composition Organism Energy Handling Land, Water, Sea Resource Conservation Earth in the Solar System Atoms, I ons, Molecules Chemical Properties of Matter Chemical Changes of Matter Physical Cycles Land Forms Material & Energy Resource Conservation Explanations of Physical Changes Pollution Atmosphere Sound & Vibration Cells Human Nutrition Building & Breaking Energy Types, Sources, Conversions Dynamics of Motion Organism Sensing & Responding 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, l l l

l n l l l n n n l l l l l l l l l n n n l n n n n n n l n l l l l n n l l Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 High Achieving Countries Life Science Standards Grade Topics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n n

n n n n n n n n n l l l l n n n n n l n n n l n l l l l l l l n l n n l l l l n l l l Life Science Organs, Tissues Plants, Fungi Animals Lif e Cycles I nterdependence of Lif e Habitats & Niches Biomes & Ecosystems Reproduction Organism Energy Handling Cells Human Nutrition Organism Sensing & Responding I ntended by all but one of the top- achieving countries (3 out of 4). I ntended by all of the top- achieving countries.

2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 l n High Achieving Countries Physical Science Standards Grade Topics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n l l n l n l n l n n n l l n n n l n n n n n n n n n n n n n l l

n n n n n n n n n n n n l l n l Physical Science Physical Properties of Matter Classification of Matter Light Electricity Physical Changes of Matter Heat & Temperature Time, Space, Motion Types of Forces Magnetism Atoms, I ons, Molecules Chemical Properties of Matter Chemical Changes of Matter Explanations of Physical Changes Sound & Vibration Energy Types, Sources, Conversions l n n Dynamics of Motion I ntended by all but one of the top- achieving countries (3 out of 4). I ntended by all of the top- achieving countries. 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 l n High Achieving Countries Earth Science Standards Grade Topics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 l l l l l l l l l l l l l n n n l n l l l l n n n l n l n n l n Earth Science Rocks, Soil Bodies of Water Weather & Climate Planets in the Solar System Earth' s Composition Earth in the Solar System Physical Cycles Land Forms Atmosphere Building & Breaking I ntended by all but one of the top- achieving countries (3 out of 4). I ntended by all of the top- achieving countries. 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 l n High Achieving Countries Environmental Science Standards Grade Topics

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 l l l l n n n Environmental Science Land, Water, Sea Resource Conservation Material & Energy Resource Conservation Pollution I ntended by all but one of the top- achieving countries (3 out of 4). I ntended by all of the top- achieving countries. 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, l n Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Standards Compared with Top-Achieving Countries Profile Grade Topics 1 2 3 4 5 l l 6 7 8 Life Science Organs, Tissues

l Plants, Fungi l l Animals l Lif e Cycles l I nterdependence of Lif e l l l Habitats & Niches l Biomes & Ecosystems l l Reproduction Organism Energy Handling l Cells Human Nutrition l l l l Organism Sensing & Responding l l l l l Physical Science Physical Properties of Matter Intended by your district Top-achieving countries' intended-topics profile

l l Classification of Matter l l Light l Electricity l l Physical Changes of Matter l l l l l l Heat & Temperature l Time, Space, Motion Types of Forces l Magnetism l Atoms, I ons, Molecules Chemical Properties of Matter l Chemical Changes of Matter l Explanations of Physical Changes l l l l l l

l l Sound & Vibration l Energy Types, Sources, Conversions Dynamics of Motion l l l Earth Science Rocks, Soil Bodies of Water Weather & Climate Planets in the Solar System Earth' s Composition Earth in the Solar System Physical Cycles Land Forms Atmosphere Building & Breaking l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l Environmental Science

Land, Water, Sea Resource Conservation Material & Energy Resource Conservation Pollution 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, l l l l l l l Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Examining the Curriculum Curricular Variation Across Systems: The Potentially Implemented Curriculum 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 TIMSS Coding Procedure Code all pages in each text Pages are divided into units and blocks Include introduction, all narrative, graphs and pictures Exclude table of contents, index, answer section, glossary, appendices Requires an average of 250-350 hours per textbook 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Distribution of Performance Expectations in Population 2 Textbooks for Chemical Properties of Matter Understanding Simple Information USA Understanding Complex Information Switzerland Spain Theorizing, Analyzing, & Solving Problems Norway Using Tools, Routine Procedures & Science Processes Investigating the

