Griggs Chapter 8: Personality Theories and Assessment
Personality An Introduction Sheldon 1 Personality Personality - A unique pattern of consistent feelings, thoughts,and behaviors that originate within the individual.
2 Freudian Classical Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Developed by Sigmund Freud in the late nineteenth century and continued until his death in 1939 Believed sex was a primary cause of
emotional problems and was a critical component of his personality theory Remains an important influence in Western culture especially pop culture 3 Freuds Three Levels of Awareness 1. 2. 3.
4. The conscious mind is what you are presently aware of, what you are thinking about right now The preconscious mind is stored in your memory that you are not presently aware of but can gain access to The unconscious mind is the part of our mind of which we cannot become aware Freudian slips 4 5 6
Freuds Three-Part Personality Structure Id Ego Superego 7 The Id (The Devil) Is the original personality, the only part present at birth.
Resides in the unconscious mind Includes our biological instinctual drives: Life instincts (EROS) for survival, reproduction, and pleasure Death instincts, (THANATOS) destructive and aggressive drives detrimental to survival: VIOLENCE both to oneself and others Operates on a pleasure principle demands immediate gratification for these drives without the concern for the consequences of this gratification 8
The Superego (The Angel) Represents ones conscience and idealized standards of behavior in their culture Operates on a morality principle, threatening to overwhelm us with guilt and shame if we misbehave 9 The Ego (The Decider/Mediator)
Starts developing during the first year or so of life to find realistic and sociallyacceptable outlets for the ids needs Operates on the reality principle, finding gratification for instinctual drives within the constraints of reality (the norms and laws of society) Makes decisions based on the desires of the id and the morality of the superego.
10 To prevent being overcome with anxiety because of trying to satisfy the id and superego demands, the ego uses what Freud called Defense mechanisms - processes that distort reality and protect us from anxiety 11 12
unpleasant memory or thought in the unconscious so that we are not anxious about them; the primary defense mechanism Reverting back to immature behavior from an earlier stage of development Redirecting unacceptable feelings from the original source to a safer substitute target Not remembering a
traumatic incident in which you witnessed a crime Throwing temper tantrums as an adult when you dont get your way Taking your anger toward your boss out on your spouse or children by yelling at them and not your boss 16 Defense Mechanisms
Sublimation Replacing socially unacceptable impulses with socially acceptable behavior Reaction Formation Acting in exactly the opposite way to ones unacceptable impulses Projection
Attributing ones own unacceptable feelings and thoughts to others and not yourself Rationalization Creating false excuses for ones unacceptable feelings, thoughts, or behavior Channeling aggressive drives into playing football or inappropriate sexual desires into art
Being overprotective of and lavishing attention on an unwanted child Accusing your boyfriend of cheating on you because you have felt like cheating on him Justifying cheating on an exam by saying that everyone else cheats 17 Freuds Psychosexual Stage Theory Was developed chiefly from his own childhood
memories and from his interactions with his patients. An erogenous zone is the area of the body where the ids pleasure-seeking psychic energy is focused during a particular stage of psychosexual development Fixation occurs when a portion of the ids pleasure-seeking energy remains in a stage because of excessive gratification or frustration of our instinctual needs. Educational Video 18
Freuds Psychosocial States of Personality Development Stage (age range) Erogenous Zone Oral (birth - 1 years) Mouth, lips, and tongue Anal (1 - 3 years) Anus Phallic (3 - 6 years) Genitals Latency (6 years puberty) Genital (puberty adulthood)
None Genitals Activity Focus Sucking, biting, and chewing Bowel retention and elimination Identifying with same-sex parent to learn gender role and sense of morality Cognitive and social development Mature sexual orientation
and experience of intimate relationships 20 Potty Training Parents try to get the child to have self-control during toilet training If the child reacts to harsh toilet training by trying to get even with the parents by withholding bowel movements, an
anal-retentive personality with the traits of orderliness, neatness, stinginess, and obstinacy develops The anal-expulsive personality develops when the child rebels against the harsh training and has bowel movements whenever and wherever he desires 21 Identification In the process of
identification, the child adopts the characteristics of the same-sexed parents and learns their gender role (the set of behaviors expected of someone of a particular sex) 22 Phallic Stage Conflicts In the Oedipus conflict, the little boy
becomes sexually attracted to his mother and fears the father (his rival) will find out and castrate him Family Guy In the Electra conflict, the little girl is attracted to her father because he has a penis; she wants one and feels inferior without one (penis envy) 23 Evaluation of Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality So, was Freud right about the Id, Ego,
Superego, and defense mechanisms? First, youll need to remember that Freud was practicing in the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Recent research contradicts many of Freud theories. Freud believed that sexual repression caused vast psychological disorder. Well.that has been proven to be false on many counts. 24 25
SUBLIMINAL ADVERTISING 26 Neo-Freudian Theories of Personality Agree with many of Freuds basic ideas, but differ in one or more important ways Carl Jungs Collective Unconscious
Alfred Adlers Striving for Superiority Karen Horney and the Need for Security 27 Neo-Freudian thoughts Many of Freuds followers joined the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. This society, led by Freud, focused on Freuds view of personality.
