FAQs About Taxonomies & Metadata - Taxonomy Strategies

FAQs About Taxonomies & Metadata - Taxonomy Strategies

Taxonom Strategies LLC y FAQs About Taxonomies & Metadata Joseph A. Busch & Ron Daniel, Jr. May 16, 2005 Copyright 2005 Taxonomy Strategies LLC. All rights reserved. Agenda 9:00 Who are we? 9:10 What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30 What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40 How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05 How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30 Break 10:45 What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15 How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project?

11:45 Any more questions? 12:00 Adjourn Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 2 Who is Joseph Busch? Over 25 years in the business of organized information Founder, Taxonomy Strategies Director, Solutions Architecture, Interwoven VP, Infoware, Metacode Technologies Program Manager, Getty Foundation Manager, Pricewaterhouse Metadata and taxonomies community leadership President, American Society for Information Science & Technology Director, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Adviser, National Research Council Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Reviewer, National Science Foundation Division of Information and Intelligent Systems Founder, Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 3

Who is Ron Daniel, Jr.? Over 15 years in the business of metadata & automatic classification Principal, Taxonomy Strategies Standards Architect, Interwoven Senior Information Scientist, Metacode Technologies Technical Staff Member, Los Alamos National Laboratory Metadata and taxonomies community leadership Chair, PRISM (Publishers Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata) working group Acting Chair, XML Linking working group Member, RDF working groups Co-editor, PRISM, XPointer, 3 IETF RFCs, and Dublin Core 1 & 2 reports. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 4 Who has Taxonomy Strategies worked with? Government Commercial Commodity Futures Trading Commission Defense Intelligence Agency ERIC Federal Aviation Administration Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Forest Service GSA Office of Citizen Services ( www.firstgov.gov) Head Start Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore

NASA (nasataxonomy.jpl.nasa.gov) Small Business Administration Social Security Administration USDA Economic Research Service USDA e-Government Program ( www.usda.gov) Allstate Insurance Blue Shield of California Debevoise & Plimpton Halliburton Hewlett Packard Motorola PeopleSoft Pricewaterhousecoopers Siderean Software Sprint Time Inc. Commercial subcontracts Agency.com Top financial services Critical Mass Fortune 50 retailers Deloitte Consulting Big credit card Gistics/OTB Direct selling giant International orgs & Non-profits CEN IDEAlliance IMF OCLC Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 5 What we do Organize Stuff Taxonomy Strategies

LLC The business of organized 6 Who are you? What do you want out of today? Government / NGO / SME / Global 2000? IT / Library & IM / Public Affairs / Product Management / Engineering / HR & Finance / Other? Webmaster / Technical / Researcher / Editorial / Supervisory / Executive? Competing session Search & Content Management: Putting the Puzzle Pieces Together What brought you HERE instead of THERE? Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 7 Agenda 9:00 Who are we? 9:10 What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30 What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40

How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05 How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30 Break 10:45 What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15 How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45 Any more questions? 12:00 Adjourn Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 8 What is metadata? Different definitions Library & Information Science Author/Title/Subject Controlled Vocabularies for Subject Codes (e.g. Dewey) Authority Files for Author Names Database Tables/Columns/ Datatypes/Relationships References for some values Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 9 What is metadata? Another view of Dublin Core

Difficult to Generate Subject metadata What & Why: Subject, Description, Coverage Use metadata How can it be used: Rights & Permissions Better resource description = Better navigation & Asset metadata discovery Who, Where & When: Relational metadata Title, Creator, Publisher, Contributor, Date, Type, Format, Identifier, Source, Language Links between and to: Relation Functionality Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 10 Are there extensions to the Dublin Core? Elements Refinements 1. Identifier 2. Title 3. Creator

4. Contributor 5. Publisher 6. Subject 7. Description 8. Coverage 9. Format 10. Type 11. Date 12. Relation 13. Source 14. Rights 15. Language Abstract Access rights Alternative Audience Available Bibliographic citation Conforms to Created Date accepted Date copyrighted Date submitted Education level Extent Has format Has part Has version Is format of Is part of Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized Encodings Types Is referenced by Is replaced by Is required by

Issued Is version of License Mediator Medium Modified Provenance References Replaces Requires Rights holder Spatial Table of contents Temporal Valid Box DCMIType DDC IMT ISO3166 ISO639-2 LCC LCSH MESH Period Point RFC1766 RFC3066 TGN UDC URI W3CTDF Collection Dataset Event Image Interactive Resource Moving Image Physical Object Service

