Grounded Theory - KMUTT

Grounded Theory - KMUTT

Employing Technology in Conducting Grounded Theory Research in King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi Applied Linguistics 13 June 2014 Dr Bordin Chinda English Department, Chiang Mai University, THAILAND [email protected]

Grounded Theory: Introduction the methodology was first introduced by Glaser and Strauss (1967) in The Discovery of Grounded Theory they, for the first time, made explicit the qualitative analytic procedures and research strategies Grounded Theory: Introduction

Grounded Theory (GT) a strategy of inquiry, consisting of a set of data collection analytic procedures the researcher derives a general, abstract theory of a process, action, or interaction grounded in the views of the participants Charmaz, 2004; Creswell, 2009 Grounded Theory:

Introduction grounded theory consists of guidelines that help researchers to study social and social psychological processes, direct data collection, manage data analysis, and develop an abstract theoretical framework that explains the studies process. Charmaz, 2002, p. 675 Grounded Theory: Introduction

there is no such thing as grounded theory as a single, unified methodology, tightly defined and clearly specified different interpretations of grounded theory Glaser (1987) Strauss (1987) Strauss and Corbin (1990) Others; e.g. Charmaz, 1990; Kools et al., 1996 Dey, 2004, p. 80

Grounded Theory: Introduction Characteristics of GT simultaneous data collection and analysis pursuit of emergent themes through early data analysis discovery of basic social processes within the data Grounded Theory: Introduction

Characteristics of GT (Cont.) inductive construction of abstract categories that explain and synthesize these processes sampling to refine the categories through comparative processes integration of categories into a theoretical framework that specifies causes, conditions, and consequences of the studied process Charmaz, 2002, p. 677

Grounded Theory: Introduction GT can be used to direct the research process as well as provide a heuristic for data analysis and interpretation. Miller & Fredericks, 1999 in the TESOL field, GT offers a means of developing an understanding of an educational context without demanding the extended exposure for a full ethnography

Richard, 2003 GT for Data Analysis and Interpretation Corbin and Strausss (2008) most recent work Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (3rd Edition). GT for Data Analysis and Interpretation

techniques of employing GT as strategies coding open coding axial coding integrating categories and theory building memoing GT strategies: Coding the process of generating, developing, and verifying concepts

the process of interpreting the data more than just a paraphrasing, noting concepts in the margins of the field notes or making a list of codes as in a computer programme GT strategies: Open Coding Open Coding: analysing data for concepts requires a brainstorming approach to analysis to open up the data to all potentials and possibilities contained within them

put interpretive conceptual labels on the data after having considered all possible meanings GT strategies: Open Coding Open Coding (Cont.) these concepts represent the researchers impressionistic understanding of what is being described by the participants concepts can range from lower-level concepts to higher-level concepts

higher-level concepts are called categories/theme categories tell us what a group of lower-level concepts are pointing to or are indicating GT strategies: Open Coding Steps in constructing concepts 1. break the data into manageable pieces 2. take those pieces of data and explore them for ideas contained within (i.e. interpreting the data) 3. give those ideas conceptual names that stand for

and represent the ideas contained in the data GT strategies: Axial Coding elaborating the analysis the distinctions made between open coding and axial coding are artificial and for explanatory purposes only open coding is breaking data apart and delineating concepts to stand for blocks of raw data axial coding is the act of relating concepts/categories to each other

GT strategies: Axial Coding in the process of open coding, while the researchers break data apart and identify concepts to stand for the data, in their minds, they automatically put the data back together and make connections by creating the explanatory descriptors > doing axial coding open coding and axial coding occur concurrently GT strategies: Axial Coding

in linking the categories and making connections among them, the researchers also elaborate on them linking could occur from a lower-level to a higher-level, similar to linking blocks to build a pyramid elaborating on the analysis is the process in which the researcher explains this pyramid by explaining these blocks and how they are arranged GT strategies: Integrating categories & theory building

Integrating categories deciding upon a central or core category, which represents the main theme of the research the concept that all other concepts are related to the category that appears to have the greatest explanatory relevance and highest potential for linking all of the other categories together GT strategies: Integrating categories & theory building

Theory building a process of going from raw data to making statements of relationship about those concepts and linking them all together into a theoretical whole GT strategies: Memoing memos are a specialised type of written records those that contain the products of the analyses writing memos should begin with the first analytic session and continue throughout the analytic process

it is part of the analysis, part of doing qualitative research because they move the analysis forward memos are fundamental representations of thought and grow in complexity, density, clarity, and accuracy as the research progresses Case study: Open coding listened to the interviews of each participant a few times to acquire a fresh the memory of the interviews read the transcripts and typed up a summary of each

of the interviews read the transcripts again and paid particular interest in coming up with codes and possible categories Case study: Open coding underlined that incident and tried to understand what it meant to come up with a code wrote down the code on the right margin of the transcript along with the summarised ideas for that particular code

