Failure of Reform and the End of the Qing

Failure of Reform and the End of the Qing

Cultural Revolution 1966-67 Mass Mobilization The Fifty Days June-July 1966 Big Character Posters ( ) Formation of Red Guards ( ) Big Character Posters

Big Character Posters The Fifty Days June-July 1966 Red Guards vs. Party Work Uncertainty about Maos intent Teams Party Work Teams on Campuses Political and Personal Attacks

Liu Shaoqi used work teams to exert control Despite purge of Peng Zhen, failed to understand scope of Cultural Revolution Big Character Posters ( ) College Campuses

Target: Counterrevolutionary Black Gang Tsinghua University ( ), 65,000 posters Teachers, responsible for bourgeois or revisionist curricula Direction of Cultural Revolution unknown Liu Shaoqi, Eight-point Guidelines

Big-character posters should be put up only inside schools Meetings should not hinder work or studies There should be no street demonstrations Foreign students should not participate in the movement Targets should not be struggled against in their homes Attention had to be paid to security concerns People should not be hit or roughed up Active leadership was necessary to ensure that the

struggle stayed on the right track Mao Takes a Dip in the Yangzi Mao Returns to Beijing, July 18th Resides at Diaoyutai ( ) Recall Work Teams July 24th

Condemned Fifty Days Remove Liu Shaoqi from position in Cultural Revolution Central Committee Plenum August 1 To Rebel is Justified Tiananmen August 1966

August to January, 196667 To Rebel is Justified Bombard the Headquarters Bourgeoisie Reactionary line October, 1966 Seizing power

Revolutionary Committees January 1967 Revolutionary masses Local military Revolutionary former leading cadres

Initial Goals Cultural Revolution Maos goal to create disorder Carte blanche to Student Radicals Attack Four Olds ( )

Culture, customs, habits, ideas Destruction of National Treasures Beijing: 4922 places of cultural or historical interest destroyed (6,843 total) Smash the Old World Create the New World Main Target Those within the Party who are in authority and are taking

the capitalist road Initial Shake-up in top leadership Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping Issue self-criticisms CCP sense of impending doom

Central Cultural Revolution Group CCRG New power base at the center Wang Guangmei Luo Ruiqing Struggle Sessions Struggle Sessions

Struggle Session Targets of Cultural Revolution Peng Dehuai Seizing Power Unleash Masses Red Guard Rallies Allow Workers to form Red Guards

Spread CR to Villages Attack the Party Party First Secretaries suicides, 1967

Shanxi, Tianjin, Yunnan Liu Shaoqi attacked in Zhongnanhai ( ) January 1967 Restoring Order, Spring 1967 Zhou Enlai with permission from Mao Zedong Students and Teachers stop marching, infectious diseases Return Red Guards forbidden:

punish to classes party members, return confiscated property Off Limits: National security, organs of Central Committee, Public security, finance, foreign affairs, planning, scientific commissions, national media

Workers and students return to Third Front projects Shanghai Commune January 1967 Attack on Government Institutions Shanghai January Storm Factional Fighting among Rebels

Revolutionary Committee of Shanghai Municipality, February, 1967 Revolutionary Committees Three in One Formula Revolutionary Local masses military Revolutionary former leading cadres

Role of PLA PLAs behavior most powerful factor in shaping the further course of the Cultural Revolution Maintain Security, semblance of law and order Participate in Early Power Seizures

Maos order: When genuine proletarian Leftists ask the army for help, the army should send troops to actively support them. Role of PLA, January 1967 Three supports and the Two Militaries Three supports

the left, peasants, workers to carry out military training and control Two Militaries Training: drill and military exercises in schools Being on premises and enforcing order Control: putting ministry, province or area under military rule Role of PLA, April 1967

MAC Reaction to PLA treatment of Rebels Do not fire on members of mass organizations No arbitrary arrests Not declare mass organizations reactionary

Opposition to PLA not criterion for politics Rectify any errors immediately CCRG restrain law-and-order commanders February Countercurrent, 1967 Last Stand of Old Guard against CCRG

Mao angry at challenge similar to Lushan, 1959 Wuhan Incident July, 1967 Near Civil War May 16 Conspiracy Burning of British Embassy, July 1967

May 16 Conspiracy Ambiguous threats from left or right Pretext for attacking leftists, backstage bosses Zhou Enlai vs. Left Purge leftist in CCRG

Placate military Restoring Order May 7th Cadre Schools Send party members, government, intellectuals to learn from peasants

Resume Classes Disband Red Guards July, 1967 Sent down youth Become ordinary peasants or ordinary workers 1967-79 16,470,000 rusticated youth

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