Ecology - Weebly

Ecology - Weebly

Warm-Up 1. Define Ecology 2. What are adaptations? (Hint- Think Darwin) 3. What determines an organisms adaptations? Ecologythe scientific study of interactions between

different organisms and between organisms and their environment or surroundings A. Bioticliving factors that influence an ecosystem B. Abioticnon-living factors that influence an ecosystem ex: temperature, humidity, wind, soil, sunlight

Autotrophs A. Sunlight is the main energy source for life on earth B. Also called producers C. Use light or chemical energy to make food 1. Plants -- land 2. Plant-like protists (algae) upper layers of ocean

3. Photosynthetic bacteria tidal flats and salt marshes D. Photosynthesisuse light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and carbohydrates (Remember: CO2 + H2O Light Energy

O2 + C6H12O6) E. Chemosynthesisperformed by bacteria, use inorganic chemical compounds to produce carbohydrates ex: sulfur in tidal flats Heterotrophs A. Organisms that rely on other organisms

for their energy and food supply B. Also called consumers Herbivoresobtain energy by eating only plants Carnivoreseat only animals

Omnivoreseat both plants and animals Decomposersbreaks down dead organic matter ex: bacteria, protists and fungi Detritivore eats dead plant and animal material (detritus)

Piscivore carnivore that eats only fish Frugivore herbivore or omnivore that eats mainly fruit Insectivore carnivore that eats mainly insects Feeding Interactions A. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs

(producers) and then to heterotrophs (consumers) B. Food Chainseries of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten 1. Arrows go in the direction of how energy is transferred 2. Start with producer and end with top consumer or carnivore

Ex: grass cricket frog raccoon

C. Food Webnetwork of food chains within an ecosystem Hawks Weasels Raccoons Mice

Grass Grass Which of the organisms above is the top consumer? Hawks Which of the organisms above is the producer? D. Trophic Levelseach step in a food chain or food web 1. Level 1Producers (autotrophs)

2. Level 2Primary Consumers (herbivores) 1o consumers 3. Level 3Secondary Consumers (carnivores or omnivores) 20 consumers 4. Level 4Tertiary Consumers (carnivoreusually top carnivore) 3o consumers 5. Level 5 Quaternary consumers 40 consumers

Create your own graphic Label the types of organisms according to energy flow Producers: make energy-storing molecules

Herbivores: consume producers Omnivores: consume producers & herbivores Detritivores: consume producers,

herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores Carnivores: consume herbivores Hawks

Food Webs Raccoons Weasels Mice Grass

IV. Ecological Pyramids A. Diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or organisms (matter) contained within each trophic level of a food chain or web B. Energy Pyramid shows relative amount of energy available at each trophic level

1. Organisms in a trophic level use 90% of the available energy for life processes (such as growth, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, metabolism, and release some energy as heat etc.) Remember: Every chemical process that happens in

your body releases heat as a byproduct (ex: burning calories). 2. Rule of 10only about 10% of the available energy stored within a trophic level is transferred to the next higher trophic level C. Biomass Pyramidrepresents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level

Energy and Biomass Pyramid (together) Represents amount of energy available at each level as well as amount of living tissue both decrease with each increasing trophic level

Why do you think this occurs? V. Ecological Interactions between organisms A. Competitionwhen two organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time. Ex: food, water, shelter Direct competition results in: winner (survives and reproduces)

loser (dies, fails to reproduce) survival of the fittest (natural selection) Monkeys compete with each other and other animals for food. Rams compete with

each other for mates. Until Americans introduced gray squirrels into parts of England in the early 20th century, red squirrels had been the only species of squirrel in the country. The gray squirrels were larger and bred faster and successfully competed for resources. Within a couple years of overlap in an area, the red squirrels disappeared.

B. Habitatwhere an organism lives, includes both biotic and abiotic factors. C. Nichethe ecological niche involves both the place where an organism lives and the roles that an organism has in its habitat; how an organism lives and uses its habitat. Example: The ecological niche of a sunflower growing in the

backyard includes absorbing light, water and nutrients (for photosynthesis), providing shelter and food for other organisms (e.g. bees, ants, etc.), and giving off oxygen into the atmosphere. The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organisms address, and

the niche is its profession, biologically speaking. AddressSoil, Ground, etc. Worms Niche Profession Mix-up soil D. Predationone organism captures and feeds on another organism

1. Predatorone that does the killing 2. Preyone that is the food E. Symbiosisany relationship in which two species live closely together 1. Mutualismboth species benefit (WIN-WIN) a. Ex: insects and flowers Can you think of any other examples that weve talked about in class?

2. Commensalismone member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. (WIN-0) Example: barnacles on a whale The Remora fish attaches to

the shark and gets a free ride. Commensalism Birds build nests in trees. 3. Parasitismone organisms lives on or inside another organism (host) and harms it.

The parasite obtains all or part of its nutritional needs from the host. (WIN-LOSE) Example: fleas on a dog Wasp eggs on back of caterpillar. Parasitism

Sea lampreys feed on fluids of other fish. Mosquito biting a human. Mutualism, Commensalism or Parasitism?? Parasitism

Mutualism Mutualism VI. Levels of organization in the biosphere A. Population group of individuals of same species living in same area

B. Community assemblage of different populations (of different species) living in same area C. Ecosystem all organisms in a particular place and the surrounding physical environment D. Biome group of ecosystems with same climate and same dominant communities

E. Biosphere the part of the planet where all life exists; includes land, water, air (atmosphere) Levels of Organization in Biosphere

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