Natural World J apan France 0% 20% 40% 60% 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, 80% 100% Communicating Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Examining the Curriculum Curricular Variation Across Systems: The Implemented Curriculum 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Instructional Content Constructs Exposure Time (OTL) Curricular Complexity or Degree of Challenge Curricular Structure Level of Cognitive Complexity Curricular Coherence Curricular Focus 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Measuring Teachers Science Instruction Prompt: Types of science performances that may be expected from students: 1. Knowing simple information; using apparatus 2. Simple data collection activities 3. I ntegrating information 4. Designing and conducting investigations 5. I nterpreting data, formulating conclusions; reasoning and problem solving To what extent did you teach each of the following topics to your science class during the 2003-2004 school year? When you taught each of the following topics, which of the six types of performances did you most often expect from your students? Which of these (if any) did you expect only occasionally? Check one box for the appropriate number of class periods in each row. Then check the one appropriate box for the performance most often expected with respect to each topic and all applicable box(es) for the performance(s) you may have occasionally expected. Example Class periods taught during the 2003-2004 school year (Check One Only)

0 1 or < 1 2-5 610 1115 >15 Student performance MOST expected (Check One Only) NA 1 2 3 4 Student performance(s) Occasionally expected (Check All That Apply) 5 NA 1 2 3 4 5 Earth Science 1) Earth's composition crust, mantle, & core; distribution of metals & minerals .......................................................... 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Measuring Teachers Physical Science Instruction Class periods taught during the 2003-2004 school year (Check One Only) 0 1 or < 1 2-5 610 1115 >15 Student performance MOST expected (Check One Only)

NA 1 2 3 4 Student performance(s) Occasionally expected (Check All That Apply) 5 NA 1 2 3 4 5 Physical Science 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) Types & properties of matter classification (e.g., mixtures, compounds, elements); states of matter, weight, periodic table, acidity ............................................ Atoms, ions, molecules ionic & covalent compounds; formulas, equations, & nomenclature; moles ................................................................................ Macromolecules & crystals crystal structure; bonds in crystalline solids; polymers............................................ Subatomic particles electrons, protons, neutrons; isotopes; EM radiation; quantum numbers, orbital energies; electron configurations & periodicity .................. Energy types, sources, & conversions kinetic, chemical, hydroelectric; work & efficiency .........................

Heat & temperature heat & energy, changes of state; thermal expansion, conduction, equilibrium; kinetic gas theory; thermodynamics.................................................... Wave phenomena transverse & longitudinal waves; simple harmonic motion; superposition of waves .............. Sound & vibration standing waves in strings & pipes; acoustics, harmonics; Doppler effect ................................ 37) Light nature of light; optics; reflection/refraction ............. 38) Electricity electrical fields, capacitors; current types; circuits; semi-conductors................................................... 39) Magnetism magnets; magnetic fields & properties ......... 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Measuring Teachers Physical Science Instruction Class periods taught during the 2003-2004 school year (Check One Only) 0 1 or < 1 2-5 610 1115 >15 Student performance MOST expected (Check One Only) NA 1 2 3 4 Student performance(s) Occasionally expected

(Check All That Apply) 5 NA 1 2 3 4 5 Physical Science (continued) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) Physical transformations phase changes & phase diagrams; solutions; colligative properties; dynamic equilibrium; inter-particle forces; dispersion & flocculation of colloids ....................................................... Physical change theory kinetic-molecular view of solids, liquids, gases; quantum theory & fundamental particles; photoelectric effect; line spectra; matter waves; uncertainty principle .............................................. Nuclear chemistry and particles; fission & fusion; biological effects of radiation ............................................. Types of Forces gravitational force, friction, centripetal ......................................................................... Time, Space, & Motion measurement of time, types of motion (linear/rotational), describing motion (constant velocity, acceleration, momentum), reference frames for motion .............................................................. Dynamics of Motion balances & unbalanced forces; action/reaction; momentum & collisions ............................ Relativity Theory mass/energy/velocity relationship;

explaining velocity of light; time frames while traveling at the speed of light........................................................... Fluid behavior density, pressure, Archimedes principle; liquid flow; Bernoulli theorem ............................. 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Average Percent Teaching Time in Science Areas at Each Grade for District 1 100% Earth Science 90% 80% Biology 70% Physics 60% 50% Chemistry 40% Environmental & Resource I ssues 30% 20% Nature & History of Science 10% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, 7 8

Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Average Percent Teaching Time in Science Areas at Each Grade for District 2 100% Earth Science 90% 80% Biology 70% Physics 60% 50% Chemistry 40% 30% Environmental & Resource I ssues 20% Nature & History of Science 10% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, 7 8 Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Average Percent Teaching Time in Nine Broad Science Areas at Each Grade for District 1 100% Earth Science 90% Energy 80%

