Evidence-based Educational Practice & Scientific Research ...
Evidence-based Educational Practice & Scientific Research-based Interventions Gary A. Troia, PhD, CCC-SLP Michigan State University Keynote Address, CEEDAR Institute October 6, 2014 Evidence-based Practices and Interventions: Definition What exactly is an evidence-based practice (EBP) or intervention (EBI)? Particular educational (e.g., instructional) principles, approaches, programs, methods, and activities informed by a relevant body of research The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the education of individual students (Sackett et al., 1996) Evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness (anticipated
outcomes in real-world contexts) of a practice or intervention comes from clear, consistent, and convincing research evidence The utility of a practice or intervention is closely scrutinized: Is it warranted in light of generalizability, feasibility, costs, and benefits? Evidence-based Practices: 3 Integrated Sectors of Specialized Professional Knowledge + Capacity Best available research evidence Practice-based professional expertise System capacity Fidelity of implementation
through PD & curriculum design Effective leadership Coordination and integration EBPs (or SRBIs) methods, programs, and procedures within & across domains Student and family characteristics, values, & preferences American Psychological Association, 2005; Sackett et al., 2000
Levels of Research Evidence Meta-analyses Systematic Reviews Greenhalgh, 1997; Hoagwood & Johnson, 2003; Robey & Schultz, 1998 Efficacy Studies (Laboratory & Field RCTs) Scaling/Effectiveness Studies Expert Opinion Exploratory Studies (Descriptive Studies, Single-Case Research, Quasi-Experiments, Design Studies) Why Do We Need EBPs?
Practices based on other kinds of information may not correctly identify the active ingredients associated with positive outcomes Teaching lore Testimonial and anecdotes from case studies Professional writers wisdom Advocacy by publishers and authors of materials EBPs help anchor professional knowledge and decisionmaking Determining if something runs counter to evidence or falls outside established EBPs Differentiate essential, non-negotiable programmatic elements from less essential ones Adapt EBPs for unique learners and learning situations Persistent large achievement gaps for non-white, poor, and non-English dominant children in all academic areas require
a sea change in education EBP or Not? Practice Teach grammar rules using a unit approach or textbook Give lots of feedback on errors in writing conventions on students papers Spend most of the time allocated to writing instruction on independent writing activities Focus mostly on transcription activities (spelling, handwriting) in the early grades Use good and bad examples of writing to highlight salient characteristics EBP? Why Are Many EBPs Not Evident in U.S. Classrooms? Lack of professional knowledge? Limited teacher professional development
and support to use EBPs with fidelity? Individual differences in teachers values, beliefs, and attitudes toward instruction and their competencies? Lack of Professional Knowledge A majority of teachers lacks a sufficient level of knowledge about language necessary for designing meaningful literacy lessons and providing effective feedback to students (Bos et al., 2001; Brady, Gillis, Smith, Lavalette, Liss-Bronstein, Lowe, North, Russo, & Wilder, 2009; Cheesman, McGuire, Shankweiler, & Coyne, 2009; Cunningham, Perry, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2004; Cunningham, Zibulsky, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2009;Joshi, Binks, Hougen, et al. 2009; Moats, 1994; McCutchen & Berninger, 1999; McCutchen, Green, Abbott, & Sanders, 2009; McCutchen, Abbott, et al., 2002; Parr, Glasswell, Aikman, 2007; Parr & Timperley, 2005; Spear-Swerling & Brucker, 2003; Spencer, Schuele, Guillot, & Lee 2008; Washburn et al., 2011)
Teachers find it challenging to segment words into constituent phonemes, count the number of phonemes in a word, and classify words as irregular (Carroll, Gillon, & McNeill, 2013; Cunningham et al., 2004) Teachers lack sufficient understanding of basic principles of morphology, orthography, and grammar (Cajkler & Hislam, 2002; Harper & Rennie, 2009; Myhill, Jones, & Watson, 2013) Limited Teacher PD & Support In the domain of writing, teachers in a national K-12 survey report that their pre-service coursework and experiences were inadequate; secondary teachers report feeling less prepared (70%) than elementary teachers (30%) (Gilbert & Graham, 2010) In-service professional development opportunities and teacher-initiated efforts for writing still considered inadequate by half of all teachers surveyed Troia & Maddox (2004) found that middle school
teachers faced competing PD priorities, inadequate administrative support for collaborative planning and instruction, and limited writing curriculum choices Differences in Values, Beliefs, & Attitudes Teachers confidence in their ability to help their students succeed exerts a direct influence on their classroom routines and, consequently, their students motivation and success (Anderson, Greene, & Loewen, 1988; Ross, Cousins, & Gaddalla, 1996; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 1998) Teachers assumptions about how students learn and what are the best ways to teach affect the instructional materials they select and the procedures
they implement (Cunningham & Fitzgerald, 1996; Harste, Woodward, & Burke, 1984; Fitzgerald, 1993, 1999; Schommer, 1994) Observations have affirmed that what teachers elect to teach and how they go about teaching it are shaped largely by their theoretical orientation and perceived competence (Baumann & Ivey, 1997; DeFord, 1985; Fisher & Hiebert, 1990; Pressley, Wharton-McDonald, Rankin, Mistretta, & Yokoi, 1996; Sosniak & Stodolsky, 1993; Turner, 1995) Troia, Lin, Cohen, and Monroe (2011) found that teachers with higher levels of perceived teaching competence for writing generally enacted more key practices across the dimensions of classroom management, student engagement, and instructional tactics, and adapted their instruction more for struggling writers, while teachers with lower levels of teaching efficacy used a smaller repertoire of practices across these same dimensions and made fewer adaptations CCSS-WL Overview CCSSWriting cover four main areas: Text types and purposes Production and distribution of writing
