Hein and Arena - integratedwisdom.org

Hein and Arena - integratedwisdom.org

Chapter 22 Chapter Outline Alcohols, Ethers, Phenols, and Thiols This field of switch grass is a prime source of biomass for ethanol production. Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 10e

John Wiley & Sons, Inc Morris Hein, Scott Pattison, and Susan Arena Chapter Outline Course Outline 22.1 Functional Groups 22.2 Classification of Alcohols 22.3 Naming Alcohols 22.4 Physical Properties of Alcohols 22.5 Chemical Properties of Alcohols 22.6 Common Alcohols 22.7 Phenols

2 Chapter Outline Course Outline 22.8 Properties of Phenols 22.9 Production of Phenol 22.10 Ethers 22.11 Structures and Properties of Ethers 22.12 Preparation of Ethers 22.13 Thiols Chapter 22 Summary

3 Chapter Outline Functional Groups A functional group is a group of atoms (or atom) in an organic compound that has specific behavioral characteristics. For example the hydroxyl (OH ) group is the characteristic functional group for alcohols and phenols. 4

Chapter Outline Functional Groups Alcohols, ethers, and phenols are organic compounds that are structural derivatives of water formed by replacing a hydrogen atom with an alky group or aromatic ring. 5 Chapter Outline

Classification of Alcohols Structurally, an alcohol is derived from an aliphatic (nonaromatic) hydrocarbon by the replacement of at least one hydrogen atom with a hydroxyl group (OH). Alcohols are represented by the general formula ROH, with methanol (CH3OH) being the first member of the homologous series. (R represents an alkyl or substituted alkyl group.) 6 Chapter Outline

Classification of Alcohols Models illustrating the structural arrangements of the atoms in methanol and ethanol are shown in Figure 22.1 below. 7 Chapter Outline Classification of Alcohols Alcohols are classified by the number of R groups attached to the hydroxyl carbon as shown here. primary (1 )

secondary (2 ) tertiary (3 ) 8 Chapter Outline Classification of Alcohols Formulas of specific examples of these classes of alcohols are shown in Table 22.1 on the next slide. Methanol (CH3OH) is grouped with the primary alcohols . . .

9 Chapter Outline 10 Chapter Outline Classification of Alcohols The OH group of a 2o alcohol like 2-butanol can be written as a single-line formula by enclosing the OH in parentheses. Single-line formulas for 3o alcohols can

also drawn this way. 2-butanol 2-butanol (written as a single-line formula ) 11 Chapter Outline Classification of Alcohols Alcohols with more than one OH group are known as polyhydroxy alcohols. These include diols, triols, and

carbohydrates like D-galactose and D-glucose. O H O C H C H

C OH H C OH HO C

H HO C H HO C H

H C OH H C OH H

C OH CH2OH D-Galactose CH2OH D-Glucose 12 Chapter Outline

Your Turn! Each hydroxyl group in a polyhydroxyl alcohol can be classified as 1o, 2o or 3o. Classify each hydroxyl group in D-galactose. O H C H C

OH HO C H HO C H

H C OH CH2OH 13 Chapter Outline Your Turn!

Each hydroxyl group in a polyhydroxyl alcohol can be classified as 1o, 2o or 3o. Classify each hydroxyl group in D-galactose. O H C H OH 2o 2o HO

H 2o HO H H o OH 2 CH2OH 1o 14

Chapter Outline Naming Alcohols IUPAC Rules for Naming Alcohols 1. Select the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms containing the hydroxyl group. 2. Number the carbon atoms in this chain so that the carbon atom bearing the OH group has the lowest possible number. 15

Chapter Outline Naming Alcohols IUPAC Rules for Naming Alcohols 3. Form the parent alcohol name by replacing the final -e of the corresponding alkane name by -ol. When isomers are possible (alcohols with three or more carbon atoms) indicate the position of the hydroxyl in the name by placing the number of the carbon atom to which the OH is bonded immediately before the parent alcohol name. 16

Chapter Outline Naming Alcohols IUPAC Rules for Naming Alcohols 4. Name each alkyl side chain (or other group), and designate its position by number. 17 Chapter Outline Naming Alcohols

See how the following examples are named with the use of the IUPAC System. 18 Chapter Outline Your Turn! Name the following alcohol using the IUPAC method. CH3 OH CH3CH2CCH2CHCH2CH3 CH3