Environmental & Resource Issues 70% Forces & Motion 60% 50% Human Health & Biology 40% Life Science 30% Matter 20% Nature & History of Science 10% Physical & Chemical Changes 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, 7 8 Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Average Percent Teaching Time in Nine Broad Science Areas at Each Grade for District 2 100% Earth Science 90% Energy 80% Environmental & Resource Issues 70%

Forces & Motion 60% 50% Human Health & Biology 40% Life Science 30% Matter 20% Nature & History of Science 10% Physical & Chemical Changes 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, 7 8 Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 International Grade Placement (IGP) International Grade Placement of Curriculum Content Across Districts Grade 2005 2005MSU MSUPROM/SE PROM/SEPromoting PromotingRigorous RigorousOutcomes OutcomesininMathematics Mathematicsand andScience ScienceEducation, Education, Supported SupportedbybyNSF

NSFCooperative CooperativeAgreement AgreementEHR-0314866 EHR-0314866 Examples of the International Grade Placement (IGP) Index CONTENT 1.1.1.1 1.1.2.1 1.2.1.1 1.2.1.4 1.2.3.5 1.3.1.1 1.3.1.2 1.3.2.1 1.3.2.3 1.3.3.1 1.3.4.1 1.3.4.3 1.3.4.4 1.3.6.1 1.3.6.3 1.3.6.4 1.3.6.5 Description Earth's composition Weather & climate Plants, fungi (types) Systems, organs, tissues Biochemistry of genetics (concept of the gene) Classification of matter Physical properties of Matter Atoms, ions, molecules Subatomic particles Energy types, conversions, sources Physical changes Kinetic-molecular theory (gases, liquids, solids) Quantum theory & fundamental particles (quarks, quasars) Types of forces Dynamics of motion Relativity theory Air / fluid behavior (density, pressure, Archimedes' principle, liquid flow, continuity equation, hydraulics, Bernoulli theorem, pneumatics) IGP 5.8 3.8 5.8 6.0 10.8 6.5 6.8 9.3 9.5 8.0 8.5 10.0 11.8 9.3 9.3 11.8 9.0 2005 2005MSU

MSUPROM/SE PROM/SEPromoting PromotingRigorous RigorousOutcomes OutcomesininMathematics Mathematicsand andScience ScienceEducation, Education, Supported SupportedbybyNSF NSFCooperative CooperativeAgreement AgreementEHR-0314866 EHR-0314866 Examining the Curriculum Teacher Subject Matter Readiness 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Teachers Academic Preparation and Instructional Confidence 5. How well prepared academically do you feel you are you feel you have the necessary disciplinary coursework and understanding to teach each of the following at the grade level you are currently teaching? Check one box in each row. not well somewhat fairly well very well prepared prepared prepared prepared 41) Physical change theory kinetic-molecular view of solids, liquids, gases; quantum theory & fundamental particles; photoelectric effect; line spectra; matter waves; uncertainty principle ....................................................................................... 42) Conservation of mass & energy................................................ 43) Nuclear chemistry and particles; fission & fusion; biological effects of radiation ....................................................... 44) Types of Forces gravitational force, friction, centripetal ..........

45) Time, Space, & Motion measurement of time, types of motion (linear/rotational), describing motion (constant velocity, acceleration, momentum), reference frames for motion .......................................................................................... 46) Dynamics of Motion balances & unbalanced forces; action/reaction; momentum & collisions ...................................... 47) Relativity Theory mass/energy/velocity relationship; explaining velocity of light; time frames while traveling at the speed of light ............................................................................... 48) Fluid behavior density, pressure, Archimedes principle; liquid flow; Bernoulli theorem....................................................... 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Middle School Science Teacher Preparedness - Self Reported % of Science Teachers with Degree Type % of Science Teachers Prepared to Teach All Topics in Their Area Earth Science Major 2.9

73.3 Earth Science Minor Others Biology Major Biology Minor Others Physical Science Major Physical Science Minor Others Environmental Science major Environmental Science minor Others General Science Major General Science Minor Others 0.0 59.4 17.1 2.5 59.4 3.7 0.8 59.4 0.2 0.2 59.4 7.7 5.6 59.4 . 26.5 60.7 30.8 15.2 21.1 75.0 9.7 100.0 0.0 15.9 5.0 6.9 6.5 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 High School Science Teacher Preparedness - Self Reported Earth Science Major Earth Science Minor Others Biology Major Biology Minor Others Physical Science Major Physical Science Minor Others Environmental Science major Environmental Science minor Others General Science Major