Software Sound Still Image Text 11 What is metadata: A scheme for recipes Element Data Type Length Source Purpose Asset Metadata Unique ID Integer Fixed System supplied Basic accountability Recipe Title String Variable Licensed Content Text search & results display Recipe summary String

Variable Licensed Content Content Variable Main Ingredients vocabulary Key index to retrieve & aggregate recipes, & generate shopping list Main Ingredients List Subject Metadata Meal Types List Variable Meal Types vocab Cuisines List Variable Cuisines Courses List Variable Courses vocab

Cooking Method Flag Fixed Cooking vocab Browse or group recipes & filter search results Link Metadata Recipe Image Pointer Variable Product Group Merchandize products Use Metadata Rating String Variable Licensed Content Filter, rank, & evaluate recipes Release Date Date Fixed Product Group Publish & feature new recipes

Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 12 What is a taxonomy? Systematics Pragmatic view Biological taxonomy place organism in and But most belong to than one Biological taxonomy placean an organism inone one But mostof ofthe thetime timethings things belong tomore more thanand one only one

place. category. only one place. category. Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae Canis C. familiari Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Linnaeus Pets Mammals Farm Animals Dogs Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized

13 Agenda 9:00 Who are we? 9:10 What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30 What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40 How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05 How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30 Break 10:45 What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15 How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45 Any more questions? 12:00 Adjourn Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 14 Are there other organizational schemes? Type Remarks Synonym Ring Connects a series of terms together Treats them as equivalent for search purposes

Authority File Used to control variant names with a preferred term Typically used for names of countries, individuals, organizations Classification An arrangement of knowledge Does not follow taxonomy rules Scheme Usually enumerated; ie, LC or Dewey Thesaurus Expresses semantic relationships of: Hierarchy (broader & narrower terms) Equivalence (synonyms) Associative (related terms) Ontology Resembles faceted taxonomy but uses richer semantic Taxonomy Strategies relationships among terms and attributes and strict specification rules LLC The business of organized 15 Another point of view . Taxonomie s Synonym Rings Ontologies

(Vocabularies) Authority Files Classification Schemes Simple Equivalence Thesauri Complex Hierarchical Associative (Relationships) Source: Amy Warner. Metadata and Taxonomies for a More Flexible Information Architecture (http://www.lexonomy.com/presentations/metadataAndTaxonomies.ppt) Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 16 Taxonomic metadata e-Forms example Agency 0001 Legislative 1000 Judicial 1100 Executive Office of Pres 0003 Exec Depts

1200 Agriculture 1300 Commerce 9700 Defense 9100 Education 8900 Energy 7500 HHS 7000 DHS 8600 HUD 1400 Interior 1500 Justice 1600 Labor 1900 State 6900 Transport 2000 Treasury 3600 Veterans Ind Agencies Intl Orgs Form Type Industry Impact Application Approval Claim Information request Information submissio n Instructions Legal filing Payment Procuremen t Renewal Reservation Service

request Test Other input Other transactio n 00 Generic 11 Agriculture 21 Mining 22 Utilities 23 Construct 31-33 Manuf 42 Wholesale 44-45 Retail 48-49 Trans 51 Info 52 Finance 54 Profession 55 Mgmt 56 Support 61 Education 62 Health Care 71 Arts 72 Hospitality 81 Other Services 92 Public Taxonomy Strategies LLC Jurisdictio

n Metadata Elements The business of organized Federal State + Local + Other + BRM Impact Keyword Topic Citizen Srvcs Social Srvs Defense Disasters Econ Dev Education Energy Env Mgmt Law Enf Judicial Agriculture & food Commerce Communications Education Energy Env pro Foreign rels Govt Health & safety Housing & comm dev Labor

Law Named grps National def Nat resources Recreation Sci & tech Social pgms Transport Correction al Health Security Income Sec Intelligenc e Intl Affairs Nat Resour Transport Workforce Science Delivery Support Manageme Audience All General Citizen Business Govt Employee Native American Nonresident Tourist Special group Taxonomies

17 Why use faceted taxonomies? 4 independent categories of 10 nodes each have the same discriminatory power as one hierarchy of 10,000 nodes (104) Easier to maintain Can be easier to navigate Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 18 Agenda 9:00 Who are we? 9:10 What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30 What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40 How do I get a good taxonomy? Can I get a taxonomy off-the-shelf or create one with software? How do you know it is good? How do you build or modify to make it good?

