Figure 18.1b Generalized structure of arteries, veins, and ...

Figure 18.1b Generalized structure of arteries, veins, and ...

Figure 18.1a Generalized structure of arteries, veins, and capillaries. Artery Vein 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.1b Generalized structure of arteries, veins, and capillaries. Tunica intima Endothelium Subendothelial layer Internal elastic membrane Tunica media (smooth muscle and elastic fibers) External elastic membrane Tunica externa (collagen fibers) Vasa vasorum Artery Vein Valve Capillary network Lumen Basement membrane Lumen Capillary Endothelial cells 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.2 The relationship of blood vessels to each other and to lymphatic vessels. Venous system Large veins

(capacitance vessels) Small veins (capacitance vessels) Arterial system Heart Large lymphatic vessels Elastic arteries (conducting arteries) Lymph node Lymphatic system Muscular arteries (distributing arteries) Arteriovenous anastomosis Lymphatic capillaries Sinusoid Postcapillary venule Thoroughfare CapillariesPrecapillary (exchange channel 2014 Pearson sphincter Education, Inc. vessels)

Arterioles (resistance vessels) Terminal arteriole Metarteriole Figure 18.3a Capillary structure. Pericyte Red blood cell in lumen Intercellular cleft Endothelial cell Basement membrane Tight junction Endothelial nucleus Pinocytotic vesicles Continuous capillary. Least permeable, and most common (e.g., skin, muscle). 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.3b Capillary structure. Pinocytotic vesicles Red blood cell in lumen Fenestrations (pores) Endothelial nucleus Basement membrane Tight junction

Intercellular cleft Endothelial cell Fenestrated capillary. Large fenestrations (pores) increase permeability. Occurs in areas of active absorption or filtration (e.g., kidney, small intestine). 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.3c Capillary structure. Endothelial cell Red blood cell in lumen Large intercellular cleft Tight junction Incomplete basement membrane Nucleus of endothelial cell Sinusoid capillary. Most permeable. Occurs in special locations (e.g., liver, bone marrow, spleen). 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.4 Anatomy of a capillary bed. Vascular shunt Precapillary sphincters Metarteriole Thoroughfare channel True capillaries

Terminal arteriole Postcapillary venule Sphincters openblood flows through true capillaries. Terminal arteriole Postcapillary venule Sphincters closedblood flows through metarteriole thoroughfare channel and bypasses true capillaries. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.5 Relative proportion of blood volume throughout the cardiovascular system. Pulmonary blood vessels 12% Systemic arteries and arterioles 15% Heart 8% Capillaries 5% Systemic veins and venules 60% 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.7 The muscular pump. Venous valve (open) Contracted skeletal muscle Venous valve (closed) Vein Direction of blood flow

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Closer Look Box Figure UN01 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Closer Look Box Figure UN02 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.20 Schematic flowchart showing an overview of the systemic circulation. Common carotid arteries to head and subclavian arteries to upper limbs Capillary beds of head and upper limbs Superior vena cava Aortic arch Aorta RA LA RV LV Azygos system Venous drainage Inferior vena cava Thoracic

aorta Arterial blood Capillary beds of mediastinal structures and thorax walls Diaphragm Abdominal aorta Inferior vena cava Capillary beds of digestive viscera, spleen, pancreas, kidneys Capillary beds of gonads, pelvis, and lower limbs 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.21a Major arteries of the systemic circulation. R. external carotid artery R. common carotid right side of head and neck R. vertebral R. axillary R. internal carotid artery R. subclavian neck and R. upper limb Brachiocephalic

head, neck, and R. upper limb Arteries of R. upper limb L. external carotid artery L. internal carotid artery L. common carotid left side of head and neck Aortic arch L. vertebral L. subclavian neck and L. upper limb L. axillary Arteries of L. upper limb Ascending aorta L. ventricle to sternal angle Thoracic aorta T5T12 (diaphragm) L. and R. coronary arteries L. ventricle of heart Visceral branches Mediastinal posterior mediastinum