19 Chapter Outline Your Turn! Name the following alcohol using the IUPAC method. CH3 OH 5 CH3CH2CCH2CHCH2CH3 7 6 4 3 2 1 CH3

5,5-dimethyl-3-heptanol 20 Chapter Outline Your Turn! Write the structural formula of 2,4-dimethyl-2-hexanol. 21 Chapter Outline

Your Turn! Write the structural formula of 2,4-dimethyl-2-hexanol. CH3 4 2 CH3CH2CHCH2CCH3 3 6 5 1 CH3 OH 22 Chapter

Outline Physical Properties of Alcohols Alcohols contain the polar hydroxyl group (OH). The OH group can undergo hydrogen bonding which affects the solubility and boiling point of alcohols. 23 Chapter Outline Physical Properties of Alcohols Hydrogen bonding between alcohol molecules explains the

increase in boiling points of alcohols compared to alkanes. 24 Chapter Outline Physical Properties of Alcohols Hydrogen bonding between alcohol and water molecules explains the increased solubility of alcohols in water as compared to alkanes. 25

Chapter Outline Physical Properties of Alcohols Table 22.2 shows that the boiling point of an alcohol is much higher than the parent alkane. This difference is because of hydrogen bonding. 26 Chapter Outline Physical Properties of Alcohols

Increasing the number of OH groups in a molecule increases the boiling point and water solubility of the molecule. 27 Chapter Outline Physical Properties of Alcohols Notice in Table 22.3 that the boiling point of 1,2ethanediol is 100oC higher than the boiling point of 1propanol because of an additional OH group. 28

Chapter Outline Physical Properties of Alcohols The effect of added OH groups on solubility is most noticeable when you consider a carbohydrate like glucose . . . 29 Chapter Outline Physical Properties of Alcohols

Notice the difference in solubility of hexanol (only one OH group) and glucose ( five OH groups). CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2OH 1-hexanol (solubility = 0.6g/100g H2O) D-glucose (solubility = 95g/10g H2O) 30 Chapter Outline

Physical Properties of Alcohols Branching also affects boiling points. A branched-chain alcohol will have a lower boiling point than the corresponding straight-chain alcohol. For example 2-butanol is branched and has a boiling point of 91.5C versus 118 C for 1-butanol which is a straight-chain molecule. CH3CH2CH2CH2OH 2-butanol 2-butanol (written as a single-line formula ) 1-butanol

31 Chapter Outline Physical Properties of Alcohols Alcohols with three carbon atoms or fewer are infinitely soluble in water while those with four or more carbon atoms have limited solubility in water. Recall that all hydrocarbons are insoluble in water. 32 Chapter

Outline Your Turn! List the alcohols below in order of increasing boiling point. a) 1-butanol b) 1-propanol c) methanol d) 1-pentanol 33 Chapter Outline Your Turn! List the alcohols below in order of increasing boiling point. a) 1-butanol b) 1-propanol c) methanol d) 1-pentanol

methanol Lowest boiling point 1-propanol 1-butanol 1-pentanol Highest boiling point 34 Chapter Outline

Chemical Properties of Alcohols Alcohols undergo many reactions including these five. Protonation to form an oxonium ion Deprotonation to form an alkoxide ion Oxidation to form aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids Dehydration to form alkenes and ethers Esterification to form carboxylic esters 35 Chapter Outline

Chemical Properties of Alcohols Acid-base properties of alcohols Alcohols can act as weak acids or weak bases (undergo protonation and deprotonation) due to the nature of the OH group as shown here. Lone pairs on the oxygen make alcohols basic and subject to protonation by strong acids The hydrogen makes alcohols weak acids and subject to deprotonation by strong bases or alkali metals

36 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Alcohols form oxonium ions in the presence of a strong acid. Here methanol reacts with sulfuric acid and behaves like a base. A protonated alcohol is called an oxonium ion.

37 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Alcohols form alkoxide ions (RO-) in the presence of strong bases or an alkali metal. Here ethanol reacts with sodium and behaves like an acid. This is an example of an alkoxide ion The order of reactivity of alcohols with alkali metals is 1

> 2 > 3. 38 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Oxidation The oxidation state of carbon is determined by the functional group. Notice that aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are more oxidized than alcohols. 39

Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols The oxidation states of several compounds with different functional groups are shown in Table 22.4. 40 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols

Alcohols are oxidized to form aldehydes, ketones, or carboxylic acids. [O] is the general symbol for oxidizing agents in reactions. Some common oxidizing agents are KMnO4, K2Cr2O7/H2SO4, and O2. 41 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Primary alcohols oxidize to form aldehydes which then oxidize to form carboxylic acids.

