Geðræn vandamál, stimplun og útskúfun: Könnun meðal íslensku ...

Geðræn vandamál, stimplun og útskúfun: Könnun meðal íslensku ...

jfnuur, ftkt og unglingar Jn Gunnar Bernburg Dsent flagsfri vi Hskla slands Af hverju tti ftkt og jfnuur a hafa hrif velfer ungmenna? Mkr ferli Ftkt/lg flagsleg staa heimilisins getur grafi undan skilvirku uppeldi og fjlskyldutengslum Minni stuningur, veikari tengsl vingandi samskiptahttir (coercive interaction) Ftkt/lg flagsleg staa foreldra getur haft neikv hrif vihorf unglinga til nms og nmsgetu eirra Ftkt/lg flagsleg staa eykur lkur flagslegri einangrun/einelti Minni neyslugeta Brennimerki (stigma) Ftkt/lg flagsleg staa felur sr hagsstan flagslegan samanbur t.d. vi jafnaldra (relative deprivation)

Makr ferli nrumhverfi unglinga Flagsleg vandaml eru smitandi Differential association theory (E. Sutherland) Social learning theory (R. Akers) tbreidd ftkt/lg staa getur veikt stofnanir nrumhverfinu t.d. samtakamtt foreldra Social disorganization theory (Shaw & McKay) Rannsknin Knnun tveimur rgngum f. 1990 og 1991 (9. og 10. bekkur) 82% isins Greiningin er bygg svrum 5491 svarenda 83 sklahverfum Huglg mling ftkt heimilis Samanlg svr vi fjrum spurningum Foreldrar nir eru illa staddir fjrhagslega Foreldrar nir hafa ekki efni a eiga ea reka bl Foreldrar nir eiga varla nga peninga fyrir brnustu nausynjum (t.d. mat, hsni, sma)

Foreldrar nir hafa ekki efni v tmstundastarfi sem vildir helst stunda (t.d. tnlist, rttir) Hve oft eiga eftirfarandi astur vi hj r? Hve oft eiga eftirfarandi astur vi hj r? Hve oft eiga eftirfarandi astur vi hj r? Hve oft eiga eftirfarandi astur vi hj r? Rttmti mlingarinnar Aukaknnun foreldrum og unglingum Samanburur vi tekjuggn fr Hagstofu slands hverfum ar sem mealtekjur fjlskyldna eru lgar er huglg ftkt tbreiddari (r > -0,60) Niurstur 1. Tengist ftkt heimilis frvikshegun og vanlan unglinga?

Mkrtengsl 2. Hefur ftkt bein hrif frvikshegun og vanlan unglinga? Hefur nrumhverfi sjlfst hrif? 3. Er samvirkni milli heimilisftktar og ftktar nrumhverfinu? Er verra a vera ftkur velmegandi nrumhverfi? Mkrtengsl - niurstur Efnahagslegir erfileikar heimilinu er httuttur fyrir margvsleg vandaml ungmenna ... a teknu tilliti til annarra tta (kyn, fjlskylduger, innflytjendastaa, bseta, bferlaflutningar o.fl.) Ftkt heimili er httuttur fyrir

sjlfsvgstilraunir (p < 0,001) 40 Forsplkur r logit ahvarfsgreiningu 35 31,6 30 % 25 20 15 11,8 8,9 10 5,7

5 0 Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt veruleg (+1st.dev.) Ftkt mjg veruleg (+2st.dev.) Stjrnbreytur: Kyn, fjlskylduger, bsetustugleiki, hverfasamsetning o.fl. Ftkt hmarki Ftkt heimili er httuttur fyrir kannabisneyslu (p < 0,001) 30 Forsplkur r logit ahvarfsgreiningu 25 22,1

% 20 15 10,5 10 8,6 6,2 5 0 Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt veruleg (+1st.dev.) Ftkt mjg veruleg (+2st.dev.) Stjrnbreytur: Kyn, fjlskylduger, bsetustugleiki, hverfasamsetning o.fl.

Ftkt hmarki . . . og lvun sl. 30 daga 50 45 40 35,4 35 % 30 23,9 25 20 21,4 18

15 10 5 0 Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt veruleg (+1st.dev.) Ftkt mjg veruleg (+2st.dev.) Stjrnbreytur: Kyn, fjlskylduger, bsetustugleiki, hverfasamsetning o.fl. Ftkt hmarki Yfirheyr(ur) lgreglust 25 19,5 20

14,2 15 12 10 9,2 5 0 Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt heimili veruleg (+1s) Ftkt heimili mikil (+2s) Ftkt heimili hmarki (+4s) Beitt lkamlegu ofbeldi sl. 12 mnui

30 25 23 20 16,4 15 13,7 10,3 10 5 0 Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt heimili veruleg (+1s)