Esophageal esophagus Bronchial lungs and bronchi Parietal branches Pericardial pericardium Posterior intercostals intercostal muscles, spinal cord, vertebrae, pleurae, skin Superior phrenics posterior and superior diaphragm Diaphragm Abdominal aorta T12 (diaphragm)L4 Parietal branches Visceral branches Gonadal testes or ovaries Suprarenal adrenal glands and Renal kidneys Superior and inferior mesenterics small intestine colon

Celiac trunk liver gallbladder spleen stomach esophagus duodenum R. common iliac pelvis and R. lower limb Arteries of R. lower limb Schematic flowchart 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Inferior phrenics inferior diaphragm Lumbars posterior abdominal wall Median sacral sacrum coccyx L. common iliac pelvis and L. lower limb Arteries of L. lower limb Figure 18.21b Major arteries of the systemic circulation. Arteries of the head and trunk Internal carotid artery External carotid artery Common carotid arteries Vertebral artery Subclavian artery Brachiocephalic trunk Aortic arch Ascending aorta Arteries that supply the upper limb

Subclavian artery Axillary artery Coronary artery Celiac trunk Brachial artery Abdominal aorta Superior mesenteric artery Renal artery Gonadal artery Inferior mesenteric artery Radial artery Ulnar artery Common iliac artery Internal iliac artery Deep palmar arch Superficial palmar arch Digital arteries Arteries that supply the lower limb External iliac artery Femoral artery Popliteal artery Anterior tibial artery Posterior tibial artery Arcuate artery Illustration, anterior view 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.22a Arteries of the head, neck, and brain. R. and L. anterior cerebral arteries R. Middle cerebral artery Anterior

communicating artery Cerebral arterial circle Ophthalmic artery Superficial temporal artery R. and L. posterior communicating arteries R. Posterior cerebral artery Basilar artery R. and L. vertebral arteries Maxillary artery Occipital artery R. and L. internal carotid arteries Facial artery Lingual artery R. and L. external carotid

arteries Superior thyroid artery R. and L. common carotid arteries R. and L. subclavian arteries Brachiocephalic trunk Aortic arch (a) S c hema tic fl ow char t 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.22b-d Arteries of the head, neck, and brain. Ophthalmic artery Basilar artery Vertebral artery Internal carotid artery External carotid artery Common carotid artery Thyrocervical trunk Branches of the external carotid artery Superficial temporal artery Maxillary artery Occipital artery Facial artery

Lingual artery Superior thyroid artery Larynx Costocervical trunk Thyroid gland (overlying trachea) Subclavian artery Clavicle (cut) Axillary artery Brachiocephalic trunk Internal thoracic artery Anterior Arteries of the head and neck, right aspect Cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) Frontal lobe Optic chiasma Anterior communicating artery Middle cerebral artery Anterior cerebral artery

Internal carotid artery Posterior communicating artery Mammillary body Posterior cerebral artery Temporal lobe Basilar artery Vertebral artery Pons Occipital lobe Cerebellum Posterior Colorized arteriograph of the arterial supply of the brain 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Major arteries serving the brain (inferior view, right side of cerebellum and part of right temporal lobe removed) Figure 18.22b Arteries of the head, neck, and brain. Ophthalmic artery Basilar artery Vertebral artery Internal carotid artery

External carotid artery Common carotid artery Branches of the external carotid artery Superficial temporal artery Maxillary artery Occipital artery Facial artery Lingual artery Superior thyroid artery Thyrocervical trunk Larynx Costocervical trunk Thyroid gland (overlying trachea) Subclavian artery Clavicle (cut) Axillary artery Arteries of the head and neck, right aspect 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Brachiocephalic trunk Internal thoracic artery

Figure 18.22c Arteries of the head, neck, and brain. Colorized arteriograph of the arterial supply of the brain 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.22d Arteries of the head, neck, and brain. Anterior Cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) Frontal lobe Optic chiasma Anterior communicating artery Middle cerebral artery Anterior cerebral artery Internal carotid artery Posterior communicating artery Mammillary body Posterior cerebral artery Temporal lobe