Secondary alcohols oxidize to form ketones. Tertiary alcohols do not oxidize under these conditions. 42 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols 43 Chapter Outline

Chemical Properties of Alcohols An application of the oxidation of alcohols is the oxidation of ethanol used in the alcohol breath analyzer test. The orange color of K2Cr2O7 in the picture on the left partially changes to green in the picture on the right when it reacts with ethanol (CH3CH2OH) in the balloon indicating the presence of alcohol. 44 Chapter Outline

Chemical Properties of Alcohols The human body metabolizes ethanol by oxidizing it. Ethanol is oxidized in the liver producing ethanal. Ethanal is toxic and can damage the liver. Excess alcohol consumption can cause cirrhosis of the liver. 45 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Ethanal is then oxidized to acetic acid during the metabolism of ethanol which can be used as a source of

biochemical energy and thus contributes to overall caloric intake and can contribute to obesity. 46 Chapter Outline Your Turn! What are the products when 2-butanol is oxidized with K2Cr2O7/H2SO4? 47

Chapter Outline Your Turn! What are the products when 2-butanol is oxidized with K2Cr2O7/H2SO4? OH CH3CH2CHCH 3 2-butanol O [O] CH3CH2CCH 3

butanone 2-Butanol is a 2o alcohol so the oxidation produces a ketone. 48 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Dehydration Alcohols are dehydrated to form alkenes when heated with sulfuric acid.

49 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Some alcohols can form two alkenes when dehydrated as shown here. Minor product due to one R group substituted on the double bond Major product due to two R groups substituted on the double bond

50 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Saytzeffs rule can be used to predict the major product in a dehydration reaction. Saytzeffs rule states that . . . During intramolecular dehydration, if there is a choice of positions for the carboncarbon double bond, the preferred location is the one that generally gives the more highly substituted alkenethat is, the alkene with the most alkyl groups attached to the double-bonded

carbons. 51 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Ethers can be prepared by a dehydration reaction between two primary alcohol molecules when heated with sulfuric acid. 52 Chapter

Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols A reaction in which two molecules are combined by removing a small molecule is known as a condensation reaction. This reaction is an example of a condensation. 53 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Esterification

Alcohols also react with carboxylic acids to form esters in a reaction know as esterification. 54 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Utility of the Hydroxyl Functional Group The hydroxyl group is a particularly important functional group. It introduces a myriad of possible reactions leading to a variety of valuable organic compounds.

55 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols Figure 22.2 below shows three important reactions involving the hydroxyl functional group. 56 Chapter Outline

Chemical Properties of Alcohols The introduction of the OH is an important part of the metabolism of fat molecules in the body. First fat molecules are oxidized to form carbon-carbon double bonds. 57 Chapter Outline Chemical Properties of Alcohols A OH is added to the double bond which is then oxidized to form a ketone. The introduction of the hydroxyl group

and the formation of the ketone are important steps in the metabolism of fat molecules. 58 Chapter Outline Your Turn! Show the organic products for the following reactions. OH CH3CH2CH2CHCH3 60% H2SO4

100oC O CH3CH2CH2CH2C OH OH + CH3CH2CH2 H+ 59

Chapter Outline Your Turn! Show the organic products for the following reactions. OH CH3CH2CH2CHCH3 CH3CH2CH 60% H2SO4 100oC CHCH3 + CH3CH2CH2CH

Major product CH3 Minor product Dehydration of a secondary alcohol. Major and minor products predicted by Saytzeffs Rule. 60 Chapter Outline

Your Turn! Show the organic product for the following reaction. O CH3CH2CH2CH2C OH OH + CH3CH2CH2 H+

61 Chapter Outline Your Turn! Show the organic product for the following reaction. O CH3CH2CH2CH2C OH OH

+ H+ CH3CH2CH2 O CH3CH2CH2CH2C O CH2CH2CH3 Esterification reaction to form an ester.