General Science Minor Others % of Science Teachers with Degree Type % of Science Teachers Prepared to Teach All Topics 4.9 0.6 20.0 40.1 2.4 20.0 17.5 2.8 20.0 0.9 0.2 20.0 9.4 1.3 20.0 87.0 33.3 39.4 72.3 72.7 37.2 52.4 30.8 17.0 25.0 0.0 33.0 15.9 0.0 11.7 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Examining the Curriculum What Students Do: The Attained Curriculum 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Number of Science Courses Offered in 7 Districts 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Number of Course Patterns for Meeting High School Science Requirement in 7 Districts 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education,

Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Diagram of Science Course-Taking Sequences in District F Physics II Physics 1 Master Program CP Chemistry 1 CP Chemistry 2 CP Biology 2 CP Biology 1 AP Chemistry 1 AP Chemistry 2 AP Biology 2 AP Biology 1 Chemistry 2 Master Research Chemistry 1 Anatomy/Physio. 2 Anatomy/Physio. 1 Biology 1 Biology 2 Physical Science 2 Physical Science 1 Earth Science 1 Gen. Life Sci. 1 Gen. Sci. 1 Earth Science 2 Gen. Life Sci. 2 Gen. Sci. 2 Gen. Sci. 3 Gen. Sci. 4 Grade 3 Nation Korea Japan PROM/ SE Grade 4 Average 68 65 61 Australia Austria USA

59 59 58 Netherlands Czech Republic England Hong Kong Slovenia Canada Singapore Scotland International Mean New Zealand Ireland Hungary Latvia Norway Iceland Greece Thailand Portugal Cyprus Iran 58 58 57 56 56 56 56 54 54 54 53 53 51 50 49 48 46 46 44 35 Average Percent Correct on 1995 TIMSS Science Items Nation Korea Japan PROM/ SE Grade 7 Average 74 73 70 Czech Republic Austria Netherlands Australia

USA 68 68 67 67 67 Singapore Canada Hong Kong Slovenia England Hungary Norway New Zealand International Mean Scotland Ireland Iceland Latvia Israel Greece Cyprus Thailand Portugal Iran Kuwait 66 65 65 64 64 64 62 62 62 61 61 60 58 58 57 54 53 53 45 44 Significantly Higher than the U.S. Not Significantly Different from U.S. Significantly Lower than the U.S. Nation Korea Japan Singapore Slovenia Bulgaria Czech Republic Belgium (Fl) Hong Kong Austria Slovak Republic England USA

Grade 8 Average 68 66 65 64 64 63 62 61 60 60 60 60 Netherlands Australia Canada Germany Thailand Hungary Sweden PROM/ SE 59 59 58 58 58 57 57 57 Russian Federation Ireland Spain Switzerland International Mean Norway France New Zealand Scotland Belgium (Fr) Iceland Romania Greece Denmark Portugal Latvia Cyprus Iran Lithuania Philippines Colombia South Africa 56 56 55 55 55 54 54 54 52 51

51 50 50 49 48 46 45 45 44 42 39 31 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Nation Korea Japan Singapore Czech Republic Slovenia Bulgaria Austria Slovak Republic Hong Kong Netherlands Sweden Belgium (Fl) Germany Russian Federation England Australia Hungary USA Average 72 72 71 69 69 68 67 66 65 65 65 64 64 64 64 64 63 63 Thailand Canada France Norway Israel Ireland New Zealand Spain Switzerland International Mean PROM/ SE

63 62 62 62 61 61 61 61 61 60 60 Scotland Greece Iceland Belgium (Fr) Portugal Denmark Lithuania Romania Latvia Cyprus Iran Kuwait Colombia Philippines South Africa 59 57 57 57 56 56 55 55 55 53 49 49 43 43 32 Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Average Percent Correct on TIMSS 1995 End-of-Secondary Science Literacy Test Nation Sweden Iceland Norway Netherlands Canada Denmark Slovenia New Zealand Austria Switzerland Australia France USA - Grade 12 Average 73 71 70

69 69 68 67 67 67 67 67 66 65 Germany International Mean Russian Federation Italy Lithuania Czech Republic Hungary PROM/ SE - Grade 9 65 64 64 63 63 62 58 57 Israel Cyprus South Africa Nation Sweden Iceland Norway Netherlands Canada Denmark Slovenia New Zealand Austria Switzerland Australia France USA - Grade 12 Average 73 71 70 69 69 68 67 67 67 67 67 66 65 Nation Sweden Iceland Norway