Freud disagreed strongly with anyone who challenged his views. Several members of the group, left to form their own views of personality (schools, associations). 28 Neo-freudian criticisms of Freuds theory: 1.Rejected idea that adult personality is completely formed by 5- or 6-years old. 2.Argued that Freuds focused too much on
biological instincts/nature and ignored social factors/nurture. 3.Rejected overall negative tone of Freuds theories. 29 Carl Jung (1875-1961) Born in Switzerland, the son of a Protestant Minister, Jung was a quiet, introspective child who kept to himself. Pondered the nature of dreams & visions he experienced. Jung earned his M.D. degree in
1900 & went on to study schizophrenia, consciousness, & hypnosis. He became interested in Freud after reading The Interpretation of Dreams. 30 More about Jung
Jung & Freud met in 1907 & became close colleagues. Jung formally left Freuds group in 1913. Jung spent the next 7 years in intense introspectionled to his theory of personality. 31 Carl JUNG: The Collective Unconscious There are common themes & experiences
that all people in all cultures experience. These give every individual a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history. Every human is born with these Example: Spirituality and God beliefs are found in every culture and person. 32 The collective unconscious is made up of archetypes.
These are emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning. These are not individual memories but are passed along in our DNA. Example: The mother archetype 33
34 The collective unconscious is made up of archetypes . These are the universal symbolic images of a particular person, object, or experience. Example: the archetype of mother is in the childs
collective unconscious. 35 Mythology: Common themes across cultures (ancient, recent) If you look throughout all human history you can identify these following themes: Hero & heroine (Luke or Leia) Villain (Darth Vader) Nave youth & wise old-sage (Luke and Obi-Wan)
36 Shadow Our dark side This is the unconscious part of ourselves that is negative. Jung argued you couldnt have good without evil. This concept is found throughout every culture.
Jungs ideas of archetypes have been more studied and adopted by the disciplines of art, philosophy, anthropology, religious studies and popular culture than by psychologists. 39 Jung was the first to describe the
Introvert and extravert personality types. Introverts tend to be preoccupies with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings and experiences. Extraverts tend to be interested in the external world of people and things. Talkative, friendly outgoing 40
Carl Jungs Other Terms: Jung proposed two main personality attitudes, extraversion and introversion Extraversion Outgoing and excitable. Introversion Quiet and slower to warm up. 41 Alfred Adlers Striving for Superiority
An Austrian physician, Adler was one of the first to break from Freuds group (1911). Rejected Freuds notion of penis envy, argued that women really envy mens power & status.
Adler emphasized importance of conscious goal-directed behavior & down played unconscious influences. 42 Adlers main ideas: All humans begin life with a sense of inferiority.
We are helpless as children & need adults to survive. Adler argued we struggle the rest of our lives to overcome this feeling of inferiority. 43 We struggle to overcome inferiority.
