Folk and Popular Culture CHAPTER 4 Where are folk and popular leisure activities distributed?
KEY ISSUE #1 Culture Culture combines three things: values, material artifacts, and political institutions Habit vs. custom Folk culture vs. popular culture Important characteristics of culture include its origin, diffusion, and
distribution Origin and Diffusion of Folk and Popular Cultures Origin of Folk Music (2697 B.C. or earlier) Folk songs are composed anonymously and transmitted orally Origin of Popular Music (around 1900)
Made for money and to be reproduced Many eras and genres of popular music Origin and Diffusion of Folk and Popular Cultures Sports: Hierarchical Diffusion of Popular Culture Folk culture origin of soccer, the worlds most popular sport Globalization of soccer (beginning in 1800s)
Started as an English folk custom British people diffused the sport around the world Each country has its sport, and many sports have worldwide competitions (Olympics, World Cup, etc.) Where are folk and popular material culture distributed?
KEY ISSUE #2 Folk and Popular Clothing Rapid diffusion of clothing styles In the west, occupations dictate clothing more than environment Income also affects clothing style Other styles of dress influence more developed countries
Jeans are often seen as youthful in the US and have grown in popularity due to globalization Folk and Popular Food Preferences The environment can have an impact on distinctive food preferences In folk cultures, social customs or beliefs can influence the foods
eaten or avoided Food taboos are often in place for religious, safety, or social reasons Folk and Popular Food Preferences Folk Food Culture The environment can have an impact on distinctive food preferences
In folk cultures, social customs or beliefs can influence the foods eaten or avoided Food taboos are often in place for religious, safety, or social reasons Folk and Popular Food Preferences Popular Food Culture
Differences between countries (example: Pepsi v. Coke) Food preferences can also vary regionally within a country (example: regional differences within the US) Wine production is often affected by both environmental and cultural factors Distribution of Folk and Popular Housing
Folk Housing The distinctive building materials available in the environment, climate, and social factors determine what people make their houses from and how its designed or shaped Society determines what goes in a house, where furniture should be placed, and where and how someone sleeps Distribution of Folk
and Popular Housing US Folk Housing As people moved across the US, they brought their styles for houses with them Distribution of Folk and Popular Housing
Popular housing styles Modern house styles (1945-1960) include minimal traditional, ranch house, split-level house, and contemporary style Neo-Eclectic house styles (since 1960) include Mansard, NeoTudor, Neo-French, and Neo-Colonial Why is access to folk and popular culture unequal?
KEY ISSUE #3 Role of TV in Diffusing Popular Culture Diffusion of Television TV diffused from the US to Europe and then to LDCs In 1970, half of the world had little or no TV broadcasting By 2000, most LDCs have a large ownership rate of TVs
Electronic Diffusion of Popular Culture Diffusion of the Internet 1995 40 million internet users worldwide 2004 880 million internet users worldwide Challenges to Accessing
Electronic Media Government control of TV US commercial channels get licenses from govt Communist countries govt controls TV and the info the public see Limiting access to the internet Countries can limit the political, social, and security content as well as some internet tools
Why do folk and popular culture face sustainability challenges? KEY ISSUE #4 The Amish: Preserving Cultural Identity
The Amish are an example of relocation diffusion of folk culture Have retained their culture, even when other groups did not Threats to Folk Culture
Loss of traditional values Clothing rural vs. urban, traditional vs. contemporary clothes for men and women, etc. Changing roles of women although there are more opportunities for women worldwide, some groups are resistant to change Threats to Folk Culture Threat of Foreign Media Imperialism
The US, UK, and Japan influence TV around the world Some people view this as those countries trying to spread their culture around the world Some countries block satellite channels or prevent certain shows from being viewed Some countries in Asia and Africa criticize the western idea of freedom of the press
Environmental Impact of Popular Culture Uniform Landscapes Fast-food restaurants immediately recognizable, easy for newcomers to know what to expect, etc. US culture has diffused to
other parts of the world as a part of global diffusion of uniform landscapes Environmental Impact of Popular Culture Negative Environmental Impact Increased demand for natural resources
Pollution Folk cultures can also harm the environment We can create widespread environmental damage and control it What else do we know about culture? KEY ISSUE #5
The Worlds Macrocultural Regions Components of Culture Material culture is made up of: Artifacts - that which is made, created, produced Sociofacts - the ways in which people organize their society and
relate to one another Mentifacts - the ideas, beliefs, and values that people hold Cultural traits are specific customs that are a part of everyday life, and the group of traits that define a particular culture is called a cultural complex. Traditions Traditions are cohesive collections of customs
Traditions can be and often are: Syncretic blend cultural traits from different contemporary sources Dynamic change over time Cultural Hearths Hearth = place of origin
Cultural Hearths Mesoamerica Andean America West Africa Nile River Valley Mesopotamia
Indus R. Valley Ganges R. Valley Wei/Huang Rivers Acculturation, Assimilation, and Transculturation Acculturation occurs when two cultures come into contact with one another, and the weaker of the two adopts traits from the more
dominant culture This can lead to assimilation, when the original traits of the weaker culture are completely replaced by the traits of the more dominant culture. Sometimes transculturation occurs when two cultures of just about equal power or influence meet and exchange ideas and traits. Transculturation can refer to the broad expansion of cultural traits through processes of diffusion, adoption, and assimilation.
Glocalization Glocalization refers to the adaptation of a product or service to the culture of each region where its being sold.
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