10:05 How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30 Break 10:45 What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15 How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45 Any more questions? 12:00 Adjourn Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 19 How do I get a good Taxonomy? Seven practical rules 1) Incremental, extensible process that identifies and enables users, and engages stakeholders. 2) Quick implementation that provides measurable results as quickly as possible. 3) Not monolithichas separately maintainable facets. 4) Re-uses existing IP as much as possible. 5) A means to an end, and not the end in itself . 6) Not perfect, but it does the job it is supposed to dosuch as improving search and navigation. 7) Improved over time, and maintained. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 20 Can I get a taxonomy off the shelf? Sure: www.taxonomywarehouse.com There are usually license fees, but they will be less than the effort to develop an equivalent taxonomy.

The voice of experience says these will usually not be what you want. We recommend: Adopt a faceted approach. Reuse existing (esp. internal) vocabularies for as many of the facets as reasonable. Plan on doing full-custom Content Type and Subject taxonomies. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 21 Sources for 8 common taxonomies Taxonomy Definition Potential Sources Organization Organizational structure. FIPS 95-2, U.S. Government Manual, Your organizational structure, etc. Content Type Structured list of the various types of content being managed or used. DC Types, AGLS Document Type, AAT Information Forms , Your records management policy, etc. Industry

Broad market categories such as lines of business, life events, or industry codes. FIPS 66, SIC, NAICS, Your market segments, etc. Location Place of operations or constituencies. FIPS 5-2, FIPS 55-3, ISO 3166, UN Statistics Div, US Postal Service, Your sales regions, etc. Function Functions and processes performed to accomplish mission and goals. FEA Business Reference Model, Enterprise Ontology, AAT Functions, Your business functions, etc. Topic Business topics relevant to your mission & goals. Federal Register Thesaurus, NAL Agricultural Thesaurus, LCSH, Your research areas, etc. Audience Subset of constituents to whom a piece of content is directed or intended to be used. GEM, ERIC Thesaurus, IEEE LOM, Your psycho-graphics or personas, etc.

Products & Services Names of products/programs & services. ERP system, Your products and services, etc. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 22 What about automatically created taxonomies? Documents can be clustered based on similarities and differences. Problems: Typically only a single hierarchy No overall plan Results hard for people to navigate What does North mean on this map? Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 23 What should I expect from automatic taxonomy construction software? Software can scan large quantities of

content and extract statistically significant words and phrases. Example: Archive of 10 publications was analyzed for topics significant to copyright. Software does a poor job of de-duplication turning those significant words and phrases into a larger structure discriminating between gold and garbage Software is good for getting an understanding of the key phrases in a large amount of content providing test cases for evaluating a taxonomy Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized Source: Sample data courtesy of Randy Marcinko and nStein. 24 How can I test a Taxonomy? Qualitative methods Method Process Walk-throughs Show and explain Validation Approach Consistency to rules Appropriateness to task Usability Testing Contextual analysis Tasks are completed successfully

(card sorting, scenario testing, Time to complete task is reduced etc.) User Satisfaction Survey Tagging samples Tag sample content with taxonomy Reaction to new interface Reaction to search results Content fit Fills out content inventory Training materials for people & algorithms Basis for quantitative methods Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 25 Quantitative Method How evenly does it divide the content? Background: Measured and Expected Distribution of Top 10 Content Types in Library of Congress Database Documents do not distribute uniformly 350,000 Number of Records

across categories Zipf (1/x) distribution is expected behavior 80/20 rule in action (actually 70/20 rule) 300,000 250,000 Series2 200,000 Series1 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 y s ls ph se ca ra di es io gr og r i n B Pe Co Methodology: 20 15 Measured Expected

10 5 Programs, Proposals, Plans & Schedules Other & Unclassified Papers & Presentations Regulations, Policies, Procedures & Marketing & Sales Manuals & Learning Materials Operations & Internal Communications 0 News & Events the Zipf distribution, which is better than expected 25 People, Groups & Places Results were slightly more uniform than Measured and Expected Distribution of Content Types in an

