Does Texture Affect Appetite? A Study of Sensory Specific ...

Does Texture Affect Appetite? A Study of Sensory Specific ...

Does Texture Affect Appetite? A Study of Sensory Specific Satiety in College-Aged Males Humans Exhibit Sensory Specific Satiety Novel sensory properties of foods induce satiated subjects to eat more in a multi-course meal Model of overeating and weight gain Is this a possible method of increasing food consumption in astronauts who experience a loss of appetite? Sensory Properties That Affect

Food Intake in Humans Portion Size Palatability Taste Odor Appearance Temperature Texture Why is this important? If we can manipulate the texture of a limited number of food items, then we can possibly increase food intake in astronauts Hypothesis

Hungry subjects fed to satiety on foods of one texture will eat more of the same foods when presented as a different texture. Methods: Meals Crackers (4 kcal/g) Water Crushed or Chunked: Crushed Pineapple (0.6 kcal/g) Cheese (3.9 kcal/g) Peanuts (5.8 kcal/g)

Chunked Subjects 39 Male non-smokers (age 17-22) Consumed no food or drink after midnight on test days Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for hunger and food appeal completed by all subjects before meals Subjects divided into groups based on second meal (crush or chunk) Experimental Timeline Subject Arrives (males

age 17-22) Fasted ~12 hrs Signs Waiver Reads Meal 1: T=0mins T=15mins Crushed Meal Presented Meal 1 ends 5min break

assigned to either chunk or crush group for Meal 2 VAS Completed Meal 2: T=20mins T= 35mins Meal 2 presented Meal 2 ends (crush or chunk) Subject VAS completed Released Data Collection and Analysis Food Weights measured after each meal

ANOVA and post-hoc SNK T-Tests where appropriate Subjects Crush/crush n= 19 Crush/chunk n= 17 p-value (t-test) Height (cm) 180.0 1.9

181.2 1.7 0.637 Weight (kg) 80.0 3.3 82.1 3.7 0.676 Age (yr) 19.0 0.3

19.8 0.3 0.075 Body Mass Index (range) 24.3 0.8 20-32 24.9 0.8 20-32 0.567

Meal 1 Food Intake (mass) 400 *p=0.007 Meal 1 food intake (g) crush/crush (n=19) crush/chunk (n=17) 300 200 100 0 Total Intake

Peanut Pineapple Cheese Crackers Meal 1 Food Intake (calories) 1000 Meal 1 food intake (calories) 900

*p=0.005 Crush/crush (n=19) Crush/chunk (n=17) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Total Intake Peanut

Pineapple Cheese Crackers Meal 2 Food Intake (mass) 350 crush/crush (n=19) crush/chunk (n=17) Meal 2 food intake (g) 300 * p<0.001

250 200 * p<0.003 150 100 50 0 Total Intake Peanut Pineapple Cheese Crackers

Meal 2 Food Intake (calories) 1000 Meal 2 food intake (calories) 900 Crush/crush (n=19) Crush/chunk (n=17) 800 700 600 *p<0.001

500 400 *p=0.001 300 200 100 0 Total Intake Peanut Pineapple Cheese

Crackers Summary Subjects offered a different texture in Meal 2 consumed significantly more mass and calories than those offered the same texture Subjects offered a different texture in Meal 2 rated that meal as more appealing than those offered a second meal of the same texture Conclusions and Application Humans demonstrate Texture-Specific Satiety

Changes in texture of some foods are sufficient to increase the amount of food consumed in a multi-course meal By changing the texture of foods, NASA scientists may be able to increase food intake for astronauts on a long-term spaceflight with limited foods available Future Directions for Human Studies Consider palatability, energy density, and texture

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