Adler called this natural instinct striving for superiority. Striving for superiority doesnt mean being superior over others, rather to improve ourselves. Our primary motivation
is to improve ourselves. 44 What happens if we fail? If we fail to overcome feelings of vulnerability & weakness, we develop an inferiority complex. Here, an individual
believes they are inferior & feel powerless, weak, & helpless. 45 Alternative Approaches Humanistic theories developed in the 1960s The humanistic approach emphasizes conscious free will in ones actions, the uniqueness of the individual
person, and personal growth 46 The Humanistic Approach to Personality Abraham Maslow is considered the father of the humanistic movement
He studied the lives of very healthy and creative people to develop his theory of personality Maslows hierarchy of needs is an arrangement of the innate needs that motivate our behavior and should lead to Self Actualization: the development or achievement of ones potential. 47
Self Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Act uali zati on SelfEsteem Social Safety Physiological
48 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 49 Self-Actualization Characteristics of self-actualized people include
Accepting themselves, others, and the nature of world for what they are Having a need for privacy and only a few close, emotional relationships Being autonomous and independent, democratic, and very creative Having peak experiences, which are experiences of deep insight in which you experience whatever you are doing as fully as possible
51 How Did Maslow Determine WHO was self-actualized? Maslow interviewed people he both knew and admired. He would : 1. Interview a sample of people he thought were selfactualized. He would write down a list of traits he felt each person possessed and compiled their common traits By refining his trait list again and again, he eventually came up with what he felt was a stable list of attributes which would define the self-actualized
individual. 52 Traits of Self-Actualized People:
Completion, Truth, rather than ratherdishonesty. than incompleteness. Goodness, Justice andrather order,than not evil. injustice and lawlessness. Beauty, notnot
Simplicity, ugliness unnecessary or vulgarity. complexity. Unity, wholeness, Richness, not environmental and transcendence impoverishment. of opposites, not arbitrariness or forced choices Effortlessness,
not strain. Aliveness, not deadness or the mechanization Playfulness, not grim, humorless, drudgery. of life Uniqueness, not bland uniformity. Self-sufficiency, not dependency. Perfection
and necessity, not sloppiness, inconsistency, or Meaningfulness, rather than senselessness. accident. 53 Critique Maslow hierarchy of needs is criticized
for being based on nonempirical vague studies of a small number of people that he subjectively selected as self-actualized 54 Trait Theories of Personality and Personality Assessment 55 Trait Theories of Personality
Personality traits are internally based, relatively stable characteristics that define an individuals personality Each trait is called a dimension, and there is a continuum ranging from one extreme of the dimension to the other Factor analysis identifies clusters of
test items that measure the same factor/trait 56 Number and Kind of Personality Traits Raymond B. Cattell, using factor analysis, found that 16 traits were necessary to describe human personality
Hans Eysenck, also using factor analysis, argued for three trait dimensions Eysencks theory is at more general than Cattells 57 Raymond B. Cattell 16 personality factors 58 59 Eysencks Three-Factor Theory
ExtraversionIntroversion Neuroticism/ (emotionally unstable)- Emotional stability Psychoticism (no self control)Impulse control Eysenck argued that these traits are determined by heredity 60 Eysencks Three-Factor Theory
People who are high on the neuroticism-emotional stability dimension tend to be overly anxious, emotionally unstable, and easily upset The psychoticism-impulse control trait is concerned with aggressiveness, impulsiveness, and empathy 61 62
63 More Common Today: FiveFactor Model of Personality These five factors appear to be universal and are consistent from about age 30 to late adulthood The first 5 factor model was advanced by Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal in
1961 64 Five-Factor Model of Personality Dimension High End Low End Openness Imaginative, independent, having broad interests,
receptive to new ideas Conforming, practical, narrow interests, closed to new ideas Conscientiousness Well-organized, dependable, careful, disciplined Disorganized, undependable, careless, impulsive
main uses of personality tests are to aid in diagnosing people with problems, counseling, and making personnel decisions There are two types Personality Inventories Projective Tests 68 Personality Inventories
Are designed to measure multiple traits of personality, and in some cases, disorders Are a series of questions or statements for which the test taker must indicate whether they apply to him or not Uses a True/False/Cannot Say format with simple statements (e.g., I like to cook) 69
Projective Tests Contain a series of ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots, to which the test taker must respond about his perceptions of the stimuli Sample tests Rorschach Inkblots Test Thematic Apperception Test 70
Rorschach Inkblots Test Contains 10 symmetric inkblots used in the test, The test taker then describes what he or she sees in the shapes
Assumes the test takers responses are projections of their personal conflicts and personality dynamics Widely used but not demonstrated to be reliable and valid 71 Rorschach inkblots What do you see? More blots What do you see? More blots
Thematic Apperception Test Thematic Apperception Test Mickey Mouse Kanga Pooh Owl 77
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