Netherlands Canada Denmark Slovenia New Zealand Austria Switzerland Australia France USA - Grade 12 Average 73 71 70 69 69 68 67 67 67 67 67 66 65 Nation Sweden Iceland Norway Netherlands Canada Denmark Slovenia New Zealand Austria Switzerland Australia France USA - Grade 12 Average 73 71 70 69 69 68 67 67 67 67 67 66 65 Germany International Mean Russian Federation Italy Lithuania Czech Republic PROM/ SE - Grade 10 65 64 64

63 63 62 58 Germany International Mean Russian Federation Italy Lithuania Czech Republic PROM/ SE - Grade 11 65 64 64 63 63 62 59 Germany International Mean Russian Federation Italy Lithuania Czech Republic PROM/ SE - Grade 12 65 64 64 63 63 62 60 56 54 Hungary Israel Cyprus 58 56 54 Hungary Israel Cyprus 58 56 54 Hungary Israel Cyprus 58 56 54 39 South Africa

39 South Africa 39 South Africa 39 Significantly Higher than the U.S. Not Significantly Different from U.S. Significantly Lower than the U.S. Significantly Higher than the U.S. Not Significantly Different from U.S. Significantly Lower than the U.S. Significantly Higher than the U.S. Not Significantly Different from U.S. Significantly Lower than the U.S. 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Significantly Higher than the U.S. Not Significantly Different from U.S. Significantly Lower than the U.S. Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Boxplots of Average Percent Correct on Physical Science Strands for All PROM/SE Elementary Schools at Each Grade 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Boxplots of Average Percent Correct on Physical Science Strands for All PROM/SE Middle Schools at Each Grade 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866 Average Percent Correct on PROM/SE Science Items by Type of High School Science Courses 80 70 Percent Correct 60 50 40 30 20 10 y I

C he m is tr y I B io lo A gy P En II vi ro n. Sc i. C he m is tr y II Ph ys ic s I Ph ys ic s II A P B io lo gy A P C he m is tr y A P Ph ys ic s og II e en c Sc i

B io l I e Ea rt h Sc ie nc rt h Ea G en er al Sc ie n ce 0 Chemistry Physics Biology 2005 MSU PROM/SE Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education, Earth Sci. Supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement EHR-0314866

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Work Breakdown Structure - Amazon S3

    Work Breakdown Structure - Amazon S3

    WBS = The work,. all the . work, and nothing but the . work. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a hierarchical description of all of the work that must be done to meet the needs of the customer
  • POPULATION GENETICS:  The study of the rules governing

    POPULATION GENETICS: The study of the rules governing

    MUTATIONISM AND THE IMPACT OF MENDEL Gregor Mendel's research was published in 1866, but was not noticed until 1900. NOTE: Darwin knew nothing about the mechanism of inheritance when he conceived of natural selection. MUTATIONIST THEORIES (based on Mendel's work):...
  • PowerPoint Presentation

    PowerPoint Presentation

    Created 3 characters. The most developed is @pensionerfrank My farming character is being followed by Farmer's Weekly. Blog post with details HERE . #22 - Scavenger Hunt Have students find websites, pictures, or other online documents that fit a certain...
  • EPIC 2.03 PG&amp;E Smart Inverters Modeling Project

    EPIC 2.03 PG&E Smart Inverters Modeling Project

    Per AS/NZS 4777. NY Utilities. Unity PF where possible, no advanced functions. Some demonstrations and considering in the future *This is not a comprehensive list and reflects data collection in progress. Survey. Objectives. Understand current usage of advanced DER functions.
  • Modeling Twitter Conversations - GitHub Pages

    Modeling Twitter Conversations - GitHub Pages

    -Can't efficiently sum out hidden variables using dynamic programming. We decided to move to a sampling-based approach to inference-Collapsed Gibbs. But, there are a lot of multinomials in our model, so rather than set them to some arbitrary value, we...
  • Presentación de PowerPoint

    Presentación de PowerPoint

    The events in Ezra 3-7 are not written in chronological order as we usually do. After the opposition of the Samaritans, it is mentioned that Darius allows the rebuilding of the Temple to be resumed (Ezra 3:1-4:5).
  • Beyond the Paycheck: Transforming the OnCampus Student Employment

    Beyond the Paycheck: Transforming the OnCampus Student Employment

    NASPA is committed to providing the higher ed community with the latest insights on issues that impact student affairs. To advance the student affairs profession, we: Conduct . policy analysis . to assess the impact on the profession
  • Fil mente 16-17 - unimc.it

    Fil mente 16-17 - unimc.it

    This is because mental properties, qua. classes of mutually resembling tropes, are . partial . resemblance classes. Thus, for example, the mental class of believing that 2+2=4 tropes comprises tropes that resemble each other only partially, since it is a...