Diapositiva 1 - OSARVA

Team Leader Training Search Competencies Ontario Search and Rescue Volunteer Association Saerch Purpose Provide trainers with an outline of lesson plans that may be used to train current and future team leaders in the area of Search Competencies Emphasize the use of field exercises as a key component of team leader training to achieve the Must Do requirements

Search Lesson 1 My role as Team Leader: Intersection of Search Management and Field Assignments Lesson 2 All about Probability of Detection Lesson 3 All about Briefing and Debriefing Lesson 4 Search Techniques Review Lesson 5 Searching in an Urban Environment Lesson 6 Search Techniques In the Field Lesson 7 Importance of Passive Search Methods Lesson 8 Effectiveness of Attraction Tools Lesson 9 Is Your Team Clue Aware? Lesson 10 Handling Evidence Handling Lesson 11 Dealing with Deceased Persons Annex 1 Field Exercises

Search Theory & Notification Lesson 1 My role as Team Leader: Intersection of Search Management and Field Assignments Competency Elements 9.1 Search Theory 9.2 Notification Learning Outcomes Be familiar with key concepts/processes of search management Be able to explain the significance of these concepts/processes in their role as team leaders Search Theory Lesson 1 (2 of 3)

Key Content Initial steps in search planning Documenting notification and subject profile Determining subject category Determining level of search urgency Identifying the Initial Planning Point (IPP) Delineating the search area Developing search objectives

Role of teams in supplementing search and planning data Search Theory Lesson 1 (3 of 3) Approaches Classroom activity (3 hours) Introducing purpose and outline of activity Reviewing key content elements Presenting search management tools: e.g. ICS forms, search management mapping software, subject category data Setting up exercise to determine level of search urgency for different scenarios Facilitating discussion regarding how teams can assist in supplementing search and planning data

Setting up a role playing activity to demonstrate different types of encounters during a search with individuals who may have information about subject Debriefing activity re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment POD Lesson 2 All about Probability of Detection Competency Elements 9.1 Search Theory 9.5 Search Techniques Learning Outcomes Understand the importance of determination of POD in defining and refining search objectives

Demonstrate how to determine critical distance and establish critical separation Be able to lead the team in determining POD for search assignments Be able to lead the team in searching to a specific coverage to achieve a set POD POD Lesson 2 (2 of 4) Key Content Key concepts Probability of Detection (POD) and its importance in search management Cumulative POD Critical distance / Critical separation

Coverage Method for determining critical distance Environmental and human factors that may affect POD POD Lesson 2 (3 of 4) Approaches Field exercise A (4 hours) Introducing purpose and outline of exercise Seeking and validating understanding of key concepts (POD, cumulative POD, critical distance / critical separation) Asking TLs to demonstrate how to determine critical distance Setting up X search areas of same size but in different terrain and each with the same known number of similar clues

Asking TLs to determine critical distance and lead closed grid search for clues (leaving them in place) Reviewing resulting POD Repeating search by having teams switch areas Reviewing resulting POD and calculating cumulative POD Debriefing exercise re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment POD Lesson 2 (4 of 4) Approaches Field exercise B (4 hours) Introducing purpose and outline of exercise Seeking and validating understanding of key concepts (POD, critical distance, coverage)

Asking TLs to demonstrate how to determine critical distance Setting up X search areas of same size, each with the same known number of similar clues but that will be searched to achieve a different coverage Asking TLs to determine critical distance, space searchers to achieve coverage assigned and lead closed grid search for clues Reviewing resulting POD Debriefing exercise re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment Briefing/Debriefing Lesson 3 All about Briefing and Debriefing Competency Elements 9.1 Search Theory 9.3 Activation, Checking In, Initial Briefing

9.4 Assignments 9.9 Demobilization Process Learning Outcomes Be familiar with briefing and debriefing requirements, documentation and process Be able to deliver clear and comprehensive briefings and debriefings in an efficient manner Briefing/Debriefing Lesson 3 (2 of 3) Key Content Difference between planning information and search information Key elements of briefings SMEAC (Situation, Mission,

Execution, Administration, Communications) Team assignment forms used for briefing and debriefing (ICS 204) ICS roles related to briefings and debriefings Briefing/Debriefing Lesson 3 (3 of 3) Approaches Classroom activity (3 hours) Introducing purpose and outline of activity Facilitating a discussion re. participants positive and/or negative experiences with giving and/or receiving briefings / debriefings Reviewing content of the ICS 204 form Setting up a role playing activity to demonstrate team briefings Creating teams of four participants

Having each participant in turn act as TL and brief their team using previously filled out team assignment sheets (including maps, subject profile) Discussing amongst the team positive elements and areas for improvement Sharing teams findings with other teams Reviewing content of debrief section of the ICS 204 form and discussing how best to gather and provide information required Debriefing activity re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment Search Techniques Lesson 4 Search Techniques Review Competency Elements 9.5 Search Techniques 9.10 Night Searches