Basilar artery Vertebral artery Pons Occipital lobe Cerebellum Posterior Major arteries serving the brain (inferior view, right side of cerebellum and part of right temporal lobe removed) 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.23a Arteries of the right upper limb and thorax. R. common carotid artery R. vertebral artery L. common carotid artery L. vertebral artery Thyrocervical trunk Suprascapular artery L. subclavian artery R. subclavian artery Axillary artery Thoracoacromial artery Thoracoacromial artery (pectoral branch Anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries Brachial

artery Deep artery of arm Aortic arch Brachiocephalic trunk Internal thoracic artery Anterior intercostal arteries Lateral thoracic artery Subscapular artery Anastomosis Common interosseous artery Radial artery Deep palmar arch Ulnar artery Metacarpal arteries Superficial palmar arch Digital arteries 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Schematic flowchart Costocervical

trunk Thoracic aorta Posterior intercostal arteries Figure 18.23b Arteries of the right upper limb and thorax. Vertebral artery Common carotid arteries Thyrocervical trunk Right subclavian artery Costocervical trunk Left subclavian artery Suprascapular artery Thoracoacromial artery Brachiocephalic trunk Axillary artery Subscapular artery Posterior intercostal arteries Posterior circumflex humeral artery Anterior circumflex humeral artery Anterior intercostal artery Brachial artery Internal thoracic artery Lateral thoracic artery

Deep artery of arm Descending aorta Common interosseous artery Radial artery Ulnar artery Deep palmar arch Superficial palmar arch Digital arteries Illustration, anterior view 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.24a Arteries of the abdomen. Diaphragm Abdominal aorta Inferior phrenic arteries L. gastric artery R. gastric artery Common hepatic artery Celiac trunk Splenic artery Hepatic artery proper L Gastroduodenal R

artery R. gastroepiploic artery Middle suprarenal arteries L. gastroepiploic artery Intestinal arteries Middle colic artery Superior mesenteric artery R. colic artery Renal arteries Ileocolic artery Gonadal arteries Sigmoidal arteries Inferior mesenteric artery L. colic artery Lumbar arteries 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Schematic flowchart. Superior rectal

artery Median sacral artery Common iliac arteries Figure 18.24b Arteries of the abdomen. Liver (cut) Inferior vena cava Diaphragm Esophagus Celiac trunk Left gastric artery Common hepatic artery Hepatic artery proper Gastroduodenal artery Stomach Splenic artery Right gastric artery Left gastroepiploic artery Gallbladder Spleen Pancreas (major portion lies posterior to stomach) Right gastroepiploic artery Duodenum Abdominal aorta Superior mesenteric artery The celiac trunk and its major branches. The left half of the liver has been removed.

2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.24c Arteries of the abdomen. Hiatus (opening) for inferior vena cava Diaphragm Hiatus (opening) for esophagus Inferior phrenic artery Adrenal (suprarenal) gland Middle suprarenal artery Celiac trunk Renal artery Kidney Superior mesenteric artery Abdominal aorta Lumbar arteries Gonadal (testicular or ovarian) artery Ureter Inferior mesenteric artery Median sacral artery Common iliac artery Major branches of the abdominal aorta.

2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.24d Arteries of the abdomen. Celiac trunk Superior mesenteric artery Branches of the superior mesenteric artery Middle colic artery Intestinal arteries Right colic artery Ileocolic artery Ascending colon Right common iliac artery Ileum Transverse colon Aorta Inferior mesenteric artery Branches of the inferior mesenteric artery Left colic artery Sigmoidal arteries Superior rectal artery Descending colon Cecum Appendix Sigmoid colon Rectum Distribution of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. The transverse colon has been pulled superiorly. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.25a Arteries of the right pelvis and lower limb. Abdominal aorta Superior gluteal