Intranet # Documents Results: n s re hy ns io tu tic ap ct itio ra is gr Fi ib at it e o t l h i l S b le Ex Bi ni ve Ju Top 10 Content Types Part of alpha test of content type for

corporate intranet 115 URLs selected at random from search index were manually categorized. Inaccessible files and junk were removed s ap M Content Type Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 26 Quantitative Method How intuitive (repeatable) are the categorizations? Methodology: Closed Card Sort For alpha test of a grocery site 15 Testers put each of 100 best- Cocoa Drinks Powder is selling products into one of 10 best categorized in both pre-defined categories Beverages and Grocery. Categories where fewer than 14 of 15 testers put product into same category were flagged Results: % of Testers

Cumulative % of Products 15/15 54% 14/15 70% 13/15 77% 12/15 83% 11/15 85% <11/15 100% Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized In the trade, Corn Tortillas are a Dairy item! 27 Quantitative Method How does taxonomy shape match that of content? Background: Hierarchical taxonomies allow

comparison of fit between content and taxonomy areas Methodology: 25,380 resources tagged with taxonomy of 179 terms. (Avg. of 2 terms per resource) Counts of terms and documents summed within taxonomy hierarchy Results: Roughly Zipf distributed (top 20 Term Group % Terms % Docs Administrators 7.8 15.8 Community Groups 2.8 1.8 Counselors 3.4 1.4 Federal Funds Recipients and Applicants

9.5 34.4 Librarians 2.8 1.1 News Media 0.6 3.1 Other 7.3 2.0 Parents and Families 2.8 6.0 Policymakers 4.5 11.5 Researchers 2.2 3.6 School Support Staff

2.2 0.2 Student Financial Aid Providers 1.7 0.7 terms: 79%; top 30 terms: 87%) Students 27.4 7.0 Mismatches between term% Teachers 25.1 11.4 and document% flagged Source: Courtesy Keith Stubbs, US. Dept. of Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized Ed. 28 How do large corporations typically extend the Dublin Core? 120% 100% 100% 86% 80% 57%

60% 40% 20% 0% Doc Types Products & Services Roles Base: 20 corporate information managers Source: CEN/ISSS Workshop on Dublin Core. Guidance information for the deployment of Dublin Core metadata in Corporate Environments ( http://www.cenorm.be/cenorm/businessdomains/businessdomains/isss/cwa/cwa15247.asp) Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 29 Agenda 9:00 Who are we? 9:10 What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30 What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40 How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05 How do I associate the taxonomy with content? How are we going to populate metadata elements with complete and consistent

values? What can we expect to get from automatic classifiers? What kinds of tools do people use? How do different automatic classification tools compare? What else should I keep in mind? 10:30 Break 10:45 What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15 How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45 Any more questions? 12:00 Adjourn Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 30 General remarks on tagging Province of authors (SMEs) or editors? Taxonomy often highly granular to meet task and re-use needs. Vocabulary dependent on originating department. The more tags there are (and the more values for each tag), the more hooks to the content. If there are too many, authors will resist and use general tags (if available) Automatic classification tools exist, and are valuable, but results are not as good as humans can do. Semi-automated is best. Degree of human involvement is a cost/benefit tradeoff. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized

31 What methods do large companies use to create & maintain metadata? 80% 71% 70% 57% 60% 50% 43% 43% Centralized production Not Automated 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Forms Distributed Production Base: 20 corporate information managers Source: CEN/ISSS Workshop on Dublin Core. Guidance information for the deployment of Dublin Core metadata in Corporate Environments ( http://www.cenorm.be/cenorm/businessdomains/businessdomains/isss/cwa/cwa15247.asp) Taxonomy Strategies LLC

The business of organized 32 low Content Volumes high How do tools compare? Analyst viewpoint low Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized Accuracy Level high 33 What accuracy should we expect from an automatic classifier? Classification Performance is Accuracy measured by Inter-cataloger agreement Trained Librarians Trained librarians agree less than 80% of the time Errors are subtle differences in judgment, or big goofs

potential performance gain Regexps Automatic classification struggles to match human performance Exception: Entity recognition can exceed human performance Classifier performance limited by algorithms available, which is limited by development effort Very wide variance in one vendors performance depending on who does the implementation, and how much time they have to do it Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized Development Effort/ Licensing Expense 1) 80/20 tradeoff where 20% of effort gives 80% of performance. 2) Smart implementation of inexpensive tools will outperform naive implementations of world-class tools. 34

low Content Volumes high How do tools compare? Pragmatic viewpoint low Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized Accuracy Level high 35 What kind of metadata creation and maintenance process is needed? Even purely automatic meta-tagging systems need a manual error correction procedure. Compose in Template Automatically fill-in metadata Submit to CMS Problem? Y Approve/Edit metadata