62 Chapter Outline Common Alcohols There are three general methods for synthesizing an alcohol. 1. Hydrolysis of an ester. 2. Alkaline hydrolysis of an alkyl halide (1 and 2 alcohols only). 3. Catalytic reduction of aldehydes and ketones. 63

Chapter Outline Common Alcohols Hydrolysis of an Ester An ester can be hydrolyzed to form an alcohol and a carboxylic acid which is the reverse of esterification. 64 Chapter Outline Common Alcohols

Alkaline hydrolysis of an alkyl halide to form 1 or 2 alcohols Alkyl halides can be hydrolyzed to form an alcohol and a salt. 65 Chapter Outline Common Alcohols Catalytic reduction of aldehydes and ketones Aldehydes and ketones can be reduced to form 1o and 2o alcohols.

66 Chapter Outline Common Alcohols The preceding general methods can be used to make many alcohols, but these methods may not be practical for a specific alcohols. Hence, for economic reasons, most of the widely used alcohols are made on an industrial scale by special methods that have been developed for specific alcohols as described on the following slides . . .

67 Chapter Outline Common Alcohols Preparation of Methanol Methanol is a common industrial solvent prepared by the high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. 68

Chapter Outline Common Alcohols Properties of Methanol Methanol has a boiling point of 65C making it a highly flammable liquid. Methanol is poisonous and can cause blindness or death when taken internally. 69 Chapter Outline

Common Alcohols Properties of Methanol Methanol is primarily used as a feedstock to produce the intermediate formaldehyde. It is also used as an industrial solvent and as a denaturant for ethanol. 70 Chapter Outline Common Alcohols

Preparation of Ethanol Ethanol can be prepared by fermentation. 71 Chapter Outline Common Alcohols Preparation of Ethanol Ethanol can also be prepared by the acid-catalyzed addition of water to ethylene. 72

Chapter Outline Common Alcohols Ethanol Properties and Applications Pure ethanol has a boiling point of 78C and is very hygroscopic. 100% ethanol takes up water very quickly until a stable concentration of 95.6% ethanol is reached. Ethanol can act in the body as a food, drug, or a poison depending on the quantity consumed. 73

Chapter Outline Common Alcohols Ethanol Properties and Applications Ethanol is used commercially as an intermediate in the manufacture of other chemicals such as acetic acid. It is also used as a solvent for many organic substances, as a compounding ingredient for pharmaceuticals, perfumes, flavorings, etc., and as a major component in alcoholic beverages. 74 Chapter

Outline Common Alcohols Preparation of 2-Propanol (isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol, rubbing alcohol) 2-Propanol is a secondary alcohol prepared from propene. 75 Chapter Outline Common Alcohols 2-Propanol Applications

Commercial uses include the manufacture of chemicals like acetone, as an industrial solvent, and in rubbingalcohol formulations. 76 Chapter Outline Common Alcohols Preparation of Ethylene Glycol (1,2-ethanediol) Ethylene Glycol is a diol obtained from petroleum or prepared from ethylene oxide. 77

Chapter Outline Common Alcohols Ethylene Glycol Applications Commercial uses of ethylene glycol include the manufacture of Dacron polyester fiber and Mylar film, explosives, antifreeze, as a solvent for paints, plastics, and ink applications. 78 Chapter

Outline Common Alcohols Glycerol Applications (1,2,3-propanetriol, glycerine) Glycerol is a polyhydroxy alcohol. It is a desirable commercial chemical because of its attraction for water which is due to the polarity of its hydroxyl groups. 79 Chapter Outline

Common Alcohols Glycerol Applications (1,2,3-propanetriol, glycerine) Commercial uses include the manufacture of polymers and explosives (see reaction below), as an emollient in cosmetics, as a humectant in tobacco products, and as a sweetener. 80 Chapter Outline Phenols Phenols are organic compounds that have a hydroxy group

attached to an aromatic ring. The name of the parent compound, C6H5OH, is phenol. phenol 81 Chapter Outline Phenols Naming Phenols

Derivatives of phenols are named using the general methods for naming aromatic compounds as shown here. 82 Chapter Outline Your Turn! Name the following phenol derivatives. OH Br

HO OH NO2 Cl Br CH2CH3 83 Chapter

Outline Your Turn! Name the following phenol derivatives. OH Br HO OH NO2

Cl Br 2,5-dibromophenol CH2CH3 p-ethylphenol 4-chloro-3-nitrophenol 84 Chapter Outline Phenols

Some phenol derivatives are known by common names as shown here. 85 Chapter Outline Phenols Some phenol derivatives are used as flavoring agents like these and some are used in the manufacture of other useful derivatives. vanilla

cloves thyme 86 Chapter Outline Phenols BHT is a phenol and an antioxidant preservative for food. Urushiols are phenols that are the active irritants in poison ivy and poison oak.

