Price Planning Goals of Pricing Factors Involved in Pricing Goals of pricin g t in ee M e th pe m Co Ea g
n i rn t fi o r P a tit io n Gaining Market Share Factors involved in price
planning Factors that affect price Consequences Costs and Determine a companys profits expenses Consumer Perceptions Reducing size of products (i.e., potato chips) Prices may change
Break even point Customers equate quality with price Personalized service can add to a consumers perception Competition Depends on the target market (price conscious?) Price Wars - - cell phones, airlines Factors involved in price planning Factors that affect price Supply and demand
Demand elasticity The degree to which a demand for a product is affected by it s price Elastic - - a change in price creates a change in demand. Examples ??? Inelastic - - Change in price has little effect of demand for a product. Examples???? What determines demand elasticity? Brand loyalty Examples?
Price relative to income What does this mean? Availability of substitutes Examples? Luxury vs. necessity Examples?
Pricing Strategies Basic Pricing Policies Strategies in the Pricing Process Six Steps in Determining Price Basic Pricing Policies Cost-Oriented Pricing Markup Pricing Usually in a percentage - - the difference between the price of an item and its cost Cost-plus Pricing All costs and expenses are calculated & then the desired profit is added to arrive at a price. Example: Car Wash Demand-Oriented Pricing What are consumers willing to pay for given goods
& services The higher the demand, the more a business can charge for a given good or service Basic Pricing Policies cont. Competition-Oriented Pricing Price above competition Price below competition Price in line with competition (whats the going rate?) Competitive-bid pricing. Examples? Price Adjustment Strategies
Price Lining A price range is set for specific groups. Ex: A store might set all its jeans at $25, $35, and $50 Optional Product Prices for accessories added to the original product. Ex: Options for cars Captive Product The price for the main product is cheap, but supplies needed are expensive Ex: Printers and printer cartridges Adjustment strategies cont
By-product Businesses get rid of excess materials using low prices Wood chips from a furniture making business Bundle Pricing Offers of corresponding products in a package (but would be more expensive if sold alone) Computers include software Geographical Pricing This will rely on shipping agreements International Pricing Based on exchange rates
Adjustment Strategies cont Segmented Pricing Strategies uses two or more prices for a product even though there is no change is the items cost. Buyer Identification Change price to attract certain customers Discounts for customers on fixed incomes Product Design Different prices for different styles A red washer dryer set my cost more Purchase Location Where you buy something can change the price Tix for a Broadway show will be more in NYC than Boston
Time of Purchase Different prices at peak times Adjustment strategies cont . . . Psychological Pricing Structures they create an illusion for the customer. Odd-even pricing Odd numbers create a bargain image - - even numbers convey better quality Prestige pricing Higher than average prices to suggest status and high quality Multiple Unit Pricing 3 for $10
Every Day Low Prices (EDLP) They have no intention of raising or lowering prices Adjustment strategies cont . . . Promotional Pricing prices are reduced for a short period of time Loss-leader Increases store traffic; offering popular products at a below-cost price Special Event Pricing - items are reduced for a short period of time Rebates and Coupons - Adjustment strategies cont . . . Discounts and allowances seller offers reductions from the usual price, but in exchange
for the buyer performing certain activities. Cash Discounts offered to pay bills quickly Quantity Discounts The more you buy, the less you pay per unit Trade Discounts it is the way manufacturers quote prices to wholesalers and then retailers Seasonal Discounts buying outside the customary buying season (right after holidays; snowblowers in August) Allowances trade-in
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