artery Internal iliac artery Inferior gluteal artery Internal pudendal Deep artery of thigh Medial circumflex femoral artery Lateral circumflex femoral artery Common iliac artery Obturator artery External iliac artery Femoral artery Adductor hiatus Arterial anastomosis Popliteal artery Anterior tibial artery Posterior tibial

artery Fibular (peroneal) artery Dorsalis pedis artery Lateral plantar artery Arcuate artery Dorsal metatarsal arteries 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Schematic flowchart Lateral plantar artery Medial plantar artery Plantar arch Plantar metatarsal arteries Figure 18.25b Arteries of the right pelvis and lower limb. Common iliac artery Internal iliac artery Superior gluteal artery External iliac artery Deep artery of thigh Lateral circumflex femoral artery Medial circumflex femoral artery Obturator artery Femoral artery Adductor hiatus Popliteal artery Anterior tibial artery

Posterior tibial artery Fibular artery Dorsalis pedis artery Arcuate artery Dorsal metatarsal arteries 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior view Figure 18.25c Arteries of the right pelvis and lower limb. Popliteal artery Anterior tibial artery Posterior tibial artery Lateral plantar artery Medial plantar artery 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view Fibular artery Dorsalis pedis artery (from top of foot) Plantar arch Figure 18.26a Major veins of the systemic circulation. Veins of R. upper limb R. axillary

R. vertebral cervical spinal cord and vertebrae R. external jugular superficial head and neck Intracranial dural venous sinuses R. internal jugular dural venous sinuses of the brain R. subclavian R. head, neck, and upper limb Same as R. brachiocephalic R. brachiocephalic R. side of head and R. upper limb L. brachiocephalic L. side of head and L. upper limb Superior vena cava runs from union of brachiocephalic veins behind manubrium to R. atrium Azygos system drains much of thorax R. atrium of heart Diaphragm Inferior vena cava runs from junction of common iliac veins at L5 to R. atrium of heart

R. suprarenal (L. suprarenal drains into L. renal vein) adrenal glands R. gonadal (L. gonadal drains into L. renal vein) testis or ovary R. common iliac pelvis and R. lower limb Veins of R. lower limb Schematic flowchart 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. L., R., and middle hepatic veins liver L. and R. renal veins kidneys Lumbar veins (several pairs) posterior abdominal wall L. common iliac pelvis and L. lower limb Veins of L. lower limb Figure 18.26b Major veins of the systemic circulation. Veins of the head and trunk Dural venous sinuses External jugular vein Vertebral vein Internal jugular vein Right and left brachiocephalic veins

Superior vena cava Great cardiac vein Veins that drain the upper limb Subclavian vein Axillary vein Cephalic vein Brachial vein Basilic vein Hepatic veins Splenic vein Hepatic portal vein Renal vein Superior mesenteric vein Inferior mesenteric vein Inferior vena cava Median cubital vein Ulnar vein Radial vein Common iliac vein Internal iliac vein Digital veins Veins that drain the lower limb External iliac vein Femoral vein Great saphenous vein Popliteal vein Posterior tibial vein Anterior tibial vein Small saphenous vein Dorsal venous arch Dorsal metatarsal veins Illustration, anterior view. The vessels of the pulmonary circulation are not shown. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 18.27a Venous drainage of the head, neck, and brain. Superior sagittal sinus Inferior sagittal sinus Occipital vein Superficial temporal vein Ophthalmic vein Straight sinus Transverse sinus Cavernous sinus Facial vein Posterior auricular vein Sigmoid sinus Internal jugular vein External jugular vein Superior thyroid vein Vertebral vein Middle thyroid vein Brachiocephalic veins Subclavian vein Superior vena cava