87 Chapter Outline Phenols These methylphenol derivatives are effective disinfectants 88 Chapter Outline

Phenols Phenols occur naturally in plants like marijuana (tetrahydrocannabinol) and some phenols are used as pH indicators (phenolphthalein). 89 Chapter Outline Phenols Adrenalin is a phenol derivative and a hormone. 90

Chapter Outline Properties of Phenols Phenol is a weak acid with a melting point of 41C. The table below is a comparison of the pH of phenol with the pH of water and acetic acid. Substance pH Water Phenol (0.1M)

Acetic acid (0.1M) 7.0 5.5 2.87 91 Chapter Outline Properties of Phenols Phenols will react with a strong base like NaOH but not with weaker bases like NaHCO3.

92 Chapter Outline Properties of Phenols Alcohols do not react with either NaOH or NaHCO3. Phenols are stronger acids than alcohols. 93 Chapter Outline

Properties of Phenols The toxicity of phenols to microorganisms make them excellent antiseptics. For example 4-hexylresorcinol is used as an antiseptic in many pharmaceutical preparations. 94 Chapter Outline Production of Phenols Phenol is obtained from coal tar but it is also produced

synthetically by the process shown below. 95 Chapter Outline Ethers Ethers are organic compounds that have the general formula ROR where both R groups (alkyl or aromatic) can be the same or different. Common names of ethers are formed from the names of the groups attached to the oxygen atom, followed by the word ether as shown on the next slide . . .

96 Chapter Outline Ethers The alkyl groups are listed in alphabetical order followed by the word ether as shown here. Use a prefix if both alkyl groups are the same. 97

Chapter Outline Ethers To name ethers by the IUPAC System, you need to learn how to name alkoxy groups (RO). An alkoxy group consists of an alkyl or aryl group and an oxygen atom. It is named by dropping the -yl of the alkyl or aryl name and adding the suffix -oxy. 98 Chapter Outline

Ethers In the IUPAC System, ethers are named as alkoxy (RO) derivatives of the alkane corresponding to the longest carboncarbon chain in the molecule . . . 99 Chapter Outline Ethers 1. Name the longest continuous carbon chain corresponding to the parent alkane.

2. Name the remaining part as an alkoxy group. For example would be named methoxyethane 100 Chapter Outline Ethers More examples . . . Additional examples are shown on Table 22.5 on the next slide . . .

101 Chapter Outline Ethers 102 Chapter Outline Your Turn! Give common names and IUPAC names for the following

ethers. O CH3CH2CH2 O CH2CH3 CH2CH3 103 Chapter

Outline Your Turn! Give common names and IUPAC names for the following ethers. O CH3CH2CH2 O CH2CH3 CH2CH3

Common name: ethyl propyl ether Common name: ethyl phenyl ether IUPAC name: 1-ethoxypropane IUPAC name: ethoxybenzene 104 Chapter Outline Structures and Properties of Ethers Ethers have a bent shape similar to water and

alcohols. 105 Chapter Outline Structures and Properties of Ethers Ethers are polar enough to dissolve some polar substances like water but also nonpolar enough to dissolve many nonpolar organic compounds. 106

Chapter Outline Structures and Properties of Ethers The slight solubility of ether in water and sulfuric can be explained by hydrogen bonding as shown here. 107 Chapter Outline Structures and Properties of Ethers Because no OH group is present, hydrogen bonding does

not occur between ether molecules. This lack of hydrogen bonding can be seen by comparing the boiling points of a hydrocarbon, an ether, and an alcohol of similar molar mass, as in Table 22.6 on the next slide. Notice that the boiling point of the ether is somewhat above that of the hydrocarbon but much lower than that of the more polar alcohol . . . 108 Chapter Outline Structures and Properties of Ethers

109 Chapter Outline Structures and Properties of Ethers Ethers are common solvents found in laboratories because they are good solvents for polar and nonpolar compounds and have low chemical reactivity. However, their use can be dangerous, since low-molarmass ethers are volatile and highly flammable. 110 Chapter

