How did the Weimar Republic recover under Stresemann?

How did the Weimar Republic recover under Stresemann?

How did the Weimar Republic recover under Stresemann? L/O To evaluate the successes and failures of Stresemanns economic and foreign policies What economic, social and political problems did I face when I became Chancellor in August 1923?

Who was Gustav Stresemann? A month after the armistice of November 11th, 1918, Stresemann formed the German People's Party and was elected to the national assembly which gathered at Weimar in 1919 to frame a new constitution. He was elected to the new Reichstag in 1920 and spent the next three years in opposition. From August 13 to November 23, 1923, Stresemann was Chancellor of a coalition government. In 1924 Stresemann was chosen as Foreign secretary, an

office he was to fill with such distinction under four governments that he was called the greatest master of German foreign policy since Bismarck. He died on 3rd October 1929 the year he won the Nobel Peace Prize. In your books title the page, Six steps to recovery. Write down six large bubbles. Label each one

The Rentenmark The Dawes Plan The Locarno Pact The League of Nations The Kellogg-Briand Pact

The Young Plan Use them to brain storm the six steps to recovery. 1.) The Rentenmark: 1923-1924 Germanys biggest problem in 1923 was Hyperinflation. He introduced a new, temporary currency called the Rentenmark in November 1923. If the currency failed, the government promised to exchange the

money for shares in land or industry. Confidence was restored and in August 1924, he introduced the Reichsmark which was controlled by the newly independent national bank, the Reichsbank. Confidence rose further. Deposits in Germany banks rose from 900m marks at the start of 1924 to 4,900m marks at the end of 1926. 2.) The Dawes Plan: 1924 Next he tackled reparations.

Germany was unable to pay in 1922 they were too high. In April 1924, Stresemann negotiated the Dawes Plan with the Allies: Annual Payments were reduced to an affordable level. American banks agreed to invest 800 million marks in German Industry. How did the Dawes Plan

work? The USA lends Germany money. The Allies pay back war debts to the USA THE DAWES PLAN Germany pays

reparations to the Allies The German economy prospers 2.) The Dawes Plan: 1924 The effects of the Dawes Plan were: Germany resumed reparations payments

The French left the Ruhr The German economy recovered Coal output rose from 275 million tons in 1924 to 350 million tons in 1929. Manufactured goods sales doubled 1923-1929. Unemployment fell in 1928 to the lowest level for 10 years. 3.) The Locarno Pact: 1925

In October 1925 Stresemann signed What was the effect of the Locarno Pact with Britain, France, the Locarno Pact on Italy and Belgium. Germanys international image? Germany agreed to keep to its new 1919 border with France and Belgium. In return, the Allies agreed to remove

troops from the Rhineland and discuss German entry to the League of Nations. How would right-wing nationalist parties respond to the Locarno Pact? How would the Locarno Pact help improve Germanys economy?

4.) The League of Nations: 1926 In 1919, the Allies founded the League of Nations to work for world peace. Germany was excluded. Why is it important for In 1926, Stresemann persuaded Germany to be trusted the League to accept Germany as in the world? How could

a member. this help Germany? Germany was now trusted and treated as an equal. Germany even got a place on the Leagues Council. Why did the Nazis feel that by joining the LoNs, Stresemann had betrayed Germany?

5.) The Kellogg-Briand Pact: 1928 In August 1928, Germany became one of 65 countries to sign the Kellogg-Briand Pact. This was an international agreement by states not to use war to achieve their foreign policy aims. The effect of this was to show Germany as a respectable

member of the international community. 6.) The Young Plan: 1929 In August 1929, the Young Plan cut reparation payments from 6.6 billion to 2 billion, with 59 more years to pay. This strengthened the Weimar Republic. WHY? However repayments were still

50 million per year to be paid until 1988. Hitler said this was passing on the penalty to the unborn. The extent of recovery in the late 1920s L/O To identify the achievements and underlying problems of the Weimar Republic and to make a judgement about the extent of recovery Starter Name 4 things Stresemann did to

help the German economy recover The Role of Gustav Stresemann The Weimar Republic then The Weimar Republic survived the experienced a period of stability and crises of 1919-1923 by using the growth. This was down to American right-wing army and Freikorps units Money and Gustav Stresemann, who to crush the Communists, and

was Chancellor in August 1923 and getting the help of the left-wing Foreign Minister from 1924-1929. He unions to crush the Kapp Putsch. was responsible for Reason for Reform Achievements New Currency, Nov 1923 Dawes Plan, 1924 French leave Ruhr, 1924 Locarno Treaty, 1925

League of Nations, 1926 Young Plan, 1929 Result of Reform Copy and complete this table to show what the reasons and results were of Stresemanns

reforms. The Role of Gustav Stresemann The period of relative prosperity and stability from 1923-1929 under Stresemann is often referred to as the Golden Era. But was Stresemann really responsible for this recovery?