Ftkt heimili mikil (+2s) Ftkt heimili hmarki (+4s) Reii/pirringur (efsta tund) 40 35 30 26,1 25 20 16 15 10 12,2 7,9 5 0 Engin ftkt heimili

Ftkt heimili veruleg (+1s) Ftkt heimili mikil (+2s) Ftkt heimili hmarki (+4s) Sirof (efsti fjrungur) 50 45 41,8 40 33,8 35 30,2 30 25

24,8 20 15 10 5 0 Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt heimili veruleg (+1s) Ftkt heimili mikil (+2s) Ftkt heimili hmarki (+4s) Ath. Hafa ber huga Fylgni jafngildir ekki orsakatengslum Efnahagslegt lag heimili

Frvikshegun Vanlan Undirliggjandi ttir (ekki mldir) 2. hrif r nrumhverfinu Er ftkt nrumhverfinu sjlfstur httuttur fyrir vandaml ungmenna? Forsenda: sklahverfi = nrumhverfi Munur ftkt sklahverfum er verulegur Til dmis A mealtali segja um 17% unglinga sklahverfi a foreldrar eirra su stundum, oft ea nr alltaf illa staddir fjrhagslega Lgsta sklahverfi er me 3% Hsta sklahverfi er me 45%

% unglinga sem segja a foreldrar eirra su stundum, oft ea nr alltaf illa staddir fjrhagslega Beiting ofbeldis sl. 12 mn niurstur fyrir unglinga sem ekki ba vi ftkt heima hj sr 25 20 18 15 Lkindi 13 10 10 8

5 0 Ftkt hverfis lgmarki Ftkt hverfis mealtali Ftkt hverfis mikil (+2s) Ftkt hverfis hmarki (+3,6s) Veri yfirheyr(ur) af lgreglu - niurstur fyrir unglinga sem ekki ba vi ftkt heima hj sr 25 20 16 Lkindi

15 12 10 9 7 5 0 Ftkt hverfis lgmarki Ftkt hverfis mealtali Ftkt hverfis mikil (+2s) Ftkt hverfis hmarki (+3,6s) Sjlfsvgstilraun niurstur fyrir unglinga sem ekki ba vi ftkt heima hj sr 20

18 16 14 Lkindi 12 11 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2

0 Ftkt hverfis lgmarki Ftkt hverfis mealtali Ftkt hverfis mikil (+2s) Ftkt hverfis hmarki (+3,6s) Reii/pirringur niurstur fyrir unglinga sem ekki ba vi ftkt heima hj sr 20 18 16 15 14 Lkindi

12 11 10 8 8 6 6 4 2 0 Ftkt hverfis lgmarki Ftkt hverfis mealtali Ftkt hverfis mikil (+2s) Ftkt hverfis hmarki

(+3,6s) Slm efnahagsstaa nrumhverfinu er httuttur fyrir kannabisneyslu (p < 0,01) 20 Forsplkur r fjlstigsahvarfi (logit) 18 16 14 11,7 % 12 10 8 6 6,8

5,2 4 2 0 Efnahagsstaa hverfis g Efnahagsstaa hverfis mealtali Efnahagsstaa hverfis slm Stjrnbreytur: Efnahagsstaa heimilis, kyn, fjlskylduger, bsetustugleiki, hverfasamsetning o.fl. ... og fyrir lvun sl. 30 daga 30 Forsplkur r fjlstigsahvarfi (logit) 25,7 25

20 18,4 % 15,8 15 10 5 0 Efnahagsstaa hverfis g Efnahagsstaa hverfis mealtali Efnahagsstaa hverfis slm Stjrnbreytur: Efnahagsstaa heimilis, kyn, fjlskylduger, bsetustugleiki, hverfasamsetning o.fl.

En er stuningur vi hugmynd a stan fyrir hverfahrifum s smitun milli jafnaldra? Ftkt nrumhverfinu eykur lkur a eiga vini sem nota kannabis (p < 0,05) 50 Forsplkur r fjlstigsahvarfi (logit) 45 40 36,4 35 30 % 30 25 20

22,4 17,5 15 10 5 0 Ftkt hverfi lgmarki Ftkt hverfi mealtali Ftkt hverfi mikil (+2s) Ftkt hverfi hmarki (+3,6s) Stjrnbreytur: Efnahagsstaa heimilis, kyn, fjlskylduger, bsetustugleiki, hverfasamsetning o.fl. Ftkt nrumhverfinu eykur lkur a eiga vini sem lenda oft slagsmlum (p < 0,05)

