Prof Awad S. Hanna Earthwork includes: 1. Excavation 2. Grading: Moving earth to change elevation 3. Temporary shoring 4. Back fill or fill: Adding earth to raise grade 5. Compaction: Increasing density 6. Disposal Prof Awad S. Hanna A. Job conditions Material type Water level and moisture content Job size Length of haul Haul road condition (accessibility and load restrictions) Prof Awad S. Hanna B. Management conditions Equipment conditions and maintenance practices Skills of work force and management Planning, supervision and
coordination of work. Prof Awad S. Hanna Management Conditions* J ob Conditions** Excellent Good Fair Poor Excellent 0.84 0.81 0.76 0.70 Good 0.78 0.75
0.71 0.65 Fair 0.72 0.69 0.65 0.60 Poor 0.63 0.61 0.57 0.52 Prof Awad S. Hanna Cubic Yard (bank, loose, or compacted) Bank (BCY):
Materials in its natural state before disturbance (in-place, in-situ) Loose (LCY): Material that has been compacted or disturbed or loaded Compacted (CCY): Material after compaction Prof Awad S. Hanna 1.0 CUBIC YARD IN NATURAL CONDITION (IN-PLACE YARD) 1.25 CUBIC YARD AFTER DIGGING (LOOSE YARDS) 0.90 CUBIC YARD AFTER COMPACTED (COMPACTE D YARDS) 1.25
1.0 In place 0.90 Loose Prof Awad S. Hanna Compacted Bank: VB Bank cubic yards (BCY) Density B Lb /BCY Loose: Vl Loose cubic yards (LCY) Density L Lb/LCY Compacted: Vc Compacted cubic yards (CCY) Density C LB/CCY Prof Awad S. Hanna Swell: A soil increase in volume when it is excavated. density Swell (%) = Bank ( - 1) x 100
Loose density Load factor =Loose density Bank density Bank Volume = Loose volume x Load factor Prof Awad S. Hanna Shrinkage: A soil decreases in volume when it is compacted Shrinkage (%) = (1 Bank - ) x density 100 Compacted density Shrinkage factor = 1 - Shrinkage Compacted volume = Bank volume x Shrinkage factor Prof Awad S. Hanna Material Clay, dry Clay, wet Clay and gravel, dry Clay and gravel, wet Earth, dry Earth, moist
3,380 23 3,140 13 3,620 17 2,920 12 3,520 13 3,250 12 3,750 10 Load Factor 0.79 0.76 0.85 0.85 0.78 0.78 0.81 0.88 0.85 0.89 0.88 0.89 0.91 Exact values will vary with grain size, moisture content, compaction, etc. Test to determine exact values for specific soils. Prof Awad S. Hanna Initial Soil Type Soil Condition
Clay Bank Loose Compacted Common earth Bank Loose Compacted Rock (blasted) Bank Loose Compacted Sand Bank Loose Compacted Bank 1.00 0.79 1.11 1.00 0.80 1.11 1.00 0.67 0.77 1.00 0.89 1.05 Prof Awad S. Hanna Convrted to:
Prof Awad S. Hanna Angle of Repose ra ge Re co m m en de d 1: S l 1 op (4 e 5 f D or eg A .) ve Co mp ac te 1/2 d A :1 ngu (6 3 D lar G eg rav
.) els Original Ground Line Solid Rock, Slate or Cemented Sand and Gravel (90 Deg.) So i ls For Sloping Sides of Excavation Prof Awad S. Hanna nd a d S an p .) S r a g se oo ) Sh De L
. d d te (33 de Deg c n u 6 pa :1 Ro 1 (2 m 1/2 l l : o 2 C 1 We 1. End Area Method 2. Contour Line/ Grid Method Prof Awad S. Hanna
Used in sites where length is much greater than width Prof Awad S. Hanna 1. End Area Method a.Take cross-sections at regular intervals, typically, 100 intervals. b.Calculate the cross-section end areas c.The volume of earthwork between sections is obtained by taking the average of the end areas at each station in square feet multiplied by the distance between sections in feet and dividing by 27 to obtain the volume in cubic yards. Prof Awad S. Hanna C B E D F 88 86
84 84 300' 80 82 82 80 78 A 100' 88 C B A 86 l Fil t
Cu 100' E D 100' 500' Prof Awad S. Hanna 100' F 100' 80 Sec. A- A 78.5 78 76 Project Cross Sections 82 Sec. B- B 80.3
80 78 84 Sec. C- C 82.3 82 80 86 Sec. D- D 84.2 84 88 Sec. E- E 86.2 86 90 Sec. F- F 88.2
88 Prof Awad S. Hanna 107 x 1.0 Area = = 53.5 2 80 79.5 79 78.5 78 76.7 193 x 1.8 Area = = 173.7 2 77 76 Section A- A Prof Awad S. Hanna
90 x 1.5 Area = 2 82 = 67.5 81 80.3 80 76.7 210 x 1.8 Area = = 189.0 2 79 78 Section B- B Prof Awad S. Hanna 81.8 Section A-B B-C
1384 2746 Prof Awad S. Hanna Used for parking lots and site leveling Grid size from 10x10 to 50x50 the greater the terrain variance the smaller the grid Prof Awad S. Hanna Step l Determine by visual study of the site drawing if the net total will be an import (more fill required than cut) an export (less fill required than cut) or a blend (cut and fill about equal) Step 2 Determine the pattern of calculation points or grid size. Step 3 Determine elevations at each calculation location, the corners of each grid. Step 4 Calculate the cubic yards of cut or fill required in each grid cell. Step 5 Add the individual Grid Cell quantities together to arrive at the total cut, total fill volume and the import or volume export yardage required for the job. Prof Awad S. Hanna
A C B E D F G 300 88 87.6 A 87.6 G 87.4 N 87.2 89 88.5
B 88.6 H 88.2 O 87.7 No Scale 90 89.3 C 89.4 J 89.5 P 89.0 91 90.3 92 93 94
91.5 E D 90.4 91.6 L K 90.6 91.6 R Q 90.4 91.3 95.0 F 93.2 M 92.7 93.5
S 92.0 Notes: 1. Bring the entire site to elevation 90. 2. All grids are 50x 50 = 2500 sq. ft. Prof Awad S. Hanna 94.3 93.1 Purpose Grade the entire site to grade 90 Need Fill Quick and Dirty Assume one grid Existing 90.50 Proposed 90.00 Cut 0.50 Need Cut
300' 90' Total Cost150 = = 833CY x 300 x 0.50 27 Prof Awad S. Hanna 90.5' 91' 150' 90' If we choose the grid size to be 50x50 88.6 Average elevation 87.6+88.5+87.6+88.6 = 4 = 88.08 change = 90-88.08 87.6 = 1.92
cut = = 177.77 CY and so on. 87.6 Prof Awad S. Hanna 87.6
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