Research to build and present knowledge Range of writing CCCSLanguage cover three main areas: Conventions of standard English Knowledge of language Vocabulary acquisition and use CCSS-W Text Types and Purposes W-1: Write arguments W-2: Write informative/explanatory texts W-3: Write narratives Students learn to Write in different genres and subgenres Include key elements appropriate for each genre
Apply appropriate techniques in different genres CCSS-W Production and Distribution of Writing W-4: Compose organized and coherent texts appropriate for task, purpose, and audience W-5: Engage in a writing process W-6: Use technology in writing Students learn to Structure and organize writing depending on genre, purpose, and audience Use a writing process (e.g., plan, draft, revise, edit) to strengthen writing Use technology resources in the production and distribution of writing Give and receive feedback, collaborate with others while writing
CCSS-W Research to Build and Present Knowledge W-7: Conduct research projects W-8: Gather information from multiple sources and integrate into writing W-9: Draw evidence from text to support writing Students learn to Research and communicate understanding through a range of shorter and longer projects Determine appropriate sources, summarize important information, and include in writing appropriately
Read narrative or informational text, determine important information, and include in writing to support analysis, reflection, and research CCSS-W Range of Writing W-10: Write routinely Extended time frames Allow time for process Shorter time frames A day or two No process or abbreviated process Range of tasks, purposes, and audiences Students learn to Develop writing endurance Modify process based on the purpose and task
Write a range of texts for different purposes and audiences CCSS-L Conventions of Standard English L-1: Grammar and usage L-2: Capitalization, punctuation, and spelling Students learn to Print letters Use different parts of speech in sentences Produce different sentence types and structures Spell words Apply conventional capitalization and punctuation rules in writing CCSS-L Knowledge of Language
L-3: Apply knowledge of language purposefully Students learn to Vary sentences and words depending on genre, purpose, and audience Choose words and sentences to enhance style Apply style manual guidelines CCSS-L Vocabulary Acquisition and Use L-6: Use a range of vocabulary Students learn to Include academic vocabulary in their writing
Include domain-specific vocabulary in their writing Use precise words Include words that signify relationships among ideas Pyramid Planning for Grade 3 CCSS-WL Formatting with columns and marginal glosses/include citations for source materials/ assist others without direction and exhibit leadership in writing community Heading and subheadings, captions for illustrations/pick from multiple source materials from array to plan/independent explicit writing goals with self-evaluation Basic elements of feature article/revise for clear definitions and accurate facts; edit for capitalization of proper nouns and spelling of topic-related vocabulary/cooperative with peers and provide some helpful advice
Use audio, pictorial, and text-based source materials on same topic; KWLH+ to summarize source material Use computer with speech recognition and synthesis to complete all phases of assignment Have students identify and select from several areas of expertise; use conferencing to give effort feedback Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts, definitions, and illustrations to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing. Planning organizer, topic source materials, revising/editing
checklist, sample feature articles written by students Plan & revise/edit in small groups (crowd-source) Topic-focused spelling vocabulary list with preinstruction Collaborative goal setting Multiple passes at revising/editing Completed planning organizer Peer evaluation of revising/editing changes Rubric with key genre elements (adjusted for individual student goals and expectations)
Skedula. Professional development on using assessment in instruction - all scholars: are contributing to how they are being assessed. have a chance to give and receive feedback from peers. have an opportunity to monitor their progress and make revisions based...
Fibrous Tunic ‐‐Sclera "White" of theeye. Dense irregular connective tissue layer ‐‐ collagen & fibroblasts. Provides shape &support. At the junction (limbus) of the sclera and cornea is an opening (scleral venoussinus)
CARICATURES particulièrement remarquables James-Brown John Lenon Keith Richards Kylie Minogue Lou Reed Michael Jackson Madonna Mick Jagger Neil Young Paul McCartney Steve Tyler Tina Turner Katarina Witt COPYRIGHTS TO ALL PHOTOS AND MUSIC BELONG TO THE ORIGINAL AUTHORS.
Arial MS Pゴシック Times Lucida Grande Symbol Blank Presentation Microsoft Word Document The Ordered Solar System Warm Up Questions PowerPoint Presentation What is a planet? What is a Dwarf Planet? Only 5 Dwarf Planets recognized so far but there may...
Normal Distribution Percent Voting for G.W. Bush among U.S. Counties - 2004 Makes use of Z-Tables with upper-tail probabilities (1-F(z)) Data Percent Voting for G.W. Bush (among those voting for Bush, Kerry, Nader) 3109 Counties/Cities in Conterminous U.S. (Note: Virginia...
Reading: Junie B. Jones. Spelling: Practice Test. Reading: Don't Let the Pigeon Drive the Bus! Katie Rosatelli. Assessments. Students are assessed several ways. ELA testing 3 times per year. NWEA test 3 times per year. Reading Unit Tests with writing...
Students always have something to do Student needs are anticipated Everybody has the opportunity to respond. Students called on randomly Kounin, 1970 Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management Maximize structure in your classroom. Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a...
Overview of Programming. How Do We Write a Program? A computer is not intelligent. A computer frees people from repetitive and boring tasks. Life Cycle Phases. Problem-Solving Phase. Implementation Phase. Maintenance Phase. This series of stages is known as the...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!