70 Forsplkur r fjlstigsahvarfi (logit) 60 60 50 50 42,6 36,8 % 40 30 20 10

0 Ftkt hverfi lgmarki Ftkt hverfi mealtali Ftkt hverfi mikil (+2s) Ftkt hverfi hmarki (+3,6s) Stjrnbreytur: Efnahagsstaa heimilis, kyn, fjlskylduger, bsetustugleiki, hverfasamsetning o.fl. 3. Samvirkni heimilisftktar og hverfaftktar Er verra a upplifa skort efnuu nrumhverfi? Ftkt heimili er sterkari httuttur fyrir sjlfsvgstilraunir egar ftkt er sjaldgf nrumhverfinu Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt heimili veruleg (+1s) Ftkt heimili mikil (+2s) Ftkt heimili hmarki (+4s)

25 19,5 20 Lkindi (forsp) 16,2 15 12,8 10,5 10,5 10,5 10,5 10,5 10,5 10,5 9,5

10 8,4 7,6 8,1 5,8 5 4,4 0 Ftkt hverfis lgmarki Ftkt hverfis mealtali

Ftkt hverfis mikil (+2s) Stjrnbreytur: kyn, fjlskylduger, bsetustugleiki, hverfasamsetning o.fl. Ftkt hverfis hmarki (+3,6s) Ftkt heimili er sterkari httuttur fyrir ofbeldishegun egar ftkt er sjaldgf nrumhverfinu 35 30 Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt heimili veruleg (+1s) Ftkt heimili mikil (+2s) Ftkt heimili hmarki (+4s) 28,1 Lkindi (forsp)

25 23 20 17,1 15 17,5 16,4 13,7 13 14,7 15,6 13,4

10,3 10 8,2 5 0 Ftkt hverfis lgmarki Ftkt hverfis mealtali Ftkt hverfis mikil (+2s) Yfirheyrur af lgreglu 40 Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt heimili veruleg (+1s) 35

Ftkt heimili mikil (+2s) 32,5 Ftkt heimili hmarki (+4s) 30 Lkindi (forsp) 25 19,5 20 17,8 14,2 15 12,7

12 9,2 10 12,3 11,2 10,5 9,3 7,2 5 0 Ftkt hverfis lgmarki Ftkt hverfis mealtali Ftkt hverfis mikil (+2s)

Reii/pirringur (efsta tund) 45 Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt heimili veruleg (+1s) Ftkt heimili mikil (+2s) Ftkt heimili hmarki (+4s) 39,7 40 35 Lkindi (forsp) 30 26,1 25 19 20

16 15 12,2 10 12,2 11,4 12,2 12,8 13,9 7,9 5,8

5 0 Ftkt hverfis lgmarki Ftkt hverfis mealtali Ftkt hverfis mikil (+2s) Ftkt heimili eykur lkur flagslegri tskfun srstaklega efnuu nrumhverfi 35 Frnarlamb eineltis 30 Engin ftkt heimili Ftkt veruleg (+1s) Ftkt mjg mikil (+2s) Ftkt hmarki

26,5 Lkindi % 25 20 14,6 13,9 15 9,7 10 5,4 9 10,6 7

9,5 8,2 7,5 6,2 5 0 Ftkt hverfis lgmarki Ftkt hverfis mealtali Ftkt hverfis mikil (+2s) Samantekt Ftkt heimilinu er httuttur fyrir vandaml unglinga vanlan, frvikshegun, skert tengsl vi foreldra, frnarlamb eineltis

Ftkt nrumhverfinu er sjlfstur httuttur Lklega vegna ess a vandamlin smitast milli jafnaldra Flagslegur samanburur virist spila hlutverk a er verra a vera ftkur efnuu nrumhverfi Hva gerist egar efnahagslegir erfileikar aukast? Lklega stkkar s hpur ungmenna sem er beinni httu (vegna ftktar heimilinu) Lklega stkkar s hpur ungmenna sem er beinni httu (vegna ftktar annarra) Aukin jfnuur jflaginu gti milda flagslegan samanbur og ar me milda httuna sem stafar af efnahagslegum erfileikum Lesefni

Jn Gunnar Bernburg, rlfur rlindsson og Inga Dra Sigfsdttir (2009). The neighborhood effects of disrupted family processes on adolescent substance use. Social Science & Medicine, 69, 129-137. Jn Gunnar Bernburg, rlfur rlindsson og Inga Dra Sigfsdttir (2009). Relative deprivation and adolescent outcomes in Iceland: A multilevel test. Social Forces, 87, 1223-1250. Jn Gunnar Bernburg, rlfur rlindsson og Inga Dra Sigfsdttir (2009). The spreading of suicidal behavior: The contextual effect of community household poverty on adolescent suicidal behavior and the mediating role of suicide suggestion. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 380-389. Jn Gunnar Bernburg og rlfur rlindsson (2007). Community Structure and Adolescent Delinquency in Iceland: A Contextual Analysis. Criminology, 45, 415-444.

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