Energy Flow and Metabolism - University of Miami

Energy Flow and Metabolism - University of Miami

Energy Flow and Metabolism Goal of metabolism to harvest as much useable energy as possible. The first metabolic pathways were anaerobic pathways used by heterotrophs to break C-C bonds and gain free energy. Skeletons of these pathways remain

today. The most ubiquitous pathways is glycolysis Glycolysis I Glycolysis

II Fermentation ATP Balance ATP is added twice to the 6 carbon sugar

4 ATP are produced 2 from each of 2 3carbon fragments. Electrons are harvested as NADH is reduced.

ATP Balance Entry to Krebs Krebs Cycle

BUT . . . It almost never works that way. Example: Oysters Metabolic Shifts in Intertidal Molluscs Clams and oysters are often exposed to air with tidal changes. Valves close to prevent desiccation. Muscles must work anaerobically in a high salt environment.

Phosphoenol pyruvate Pyruvate Normal Pathway

To Acetyl CoA and Krebs Cycle Pyruvate PEP Alternate Path

PEP Pyruvate kinase is inhibited by H+ PEP Carboxykinase is

favored Oxaloacetate Pyruvate Branchpoint Enzyme

Once Upon a Time . . . In Biscayne Bay. . . There were three copepods. Cell Blood

Blood = External Medium = 1000 mOs = Cell Normal Volume And then the rains came down .

The osmolality of the external medium falls, and initially the organism swells until ions reach

equilibrium Recovery In recovery blood = external medium = 800 mOs, but cells

cannot reduce ion concentrations -- so free amino acids are extruded Osmoregulation in Marine Invertebraes

Amino acids produced from the Krebbs cycle + ammonia in high salinity raise cell osmolarity In low salinity the amino acids are catabolized to lower osmolarity The key enzyme is alpha keto glutarate dehydrogenase which is affected by Na concentration

Alpha Ketoglutarate Metabolic Pathways are also tailored to animals diet. Fats are broken down to fatty acid and enter as acetyl CoA. Proteins are deaminated and the carbon skeletons enter as PEP, pyruvate or alpha keto

glutarate. Digestion in the Florida Manatee Manatee Facts

Trichechus manatus Average length 3 meters, weight 1,200 lbs Life span 40 years

Related to elephant Only herbivorous marine mammal Digestion in Manatees

No front teeth, rigid pads form lips Molars 6-8 in each of 4 rows Teeth constantly replaced Large salivary glands

Digestive tract about 120 feet in length The Digestive Tract Like most herbivores the digestive tract is much longer than carnivores Unique features include a cardiac caeca which secretes HCl

Mid gut caeca incubate fermenting microorganisms A very long large intestine is a fermenting chamber Cellulose Digestion Cellulose

Beta Glucans Cellobiose Glucose Acetic Acid Proprionic Acid

Butyric Acid Fermentation Both bacteria and protozoa are active in fermentation The gut passage time of nearly 1 week

allows for slow processing Cellulose is the main component of the diet Mixed acid fermentation produces methane, proprionic, butyric and acetic acid

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