Helping Pre-Service Teachers Create Quality Education for English Language Learners Created by Minda Morren Lpez, PhD Associate Professor, Texas State University 2015 Kappa Delta Pi, International Honor Society in Education Welcome Take three minutes and briefly introduce yourself to
the colleagues sitting on your right and your left. Share: Name University Major Interesting fact about yourself Setting the Stage for Your Learning: Housekeeping Tasks Schedule
3-hour session this morning with break 90-minute lunch 3-hour session this afternoon with break Restroom Breaks Please take care of yourself. If you need an extra restroom break during the session, quietly slip out of the room. Refreshments Please feel free to enjoy refreshments during the workshop. Eat and drink quietly so that you do not disturb others.
Setting the Stage for Your Learning: Housekeeping Tasks, Continued Technology Use Please silence cell phones, laptops, iPads, and other electronic devices. A participant manual has been provided so that you can take notes. We want you to be physically and cognitively present during the workshop so that you and your colleagues will gain the most from the workshop. Feel free to check your technology during the formal breaks and lunch. Questions Please raise your hand if you have questions during the workshop.
We welcome your thoughts and ideas. Side Conversations Please refrain from holding side conversations. The workshop is designed to be very mentally and physically interactive. You will have many opportunities to talk and move. Objectives Participants will understand how to support English Language Learners (ELLS) in their classrooms and schools. Together we will:
Assess and reflect on our own understandings and experiences related to language. Learn about research and current thinking on language teaching and learning. Objectives, continued Understand federal and state laws, mandates, and practices to better serve our ELLs. Understand the challenges for ELLs in schooling, including the implementation of linguistic and academic content.
Identify ways to meet the social, emotional, cultural, and academic needs of ELLs. Part 1: What do I know about ELLs? Work with a partner to answer questions on the Anticipation Guide and think about your understanding of these concepts. Jot down how you came to know the information or form your opinion related to the questions on the Anticipation Guide.
Then we will discuss our thinking and talk more about research. Anticipation Guide Agree or Disagree? Why? What is your thinking or background knowledge about this? Agree Disagree Statement
1. ELLs are the fastest growing segment of the K-12 school population in the US. 2. In the US, federal law mandates that states must follow the same guidelines for ESL programs. 3. More than half of secondary
ELLs attending school in the United States were born in the US. 4. In 2012-2013, New York state had the highest percentage of ELLs in their schools. 5. The official language of the US is English. Evidence
Anticipation Guides Purpose Draw upon prior knowledge. Recognize the effects of ones own point of view in formulating interpretations of texts. Engage all students in the exploration of new information by challenging them to critically think about what they know or think they know about a topic. Anticipation Guides Purpose
Set a purpose for reading, even for those students who initially may not be engaged by the topic. What else? Why does this activity aid in learning? How would this help ELLs? What do you know about ELLs? Spend 5 minutes writing your responses to the following questions in your participant manual. There are no right or wrong
answers. You will eventually share your thinking with colleagues at your table. What do you know about ELLs? 1. What do you already know about ELLs and language acquisition? 2. Have you learned two or more languages or attempted to? Are you an ELL? Have you been friends with ELLs? What were those experiences like for you?
3. What did you learn from the Anticipation Guide that surprised you? 4. What questions do you have about ELLs or language acquisition? 5. What do you hope to learn during todays workshop? ELLs in the US: A brief history Background Our country has had a varied approach to multilingualism and language education. Understanding the sociohistorical
context helps us understand societal norms, mandates, and practices in schools today. Thought Questions Directions: Review the answers to your questions from the previous section, What do you know about ELLs? ELLs in the US: A brief history Reading Assignment Read the Brief History of ELLs excerpt. As you read the passage, place a check mark next to
the information that speaks to you, write comments that come to mind while reading the passage, or write questions that come to mind. Be prepared to share your thoughts with your table mates. Common Acronyms Which of the following acronyms related to ELLs are you familiar with? Which ones can you define? AMAO
CLD ELL BICS DLL TESOL CALP ELP ESL ESOL FES
FLES L2 LEP SDAIE SIFE LTELLS SIOP LFS
ELD ENL LES NES AYP Bilingual/ESL Department 2014
Part 2: What is the Research on Language Learning? Language Acquisition Quick Write Have you been around children acquiring their first language? Have you learned/tried to learn another language? What was it like? Describe your actions, feelings, etc. How do you think people learn languages? Quick Write Purpose Draws upon prior knowledge.
Allows all participants to formulate their thinking on a topic before they are asked to communicate their ideas with others. Sets a purpose for reading or discussion, even for those students who initially may not be engaged by the topic. Quick Write Purpose Gives participants practice in writing their ideas related to an academic topic but does not require correctness or a set genre of writing (can be a list,
stream of consciousness, complete sentences, etc). What else? Why does this practice aid in learning? How would using this help ELLs? Language Learning Language is just one of the many ways we make meaning in every day life. Language is not learned absent of context. Virtually all humans acquire a language (or more than one) before the age of 5. Some theorists
believe we are hard wired for oral language (Chomsky) and only need to be in a language rich environment in order to learn language. Language Learning Globally, monolingualism is not the norm. The majority of people around the world are proficient in more than one language. Some people learn two or more languages simultaneously, others learn them sequentially.
