II. Molecular Compounds

II. Molecular Compounds I II III IV

A. Energy of Bond Formation Potential Energy based on position of an object low PE = high stability A. Energy of Bond Formation Potential Energy Diagram attraction vs. repulsion

no interaction increased attraction A. Energy of Bond Formation Potential Energy Diagram attraction vs. repulsion increased repulsion

balanced attraction & repulsion A. Energy of Bond Formation Bond Energy Energy required to break a bond Bond Energy

Bond Length A. Energy of Bond Formation Bond Energy Short bond = high bond energy B. Lewis Structures Electron Dot Diagrams show valence e- as dots

distribute dots like arrows in an orbital diagram 4 sides = 1 s-orbital, 3 p-orbitals EX: oxygen 2s 2p X

O B. Lewis Structures Octet Rule Most atoms form bonds in order to obtain 8 valence e Full energy level stability ~ Noble Gases Ne B. Lewis Structures Nonpolar Covalent - no charges

Polar Covalent - partial charges + + C. Molecular Nomenclature

Prefix System (binary compounds) 1. Less e-neg atom comes first. 2. Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on first element. 3. Change the ending of the second element to -ide. C. Molecular Nomenclature PREFIX

monoditritetrapentahexaheptaoctanonadeca- NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 C. Molecular Nomenclature CCl4 carbon tetrachloride N2O dinitrogen monoxide SF6

sulfur hexafluoride C. Molecular Nomenclature arsenic trichloride AsCl3 dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5 tetraphosphorus decoxide P4O10

C. Molecular Nomenclature The Seven Diatomic Elements Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 H2 O2 F2 H N O F Cl Br I

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