Should add a QA sampling Review content N Copy Edit content Hard Cop y Web site mechanism Problem? N Tagging models: Author-generated Central librarians Hybrid central auto-tagging service, distributed manual review and correction Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized Y Tagging Tool Analyst Editor

Copywriter Sys Admin Sample of author-generated metadata workflow. 36 Tagging tool example: Interwoven MetaTagger Manual form fill-in w/ check boxes, pull-down lists, etc. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized Auto keyword & summarization 37 Tagging tool example: Interwoven MetaTagger Auto-categorization Rules & pattern matching Parse & lookup (recognize names) Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 38 Where do I put the metadata?

Where can I store metadata? In the content HTML Headers, File properties, etc. In a centralized repository Search index, Metadata database, etc. Where should I store metadata? It depends. If you are moving files through a process, putting it in the file keeps it from getting dropped at system borders. If you are doing search across multiple documents, it has to be at least copied out of the files. If you make copies of files and modify them, consistent in-file metadata will be impossible. Real question is not where to STORE the metadata, it is how to MAINTAIN the metadata. Web CMS as an example Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 39 Agenda 9:00 Who are we? 9:10 What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30 What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40 How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05 How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30 Break 10:45 What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15 How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project?

11:45 Any more questions? 12:00 Adjourn Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 40 Agenda 9:00 Who are we? 9:10 What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30 What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40 How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05 How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30 Break 10:45 What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? Does adding a taxonomy mean replacing my search engine? How are they used behind the scenes in a search implementation How are they used in the Search UI to aid searching? How can we make our current search engine better? 11:15 How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45 Any more questions? 12:00 Adjourn

Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 41 How to fix search? Add metadata to search on! Adding metadata to unstructured content allows it to be managed like structured content. Applications that use structured content work better. Enriching content with structured metadata is critical for supporting search and personalized content delivery. Content that has been adequately tagged with metadata can be leveraged in usage tracking, personalization and improved searching. Better structure equals better access: Taxonomy serves as a framework for organizing the ever-growing and changing information within a company. The many dimensions of taxonomy can greatly facilitate Web site design, content management, and search engineering. If well done, taxonomy will allow for structured Web content, leading to improved information access. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 42

How does Google do so well without metadata? They dont, they just use particular types of metadata: Number of incoming links PageRank for each incoming link Text of incoming links Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 43 Dublin Core framework for corporate use Not just 15 elements A framework to enable cross-resource exploration and use Dublin Core is framework for integration metadata at BellSouth Source: Courtesy of Todd Stephens, BellSouth Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 44 What about Search? Integration Metadata Element Data Type Length Req. / Repeat

Source Purpose Asset Metadata Unique ID Integer Fixed dc:identifier 1 System supplied Basic accountability Recipe Title String dc:title Variable 1 Licensed Content Text search & results display Recipe summary String Variable dc:description 1 Licensed Content Content Main Ingredients

X List ? Main Ingredients vocabulary Key index to retrieve & aggregate recipes, & generate shopping list Variable Subject Metadata Meal Types Cuisines Courses Cooking Method ListX ListX Variable * Meal Types vocab Variable * Cuisines ListX Flag X Variable * Courses vocab

Fixed * Cooking vocab Browse or group recipes & filter search results Link Metadata Recipe Image Pointer Variable dcterms:hasPart ? Product Group Merchandize products Use Metadata Rating String Variable Release Date Date dc:dateFixed 1 Licensed Content Filter, rank, & evaluate recipes 1

Product Group Publish & feature new recipes dc:type=recipe, Legend: dc:format=text/html, ? 1 or more * - 0 or more dc:language=en Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 45 Agenda 9:00 Who are we? 9:10 What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30 What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40 How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:10 How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30 Break 10:45 What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:30 How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45 Any more questions? 12:00 Adjourn Taxonomy Strategies LLC

The business of organized 46 How do I sell Management on a Taxonomy Project? Dont sell metadata or taxonomy, sell the vision of what you want to be able to do. Clearly understand what the problem is and what the opportunities are. Do the calculus (costs and benefits) Design the taxonomy (in terms of LOE) in relation to the value at hand. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 47 Fundamentals of metadata ROI Tagging content using metadata and a taxonomy are costs, not benefits. There is no benefit without exposing the tagged content to users in some way that cuts costs or improves revenues. Putting metadata and a taxonomy into operation requires UI changes and/or backend system changes, as well as data changes. You need to determine those changes, and their costs, as part of the ROI. Taxonomy Strategies LLC

