Animal inoculation Antimicrobial sensitivity Important to consider whether microbe recovered and identified is actually causing the disease or simply normal flora
17.4 Genotypic Methods DNA analysis Hybridization Probes complementary to the specific sequences of a particular microbe PCR
DNA and RNA analysis Ribosomal RNA Comparison of the sequence of nitrogen bases in ribosomal RNA 17.5 Immunological Methods Serology in vitro diagnostic testing of
serum Antibodies have extreme specificity for antigens Visible reactions include precipitates, color changes, or the release of radioactivity Tests can be used to identify and to determine the amount of antibody in serum
titer Figure 17.7 Basic principles of serological testing using antibodies and antigens Figure 17.8 Specificity and sensitivity in immune testing
Agglutination and Precipitation Reactions Agglutination testing antibody cross links whole-cell antigens, forming complexes that settle out and form visible clumps Blood typing, some bacterial and viral diseases
Precipitation tests soluble antigen is made insoluble by an antibody VDRL Most precipitation reactions are carried out in agar gels Figure 17.9 Agglutination and precipitation reactions
Insert figure 17.10 Cellular\molecular view Figure 17.10 Precipitation reactions Figure 17.11 Immunoelectrophoresis of normal human serum
The Western Blot for Detecting Proteins Electrophoretic separation of proteins, followed by an immunoassay to detect these proteins Highly specific and sensitive Sites of specific antibody binding will appear as
a pattern of bands Second test used to verify HIV status Figure 17.12 The Western blot procedure Complement Fixation Lysin mediated hemolysis
Test uses four components Antigen, antibody, complement, and sensitized sheep RBCs Steps of test 1. Test antigen reacts with test antibody 2. Contents of tube from (1.) are mixed with sheep
RBCs Complement used up in first stage, no hemolysis Unfixed complement, hemolysis
Figure 17.13 Complement fixation test Fluorescent Antibody and Immunofluorescent Testing Fluorescent antibody Monoclonal antibody labeled by a fluorescent dye
Two ways FABs are used Direct testing Indirect testing Figure 17.14 (a, b)
Figure 17.14 (c) Immunoassays Extremely sensitive to detect trace antigens and antibodies Radioimmunoassay (RIA) antigens or antibodies labeled with radioactive isotopes
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) enzyme-antibody complex produces a colored product when an enzyme-substrate reaction occurs Indirect Capture
Figure 17.15 Methods of ELISA testing Tests that Differentiate T Cells and B Cells Rosette formation Mix T cells with sheep red blood cells
Fluorescent techniques Differentiates T and B cells and subgroups them In vivo Testing Antigens are introduced directly into the body to determine the presence or
absence of antibodies Tuberculin skin test, allergy testing A Viral Example Viruses present special difficulties because they are not cells Viruses are labor intensive to culture in the
Romeo and Juliet . alone explores numerous themes, including the impulsiveness of love, inevitability of fate, dangers of pride and rivalry, and adolescent rebellion, which everyone can relate to in some way. Shakespeare's work and ideas are not limited to...
It is best used for documents that need to strictly conform to the latest standards New Perspectives on HTML, XHTML, and Dynamic HTML, 4e * Creating Valid XHTML Documents The DTD used depends on the content of the document and...
The Scarborough Reading Rope and Guided Reading. Amie Snow. Ibraham Elementary. Forsyth County Reading Association. October 19, 2017. The Simple View of Reading. Gough & Tumner, 1986. ... You may ask child to retell what happened in the section just...
Arial MS Pゴシック Calibri Bookman Old Style Wingdings powerpoint_eng La Cátedra de las Américas y el Consejo Académico Asesor Departamento de Asuntos Internacionales (DAI) Secretaría de Relaciones Externas (SRE) Irene Klinger, Directora DAI/SRE 28 de agosto de 2009 Slide 2...
The development of a new sensibility at the end of the eighteenth century as a reaction to the rationalistic outlook of the Enlightment The age of Classicism is followed by a transitional period known as the Pre-Romantic Age, which coincides...
Laboratory submitting both positive and negative test results, therefore deemed valid. Laboratories submitting both positive and negative. 15. 5. 4. 1 - State laboratories - Commercial laboratories. Includes patient demographics and additional specimen details.
And think twice about those evening karate lessons. Signing your kids up for everything under the sun may seem like a smart move. But chances are that little Johnny and Janey are over-scheduled. ... PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by:
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!