Outline Structures and Properties of Ethers Another hazard of ethers is that, despite their generally low chemical reactivity, oxygen in the air slowly reacts with them to form unstable peroxides that are subject to explosive decomposition. 111 Chapter Outline Preparation of Ethers

We have seen that ethers can be made by dehydration of alcohols by heating them in the presence of an acid. Ethers are also be made from alkyl halides and sodium alkoxides or sodium phenoxides via a substitution reaction known as the Williamson synthesis. 112 Chapter Outline Preparation of Ethers This synthesis is often used to prepare mixed ethers where R R.

113 Chapter Outline Your Turn! Write the equation for the preparation of phenyl propyl ether by the Williamson synthesis reaction. 114 Chapter Outline

Your Turn! Write the equation for the preparation of phenyl propyl ether by the Williamson synthesis reaction. O Na + CH3CH2CH2Br O CH2CH2CH3

+ NaBr 115 Chapter Outline Thiols Thiols are organic compounds that contain the SH group as shown below. Thiols are also called mercaptans. Thiols are named by adding the suffix -thiol to the alkane parent name.

116 Chapter Outline Thiols Thiols have several characteristic properties including: Foul odors Lower boiling points than alcohols Readily oxidized to form disulfides 117

Chapter Outline Thiols Thiols have strong offensive odors. For example the scent of a skunk is due to thiol components. The strong odor associated with natural gas is due to the additive methanethiol (CH3SH). 118 Chapter Outline

Thiols Thiols have lower boiling points than alcohols. CH3CH2OH ethanol (b.p. is 78oC) CH3CH2SH ethanethiol (b.p. is 36oC) Thiols boil at lower temperatures than alcohols because hydrogen bonds cant form between thiol molecules but can form between alcohol molecules. 119

Chapter Outline Thiols Thiols readily oxidize to form disulfides. A disulfide is a molecule containing a SS bond. This is a disulf ide. CH3SH CH3S-SCH3 120

Chapter Outline Thiols Thiols are important biological molecules Thiol derivatives are found in proteins like insulin. The disulfide bond in insulin helps to create the threedimensional shape of the protein. The thioester group is found in acetyl coenzyme A which serves an important role in metabolism. 121 Chapter

Outline Chapter 22 Summary An alcohol is an organic compound that contains the hydroxyl functional group. A hydroxyl-group carbon of a primary alcohol is bonded to one other carbon. For a secondary alcohol, two carbons are bonded to the hydroxyl-group carbon; three carbons are bonded to the hydroxyl-group carbon for a tertiary alcohol. Polyhydroxy alcohols (or polyols) have more than one hydroxyl group per molecule. 122

Chapter Outline Chapter 22 Summary Naming alcohols follows a similar process to that used for alkanes. Several alcohols are generally known by their common names. Because of the hydroxyl group, alcohols have higher boiling points than corresponding alkanes. Alcohols become more like hydrocarbons as the alkyl chain is made longer. 123

Chapter Outline Chapter 22 Summary Hydrogen bonding between water and alcohol molecules accounts for their solubility. Hydrogen bonding between alcohol molecules accounts for their relatively high boiling points. Aliphatic alcohols, like water, can be protonated or deprotonated. Alcohols can be oxidized to form many different organic compounds. 124

Chapter Outline Chapter 22 Summary Alcohols lose water in the presence of a strong acid. 1, 2, and 3 alcohols will undergo an intramolecular dehydration to form alkenes. 1 alcohols can be easily dehydrated to form ethers. Alcohols react with carboxylic acids to form esters in an esterification reaction. 125

Chapter Outline Chapter 22 Summary Three general methods for making alcohols are hydrolysis of esters, alkaline hydrolysis of alkyl halides, and catalytic reduction of aldehydes and ketones. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group bound to an aromatic ring. Phenol is a weak acid, stronger than alcohol or water but weaker than acetic or carbonic acids. Ethers have the general formula ROR. Because of the oxygen, ethers are more polar than alkanes. 126

Chapter Outline Chapter 22 Summary Ethers can be synthesized by intermolecular dehydration of alcohols. Ethers are also formed by the Williamson synthesis. Thiols or mercaptans are organic compounds that contain the SH group. 127

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