The business of organized 48 What are the typical metadata ROI scenarios? Catalog site Increased sales. Increased productivity. Customer support Cutting costs. Increased sales. Compliance Avoiding penalties. Knowledge worker productivity Less time searching, more time working. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 49 Metadata ROI: Catalog site Guided Navigation 2-3 clicks to product No dead ends http://www.tesco.com/winestore Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 50 Metadata ROI: Catalog site Increased sales

Enterprise portal cost Product findability. Product cross-sells and up- $6M sells. Customer loyalty. 1-5% increase in sales $57.6B sales (04) $2.1B net income (04) 1-5% increase in productivity $600M to $2B/year $21M to $105M/year $155M to $776M/year $50K average cost per employee 310,400 employees (04) Source: Proforma based on Hoovers data. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 51 Metadata ROI: Customer support model Help on search page, not a click away. Type and go to search for specific policies Policy categories for browsing

Refine search offered with results Good search results for policy topics, e.g., pets Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 52 Metadata ROI: Customer support model Self service Manual processing Fewer customer calls. Faster, more accurate CSR 100,000 documents 2 pages per document responses through better information access. $4 per page $800K 25-50% service efficiency increase 300K customer service calls per month $6 cost per call

$5.4M to $10.8M/yr 1-5% increased sales $18.6B sales (04) ($761M) net income (04) $186M to $930M/year ($575M) to $169M/year Source: Proforma based on Hoovers data. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 53 Metadata ROI: Compliance Avoiding penalties for breaching regulations SOX: up to 5 years in jail SOX: up to $5M Following required procedures Loss of company $100B revenue (00) $100B Loss of partner companies Arthur Andersen Source: Proforma based on Hoovers data. Taxonomy Strategies LLC

The business of organized 54 Knowledge workers spend up to 2.5 hours each day looking for information Communicating Searching Creating But find what they are looking for only 40% of the time. Kit Sims Taylor Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 55 High cost of not finding information The amount of time wasted in futile searching for vital information is enormous, leading to staggering costs Sue Feldman, bnb nbnbn High cost of poor classification Poor classification costs a 10,000 user organization $10M each yearabout $1,000 per employee. Jakob Nielsen, useit.com But better search itself is a weak ROI Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized

56 Knowledge workers spend more time re-creating existing content than creating new content Communicating Recreating existing content 26% Searching Creating new content 9% Kit Sims Taylor Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 57 Metadata ROI: Productivity Decreased cost to market Decreased development cost Increased R&D productivity Reduced time for sales & Enterprise document management system cost $10M marketing 1-5% decrease in drug

development cost $800M/drug 5-10% increase in R&D $8M to $16M/drug productivity 13% of revenue $39B in sales (04) $254M to $507M/year 10-20% decrease in time for sales & marketing 13% of revenue $254M to $507M/year Source: Proforma based on Hoovers data. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 58 Metadata ROI: Executive Mandate There is no ROI out of the box Just someone with a vision and the budget to make it happen. Whats really needed? Demos and proofs of value. So that a stronger cost benefit argument can be made for continuing the work Taxonomy Strategies

LLC The business of organized 59 Productivity, loyalty, and revenue have provided the ROI Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 60 Intranet has provided the best ROI Intranet Web/online customer sales Web dev infrastructure Web/online business sales Middleware to link Web to ERP Extranet/supply chain e-billing/ payment systems Wireless Web access e-marketplace/ portal None Taxonomy Strategies LLC

The business of organized 61 Agenda ? 9:00 Who are we? 9:10 What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30 What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40 How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05 How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30 Break 10:45 What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15 How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45 Any more questions? 12:00 Adjourn Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 62 Agenda 9:00

Who are we? 9:10 What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30 What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40 How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05 How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30 Break 10:45 What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15 How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45 Any more questions? 12:00 Adjourn Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized 63 Taxonom Strategies LLC y Contact Info Ron Daniel 925-368-8371 [email protected] Joseph Busch 415-377-7912 [email protected] May 16, 2005 Copyright 2005 Taxonomy Strategies LLC. All rights reserved.

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