Go to each station and see if Stresemann really was responsible or not. Use each source to help you answer the question. Stresemann was no genius. He was not the difference between pre- and post- 1924 Germany. What made the difference was the Dawes Plan, and the economic prosperity that U.S. money created. Written by a modern historian.

Stresemann worked hard to rebuild his shattered country and for peace and co-operation abroad. Because of his leadership Germany is now prospering and has an important place in the affairs of Europe. From The Times, 4 Oct 1929. An account of his life and achievements which was written after his death. The extent of recovery in the late 1920s - Politics

Politically, the Weimar Republic appeared stable. In the Reichstag elections, extremist parties such as the Communists and the Nazis received less support than the more mainstream parties. Stresemann arranged a Great Coalition of the moderate pro-democracy parties (SDP, the Centre Party and DVP). United together, they were able to resist the criticism from smaller extremist parties, and in this way, overcame the effects of proportional representation the government had enough members of the Reichstag supporting it to pass

the laws it needed. The extent of recovery in the late 1920s - Economics The economy appeared to be recovering. Inflation came under control and German people found that they had more disposable income, meaning they could buy more products so the standard of living increased. American loans meant Germany could build infrastructure like roads, railways and factories. This provided jobs and boosted the

economy. By 1928, industrial production was greater than pre-war levels. Germany was becoming a world leader as an exporter of manufactured goods. The extent of recovery in the late 1920s - Culture In the area of cultural activities Germany became world famous. The strict censorship of pre-war Germany was removed. Berlin rivalled Paris as the cultural capital of Europe.

Germans led the way in innovative painting, architecture and design. Some artists, like George Grosz, used art to criticise society. He was a communist but criticised the communist part as he hated any form of dictatorial authority. Architecture and design were heavily influenced by the Balhaus movement led by Walter Gropius. He used bold designs and unusual materials with distinctly odd results. The extent of recovery in the late 1920s - Culture

Germany also became the centre for new plays and operas. The most famous playwright was Bertolt Brecht. There were big advances in cinema technique with silent movies like Metropolis which was an early sci-fi film. Films stars like Marlene Dietrich became world famous. Even novelists began to be more critical of the establishment. All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Remarque described the horrors of the First World War and sold over 500,000 within 3 months in 1929.

Otto Dax, the artist, is a very good example of the changes taking place in the cultural life of Germany. Have a look at the following slides can his paintings highlight change? German Politicians Cafe dwellers My family

My friend Reclining Woman on a Leopard Skin Two street children Sunday family Gas Attack Despair in the trenches

Mealtime in the trenches Conversation in the trenches Uprisings in the streets of Berlin Underlying Problems of the Weimar Republic - Politics Politically, there were still opponents of the Weimar Republic and its democratic system. Many wished for a return to rule by the Kaiser and many still hated the Republic as

November Criminals. This was seen when President Ebert died suddenly in 1925. In his place Field Marshal Hindenburg, aged 78, was elected. He had been a critic of the new democracy, and in Berlin he was greeted by cheering crowds waving black, white and red flags, the colours of the old empire. Underlying Problems of the Weimar Republic - Politics Support for Communism increased

during this period, and the Nazis were making advances in some local elections. Stresemanns Great Coalition collapsed due to the moderate pro-democracy parties arguing. As the economic problems went away, they didnt feel like they had to support the government out of duty in a crisis. Different groups wanted to take the credit for the rising prosperity. Underlying Problems of the

Weimar Republic Economics Economically, Germany relied heavily on American loans, which could have been withdrawn at any time. Imports were rising faster than exports, which meant that Germany was trading at a loss. There was still substantial unemployment. As food prices fell rapidly worldwide in 1927, farmers income was greatly reduced and this increased their debts.

Underlying Problems of the Weimar Republic - Culture Culturally, many people criticised the new artistic developments as decadent and unpatriotic. There was also a perceived decline in moral standards, as shown in the number of cabaret shows and nightclubs in Berlin. The city became famous for its transvestite parties, where men and women shared each others clothes.

Berlin was seen by many Germans in other areas of the country as corrupt and obsessed with sex. Plenary Source 1 The German economy is doing well only on the surface. Germany is in fact dancing on a volcano. If the shortterm loans are called in by America, most of our economy will collapse. A speech made by Gustav Stresemann shortly before his death on 3 October 1929

What does Source 1 suggest about the extent of recovery in Germany by 1929? (7) Did we meet our learning objective? L/O To identify the achievements and underlying problems of the Weimar Republic and to make a judgement about the extent of recovery

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