Language Learning Language instruction in schools used to focus more on grammar, but in the past few decades the emphasis has been on communicative purposes or functions, authentic communication, and meaningful interactions. Inferences of Language Learning Part 1: Understanding the Inferences Read the inferences of language acquisition. These
inferences are based on research regarding language acquisition and the purpose of this activity is not to debate them. Look at the summaries. Talk with your group about your experiences that align with these inferences and are related to first or second language learning. Inferences of Language Learning Part 2: Implications for the classroom
With your group, write down what each inference means for classroom instruction. How does this translate to teaching language in classroom settings? The Silent Period All learners of another language experience a period of time where they are not ready to communicate. This is to be expected. Students should not be forced to communicate.
Krashen The Silent Period Students should be allowed to build up linguistic competence by active listening and need a supportive learning environment so they feel comfortable using language. Krashen
The Affective Filter Hypothesis There are affective or emotional elements that have an impact on the acquisition of language. As educators, we want to lower the affective filter or the anxiety our students may experience in the classroom. This is especially important in language learning situations and classrooms. In large part because language is such an integral
part of who we are and our identities. Krashen The Affective Filter Hypothesis Anxiety: A lower level of anxiety is desired Good Self-Image: Show you care and value the student and his/her cultural and linguistic background. Avoid corrections and/or embarrassing situations for the student Interest and Motivation: Provide meaningful activities based on the students
motivation and cultural background Krashen The Input Hypothesis It is the teachers responsibility to provide supports so that students can understand what teachers are communicating. Some supports include visuals, gestures, modeling, slowing down our rate of speech, enunciating clearly, and explaining idioms, vernacular or academic terms.
Krashen Response to the Input Hypothesis the Output Hypothesis (Swain) Output is a significant way for the learner to test what they know about a language Learners pay attention to meaning first and then move to grammatical structure and they do this through testing their
language by producing output and monitoring the responses to their language The Monitor Hypothesis Those who are acquiring language begin a process of monitoring their language through conscious corrections. The more you know, the more you consciously monitor your language use. Errors and error correction are signs of developmental processes and are
positive. Krashen Types of Language Proficiency According to Jim Cummins BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) 1-3 years to develop CALP (Cognitive
Academic Language Proficiency) 4-10 years to develop [Social Language] [Academic Language] Social and Academic Language Proficiency
Native English Speakers English Language Learners Social Language (BICS) P r o fi c i
e n c y 2y s r a e
Academic Language (CALP) P r o fi c i e n
c y 5- s r a e y 7
o t (up )* 0 1 *Typically 5-7 years, if ELLs have had 2-3 years of first language
schooling in home country7-10 years if not BICS and the Language of the Content Areas 1. In your group, fill out the matrix-using vocabulary from the specific content areas.
2. Be prepared to share some of your answers with the whole group. There may be multiple answers for each vocabulary item. The Language of the Content
Areas BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communicati on Skills) The Language of Science
The Language of Math The Language of Social Studies The Language of
English/ELA small estimate plethora identical rules (your own) BICS and CALP in the classroom:
Word Maps Academic Language Cummins theory of BICS and CALP was important in helping educators recognize the complexities of language learning. Our understandings of academic language continue to evolve and include not only the level of vocabulary, but also discourse. Discourse of a subject area includes the make up of sentences, grammatical structures, and overall perspective
that is shared by that group or content area. Reflection: Metacognition frame In groups, brainstorm ideas that stood out to you from our discussion of research related to ELLs. What do you think are the most important takeaways? Chart your ideas and create a Metacognition Frame. Be prepared to share your frame with the larger
group. Metacognition Frame I know that I know something about ____________________________. First,___________________________________________ __________________________________________. In addition,__________________________________ _____________________________________________. Finally,_________________________________________ __________________________________________.
Now you know what I know about ______________________________. Rothstein, A. S., Rothstein, E. B., & Lauber, G. (2007). Writing as Learning: A Content-Based Approach. Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, CA. Metacognition Frame Purpose Helps cull out important points. Scaffolds learning and summarizing. Allows all participants to formulate their thinking on a topic before they are asked to
communicate their ideas with others. Metacognition Frame Purpose Gives participants practice in writing their ideas related to an academic topic while supporting them (transition words, grammar are scaffolded). What else? Why does this activity aid in learning? How would this help ELLs?
Part 3: What are some important considerations for programs and pedagogy for ELLs? Programs for ELLs There is no federal mandated program or instructional approach for ELLs. As a result of Lau vs. Nichols and the Equal Educational Opportunity Act (EEOA) (both from 1974), each state must decide how they are going to meet the needs of ELLs.