9.11 Land-Water Interface Searches Learning Outcomes Understand the differences between and the application of different search methods, types and patterns Be able to use maps to plan search assignments Understand environmental and human factors that may affect search pace and effectiveness Understand the safety considerations, procedures and challenges associated with specific search environments: night searches / land-water interface searches Search Techniques Lesson 4 (2 of 4) Key Content

Difference between passive and active search methods Characteristics and application of four basic search types and related search patterns Environmental and human factors affecting search pace and effectiveness Safety considerations, advantages and challenges re. implementation of night searches Safety considerations, procedures and challenges re. implementation of land-water interface searches Search Techniques Lesson 4 (3 of 4) Approaches Classroom activity (8 hours over one or two days) Introducing purpose and outline of activity

Reviewing different between passive and active search methods (activity will focus on active) Dividing the group in teams, assigning one of the four search types to each team and asking each team to make a short presentation on the characteristics and application of their search type and related search patterns Reviewing each search type following presentations and discussing best practices as TLs supervising their implementation Dividing the group in teams and having each team go through a set of table top exercises using assignment maps and focusing on: determination of key coordinates, determination of distance / size of search assignments, calculation of travel distances and time, terrain analysis, determination of best approach to implement assignment, etc. Search Techniques Lesson 4 (4 of 4)

Approaches Classroom activity (cont) Asking each participant individually to reflect on three elements and prepare post it notes for each of the following: Human and environmental factors that affect search pace and effectiveness Challenges of night searches Challenges of land-water interface searches Posting results on a wall under each heading and discussing as a group the compilation of factors and challenges (pointing out gaps as needed) and how these factors should be taken into consideration and how challenges could be addressed Presenting and facilitating a discussion re, team procedures for night searches and for land-water interface searches (for different water environments) Debriefing activity re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to

search environment Search - Urban Lesson 5 Searching in an Urban Environment Competency Elements 9.14 Urban Searches Learning Outcomes Understand the circumstances linked to the disappearance of subjects in an urban environment Be aware of key challenges/hazards associated with searching in an urban environment Be able to lead team through search tactics specific to the urban environment

Search - Urban Lesson 5 (2 of 4) Key Content Causes linked to the disappearance of subjects in urban environments and related lost person profiles Challenges/Hazards associated with urban searches, including safety considerations, trespassing and privacy legislation, traffic, diversity of buildings/structures, criminal elements, clue-rich environment, destruction of clues, interference from media/public, etc. Search tactics to be employed, including door to door canvassing, urban confinement, building search and evidence search and related team procedures Search - Urban

Lesson 5 (3 of 4) Approaches Mini course (6 hours over one or two days) Introducing purpose and outline of course Facilitating a discussion re. key differences (positive/negative) between an urban search and searches in rural/remote environments Creating a concept map regarding the hazards associated with urban searches and facilitating a discussion on how to minimize or avoid these hazards Inviting a police officer to come and talk about the types of lost person incidents they encounter in their urban environment with Q&As Search - Urban Lesson 5 (4 of 4) Approaches

Mini course (cont) Dividing the group in teams and having each team use Koesters Lost Person Behavior Book or App to gather information about the profile of the most common lost person categories associated with urban environment and share their findings with the group Presenting and facilitating discussion re. team procedures for key search tactics Facilitating a discussion on the three different types of door-to-door canvassing and setting up a role playing activity to demonstrate related challenges Debriefing course re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment Search Techniques - Field Lesson 6 Search Techniques in the Field

Competency Elements 9.4 Assignments 9.5 Search Techniques 9.10 Night Searches 9.11 Land-Water Interface Searches 9.12 Evidence Handling 9.14 Urban Searches Learning Outcomes Be able to ensure the proper implementation of search assignments in a variety of search environments Search Techniques - Field Lesson 6 (2 of 3)

Key Content Search methods, types, tactics and patterns and the related role and procedures for team leaders in their application during a search assignment Characteristics and challenges of different search environments Search Techniques - Field Lesson 6 (3 of 3) Approaches Field exercises (multiple scheduled as part of training plan) Organizing different types of search exercises and simulations Targeted field exercises/simulations focusing on practicing the TLs role for a specific search type,

tactic or pattern Full scale search simulation where many tactics/patterns may be employed during the same exercise Exercises in different environments: urban, rural, remote, land-water interfaces, different terrain Exercises in different conditions: night searches, winter searches, Providing opportunities for team leaders in training to shadow more experienced team leaders during a field exercise Providing opportunities for more experienced team leaders to mentor / observe team leaders in training and provide feedback Having clear learning outcomes that are communicated to TLs and ensuring enough time for debriefing participants regarding learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment Passive Search

Lessons 7 Importance of Passive Search Methods Competency Elements 9.6 Confinement / Containment 9.7 Attraction Methods Learning Outcomes Be able to explain to their team the role and importance of confinement/containment and attraction methods in order to maintain focus and motivate team members during passive search assignments Passive Search Lesson 7 (2 of 3)