Case study: Open coding Case study: Memoing and Axial coding wrote memos of that participant after open coding one participant In the memos assigned code paraphrased the incident under the code

noted down comments next to those incidents while coding, assigned categories for the codes (doing axial coding) annotations Case study: Memoing and Axial coding Memo 1 Belief in assessment: Traditional exam VS Performance

assessment Tanya thinks that traditional exam assesses students competence, including memorisation and grammar. It is standard and easy to mark. On the other hand, performance assessment assesses students performances. Thus, the current assessment for the foundation courses assesses both competence and performance because the courses consist of final exam and performance assessment. Tanya also adds that some students are good at competence whereas some are good at performance. The question is whether the exams they use in the departments are standard since they do not have any measure in standardising the

exams. Perhaps, what Tanya means by standard is that there is a standard marking, that is, objective marking. Case study: Memoing and Axial coding Annotation New teacher: Enthusiastic in learning It is important to note that Tanya is a new teacher. She has only been teaching at the department for 1 semester. This is also her first year of teaching career. During the time of the interview, she

was holding part-time position. However, she has just gone through the assessment process of being a full-time, in which she would know the result that she passed in a few weeks times. As being a part-timer, Tanya is very enthusiastic in learning as reflected by the fact that she wants to become a full-time and has decided to participate in this PD. Generally speaking, part-time teachers do not engage in academic activities in the department. NVivo a qualitative data analysis (QDA)

computer software package produced by QSR International designed for qualitative researchers working with very rich text-based and/or multimedia information, where deep levels of analysis on small or large volumes of data are required NVivo allows users to

classify, sort and arrange information examine relationships in the data combine analysis with linking, shaping, searching and modeling test theories identify trends and cross-examine information make observations and build a body of evidence to support their case or project Nvivo: case study

imported the codes into NVivo 8 software while importing the codes from the word documents into NVivo, changed the wording of the codes and the categories created hierarchical relationships between the codes and categories re-coded the interview transcriptions. Nvivo: case study more investigation of the data in an indepth analytical manner by comparing

and contrasting the structures of the codes using NVivo was a great advantage because the software could illustrate the tree nodes (node is a term for codes used in NVivo) of the coding scheme NVivo: case study NVivo: case study

the models facility of NVivo to have a visual representation of the categories and codes, which would later help with the coding tree structure outputs, refined the categories and codes NVivo: case study NVivo: case study studied both tree nodes and map

representations of the coding structures edited some codes and categories by making changes to the titles as well as moving some codes to appropriate categories re-coded the interview transcripts using a theme approach NVivo: case study transferred the codes into Nvivo

repeated the same analytic procedures in comparing and contrasting the codes and categories came up with a new set of codes and categories. NVivo: case study (model of categories and codes NVivo: case study (integrating

categories) Issues of Validity and Reliability of the Qualitative analysis Strategies to ensure the quality of qualitative research: Building up an image of researcher integrity through audit trails contextualisation and thick description identifying potential researcher bias or examining outliers, extreme or negative cases and alternatives explanations

Validity/reliability checks by incorporating respondent feedback member and/or peer checking into research designs Issues of Validity and Reliability of the Qualitative analysis Research design-based strategies

method and data triangulation prolonged engagement persistent observation longitudinal research designs Drnyei (2007, pp. 59 - 62)

Issues of Validity and Reliability of the Qualitative analysis Case study: providing an audit trail, which is created by documentation of the research process and by provision of sufficient evidence to understand how the researcher reached the conclusion of the study Morrison & Hamp-Lyons, 2007 member checking, that is sending my overview of the

data to the participants and asking them to critically analyse and comment on the data Issues of Validity and Reliability of the Qualitative analysis offering a detailed description of research methodology providing the detailed description of my roles of the researcher collecting the data during a series of points in time; in

other words, being a longitudinal research References Charmaz, K. (2002). Qualitative interviewing and grounded theory analysis. In J. F. Gubrium & J. A.Holstein (Eds.), Handbook of interview research: Context & method (pp. 675-694). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Charmaz, K. (2004). Grounded theory. In S. Hesse-Biber & P. Leavy (Eds.), Approaches to qualitative research: a reader on theory and practice (pp. 496-521). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, qualitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Dey, I. (2004). Grounded theory. In C. Seale, G. Gobo, J. F. Gubrium & D. Silverman (Eds.), Qualitative research practice (Concise Paperback ed., pp. 80-93). London: Sage. Miller, S. I., & Fredericks, M. (1999). How does grounded theory explain? Qualitative Health Research, 9(4), 538-551. Morrison, B., & Hamp-Lyons, L. (2007). Grounded theory research: increasing accountability and credibility through the use of the 'worked example'. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 2(3), 413-424. Richards, K. (2003). Qualitative inquiry in TESOL. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

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