We are still learning about the impact of the ESSA passed in December, 2015 and its ramifications on education for ELLs. The Department of Education may create new trainings and/or resources in coming months. Programs for ELLs In 1981, a court case (Castaeda vs. Pickard) clarified the Lau and EEOA mandates, assuring that programs for ELLs are indeed adequate and based on sound scientific evidence.
Programs for ELLs The Castaeda standard mandates that programs for language-minority students must be: 1. based on a sound educational theory, 2. implemented effectively with sufficient resources and personnel, and 3. evaluated to determine whether they are effective in helping students overcome language barriers. (Del Valle, 2003)
Programs for ELLs Strategy: 3Ws (What I Read, Whats in My Head, What My Partner Said) Text: Honigsfeld, A. (2009). ELLS Programs: Not one size fits all. What I Read Whats in my Head
What my Partner Said 3 Ws Purpose Helps readers chunk information. Chunking makes a text less overwhelming. Facilitates making connections (text to self, text to text, text to world, etc)
Allows all participants to formulate their thinking on a topic before they are asked to communicate their ideas with others, but then confirm meaning with their peers. 3 Ws Purpose Gives participants practice in writing their ideas related to an academic topic but does not require correctness or a set genre of writing (can be a list, stream of consciousness, complete sentences, etc).
What else? Why does this activity aid in learning? How would this help ELLs? Standards Federal mandates have required states to have standards for instruction since 2009. However, the mandate is for content area standards and ESL is not a requirement. TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) created ELL Standards in 2006. These are not mandatory but are guidelines for states and districts to
follow. Some states have their own standards specifically for ELLs. Standards The Common Core was adopted in 2009 by 45 states. There are no specific standards in the Common Core for ELLs but there is an addendum that states the needs of ELLs should be taken into account when implementing the standards (TESOL, 2013). Recently, there have been several initiatives geared
towards helping educators address the needs of ELLs, primarily English language proficiency. Understanding your context 1. Read the policy brief provided to you. As you read the passage, place a check mark next to the information that speaks to you, write comments that come to mind, or write questions you have. Be prepared to share your thoughts with your table mates.
Understanding your context 2. Research what standards are in place in your state. Does your state follow the Common Core? Are there other initiatives related specifically to ELLs that your state has implemented? What programs are in place for ELLs? Part 4: How can I become a more effective teacher of ELLs?
Meeting the needs of ELLs Research has shown that effective teachers of ELLs address students affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs. Affective the affect, or emotional side of learning Linguistic the language or specific vocabulary and functions of language necessary to learn or communicate Cognitive the intellectual or content area subject matter that students must learn
I do, we do, you do We will watch a video of a strategy. Think about how this strategy addresses the Affective, Linguistic, and Cognitive needs of ELLs. As we are watching it, jot down your ideas: What do you notice? What does the teacher do to support ELLs in these three areas? I do, We do, You do Strategy
I do, we do, you do debrief Using sentence frames We will watch a video of a strategy. Think about how this strategy addresses the Affective, Linguistic, and Cognitive needs of ELLs. As we are watching it, jot down your ideas. What do you notice? What does the teacher do to support ELLs in these three areas? Sentence Frames Strategy
Using sentence frames debrief Meeting the needs of ELLs Research also suggests that the most effective teachers of ELLs treat reading, writing, listening, and speaking as interconnected aspects of language and include them in as many lessons as possible. Some students may be more advanced in their receptive skills (reading and listening) than in their expressive or
productive skills (writing and speaking). Meeting the needs of ELLs Students may also demonstrate more proficiency in one area of language than another due to personality, cultural background, or individual preferences. However, we should work to incorporate as many aspects of language as possible into each lesson, assuring that our students have time to practice language actively.
Three step interviews We will watch a video of a strategy. Think about how this strategy meets the affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs of ELLs and also incorporates all four areas of language (reading, writing, listening, and speaking). As we are watching it, jot down your ideas. What do you notice? What does the teacher do to support ELLs in these three areas?
How do the students engage in all four areas of language? Three step interviews strategy Three step interviews debrief Strategy sort Now think about the various strategies we have used, read about, or watched in this training. You will be given cards with the name of each strategy
on them. With your table group, sort the strategies in an open sort (you decide how they are to be sorted, into what categories). Be prepared to share with the larger group how you sorted the strategies and why. Sorting Purpose Draws upon prior knowledge. Open sorts are analytic in nature: participants analyze information and categorize.
Open sorts are also creative, there is no ONE right answer. It allows for multiple perspectives to be discussed. Sorting Purpose Teachers can better understand what students are thinking when students engage in open sorts, because categories are not given. Great strategy for review. You are able to check understanding through a sort. What else? Why does this activity aid in
learning? How would this help ELLs? Reflection Take three minutes to write in your participant manual the most significant learning for you today. What do you want to remember? Share your ideas with a partner at your table. Please complete the written evaluation form and put it on the
back table as you leave. Your positive and negative feedback will help us to improve future Kappa Delta Pi ELL Workshop. Helping Pre-Service Teachers Create Quality Education for English Learners
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