Schematic flowchart 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.27b Venous drainage of the head, neck, and brain. Ophthalmic vein Superficial temporal vein Facial vein Occipital vein Posterior auricular vein External jugular vein Vertebral vein Internal jugular vein Superior and middle thyroid veins Brachiocephalic vein Subclavian vein Superior vena cava Veins of the head and neck, right superficial aspect 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.27c Venous drainage of the head, neck, and brain. Superior sagittal sinus Falx cerebri Inferior sagittal sinus Straight sinus Cavernous sinus Transverse sinuses Sigmoid sinus Jugular foramen Right internal jugular vein Dural venous sinuses of the brain 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.28a Veins of the thorax and right upper limb. Subclavian

vein Axillary vein Internal jugular vein External jugular vein Brachiocephalic veins Superior vena cava Accessory hemiazygos vein Median cubital vein Azygos vein Brachial vein Hemiazygos vein Right and left posterior intercostal veins Cephalic vein Median antebrachial vein Radial vein

Basilic vein Ulnar vein Deep venous palmar arch Metacarpal veins Superficial venous palmar arch Digital veins 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Schematic flowchart Figure 18.28b Veins of the thorax and right upper limb. Brachiocephalic veins Right subclavian vein Internal jugular vein External jugular vein Left subclavian vein Axillary vein Superior vena cava Brachial vein Azygos vein Cephalic vein Accessory hemiazygos vein Basilic vein Hemiazygos vein Posterior intercostals Inferior vena cava Median cubital

vein Ascending lumbar vein Median antebrachial vein Cephalic vein Radial vein Basilic vein Ulnar vein Deep venous palmar arch Superficial venous palmar arch Digital veins Anterior view 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.29a Veins of the abdomen. Inferior vena cava Cystic vein Hepatic portal system Inferior phrenic veins Hepatic veins Hepatic portal vein Superior mesenteric vein Splenic vein Suprarenal veins Renal veins Inferior mesenteric

vein Gonadal veins Lumbar veins R. ascending lumbar vein Common iliac veins L. ascending lumbar vein External iliac vein Internal iliac veins 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Schematic flowchart. Figure 18.29b Veins of the abdomen. Inferior phrenic vein Hepatic veins Inferior vena cava Right suprarenal vein Left suprarenal vein Renal veins Right gonadal vein Left ascending lumbar vein Lumbar veins Left gonadal vein Common iliac vein External iliac vein

Internal iliac vein Tributaries of the inferior vena cava. Venous drainage of abdominal organs not drained by the hepatic portal vein. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.29c Veins of the abdomen. Inferior vena cava Hepatic veins Gastric veins Liver Spleen Hepatic portal vein Splenic vein Right gastroepiploic vein Inferior mesenteric vein Small intestine Rectum The hepatic portal circulation. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Superior mesenteric vein Large intestine Figure 18.30a Veins of the right lower limb.

Internal iliac vein Inferior vena cava Common iliac vein External iliac vein Femoral vein Femoral vein Popliteal vein Small saphenous vein Small saphenous vein Anterior tibial vein Fibular (peroneal) vein Fibular (peroneal) vein Posterior tibial vein Plantar

veins Dorsalis pedis vein Dorsal venous arch Dorsal metatarsal veins Great saphenous vein Deep plantar arch Digital veins Anterior Posterior Schematic flowchart of the anterior and posterior veins 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 18.30b-c Veins of the right lower limb. Common iliac vein Internal iliac vein External iliac vein Inguinal ligament Femoral vein Great saphenous vein (superficial) Popliteal vein Small saphenous vein Popliteal vein Anterior tibial vein

Fibular vein Fibular vein Anterior tibial vein Small saphenous vein (superficial) Dorsalis pedis vein Dorsal venous arch Posterior tibial vein Plantar veins Deep plantar arch Dorsal metatarsal veins 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Great saphenous vein Digital veins Anterior view Posterior view Figure 18.30b Veins of the right lower limb. Common iliac vein Internal iliac vein External iliac vein Inguinal ligament Femoral vein Great saphenous vein (superficial)

Popliteal vein Small saphenous vein Fibular vein Anterior tibial vein Dorsalis pedis vein Dorsal venous arch Dorsal metatarsal veins 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior view Figure 18.30c Veins of the right lower limb. Great saphenous vein Popliteal vein Anterior tibial vein Fibular vein Small saphenous vein (superficial) Posterior tibial vein Plantar veins Deep plantar arch Digital veins 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view

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