Energy Flow and Metabolism Goal of metabolism to harvest as much useable energy as possible. The first metabolic pathways were anaerobic pathways used by heterotrophs to break C-C bonds and gain free energy. Skeletons of these pathways remain
today. The most ubiquitous pathways is glycolysis Glycolysis I Glycolysis
II Fermentation ATP Balance ATP is added twice to the 6 carbon sugar
4 ATP are produced 2 from each of 2 3carbon fragments. Electrons are harvested as NADH is reduced.
ATP Balance Entry to Krebs Krebs Cycle
BUT . . . It almost never works that way. Example: Oysters Metabolic Shifts in Intertidal Molluscs Clams and oysters are often exposed to air with tidal changes. Valves close to prevent desiccation. Muscles must work anaerobically in a high salt environment.
Phosphoenol pyruvate Pyruvate Normal Pathway
To Acetyl CoA and Krebs Cycle Pyruvate PEP Alternate Path
PEP Pyruvate kinase is inhibited by H+ PEP Carboxykinase is
favored Oxaloacetate Pyruvate Branchpoint Enzyme
Once Upon a Time . . . In Biscayne Bay. . . There were three copepods. Cell Blood
Blood = External Medium = 1000 mOs = Cell Normal Volume And then the rains came down .
The osmolality of the external medium falls, and initially the organism swells until ions reach
equilibrium Recovery In recovery blood = external medium = 800 mOs, but cells
cannot reduce ion concentrations -- so free amino acids are extruded Osmoregulation in Marine Invertebraes
Amino acids produced from the Krebbs cycle + ammonia in high salinity raise cell osmolarity In low salinity the amino acids are catabolized to lower osmolarity The key enzyme is alpha keto glutarate dehydrogenase which is affected by Na concentration
Alpha Ketoglutarate Metabolic Pathways are also tailored to animals diet. Fats are broken down to fatty acid and enter as acetyl CoA. Proteins are deaminated and the carbon skeletons enter as PEP, pyruvate or alpha keto
glutarate. Digestion in the Florida Manatee Manatee Facts
Trichechus manatus Average length 3 meters, weight 1,200 lbs Life span 40 years
Related to elephant Only herbivorous marine mammal Digestion in Manatees
No front teeth, rigid pads form lips Molars 6-8 in each of 4 rows Teeth constantly replaced Large salivary glands
Digestive tract about 120 feet in length The Digestive Tract Like most herbivores the digestive tract is much longer than carnivores Unique features include a cardiac caeca which secretes HCl
Mid gut caeca incubate fermenting microorganisms A very long large intestine is a fermenting chamber Cellulose Digestion Cellulose
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