Key Content Purpose of implementing passive search methods Importance of early implementation of confinement/containment and attraction methods and their integration with other search tactics Challenges in implementing passive search methods Examples of passive search tactics for both confinement/containment and attraction Circumstances when passive methods should be suspended, expanded or modified. Passive Search Lesson 7 (3 of 3) Approaches Class activity (2 hours)

Introducing purpose and outline of activity Facilitating a discussion amongst participants regarding their previous experiences with search assignments involving passive search methods to bring out challenges and best practices Reviewing and discussing the purpose of implementing passive search methods and how they complement active search tactics Dividing the group in teams and asking each team to brainstorm how team leaders can help maintain focus and motivation amongst search teams involved in passive search assignments Debriefing activity re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment Attraction Methods Lesson 8 Effectiveness of Attraction Tools Competency Elements

9.7 Attraction Methods Learning Outcomes Be aware of reasons and urgency re. the effective use of attraction methods early into a search Be familiar with various attraction methods and their effectiveness Understanding factors affecting the effectiveness of attraction methods Be able to implement attraction methods in an effective manner Attraction Methods Lesson 8 (2 of 3) Key Content

The role and importance of attraction methods at different phases of a search Application of various attraction methods Challenges associated with the implementation of various attraction methods Team procedures for implementation of attraction methods as applicable Importance of inter team communications when using attraction methods Attraction Methods Lesson 8 (3 of 3) Approaches Field exercise (3 hours) Introducing purpose and outline of exercise

Setting up field experiments for teams to determine the effectiveness of various attraction methods Determining range of sound attraction, including voice calls, whistles, sirens, etc. in different terrains Determining visibility of visual attraction including fires, smoke, beacons, flares, headlights, spotlights in different terrains Facilitating a discussion following the experiments to share results and lessons learned regarding effectiveness of attraction methods and related implementation challenges Having the group compile a list of best practices for implementing attraction methods Debriefing exercise re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment

Clue Awareness Lessons 9 Is Your Team Clue Aware? Competency Elements 9.8 Clue Awareness Learning Outcomes Be able to supervise team members in the task of clue awareness and detection Understand factors that affect the effectiveness of clue awareness and detection in both a positive or negative manner Be familiar with approaches that can be used to help maintain focus on clue awareness and detection Clue Awareness Lesson 9 (2 of 3)

Key Content Clue awareness and detection techniques, including cognitive vision, seeing the unseen, searchers cube, using all senses, tracking and sign cutting Positive and negative factors that affect the effectiveness of clue awareness and detection Tools and equipment that can assist in clue awareness and detection Clue Awareness Lesson 9 (3 of 3) Approaches Field exercise (4 hours) Introducing purpose and outline of exercise

Facilitating a brief discussion with TLs to review clue awareness and detection techniques Setting up three search areas with a gradient of characteristics regarding presence of clues (clue rich -- clue poor -- no clue) Asking team leader to brief their teams regarding their role as clue seekers and the techniques and tools available to them Asking each team to carry out a closed grid search in each of the search area and asking team leaders to debrief team regarding the challenges encountered and suggestions for improvement Debriefing exercise re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment Evidence Handling Lesson 10 Handling Evidence Handling Competency Elements

9.12 Evidence Handling Learning Outcomes Be able to ensure that all clues are handled as evidence following prescribed protocols and procedures Understand the importance of reporting, securing, documenting and transferring clues to respect their integrity and the chain of evidence Evidence Handling Lesson 10 (2 of 3) Key Content Key concepts: clues, evidence, chain of evidence Protocols and procedures for approaching,

reporting, securing, documenting and transferring evidence Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling evidence Evidence Handling Lesson 10 (3 of 3) Approaches Classroom activity and field exercise (3 hours) Introducing purpose and outline of activity Reviewing participants understanding of clue, evidence and chain of evidence Demonstrating a flawed sequence of approaching, reporting, securing, documenting and transferring evidence and asking participants to identify what was done correctly or incorrectly

Reviewing protocols and procedures for evidence handling Dividing the group in teams and setting up a search area with different types of clues and having TLs in turn lead a team in the process of approaching, reporting, securing, documenting evidence with other teams observing and providing feedback Debriefing activity re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment Dealing with Deceased Lesson 11 Dealing with Deceased Persons Competency Elements 9.13 Dealing with Deceased Persons Learning Outcomes Understand the proper protocols and procedures

when dealing with deceased person(s) during a search assignment Understand how these situations may affect team members in different ways and have on hand different approaches to be able to assist team members Dealing with Deceased Lesson 11 (2 of 3) Key Content Protocols and procedures for dealing with deceased person(s) including communication, securing location, transportation, etc. Signs of psychological stress that may be experienced by team members

Tools and resources available to help address psychological stress Dealing with Deceased Lesson 11 (3 of 3) Approaches Classroom activity (2 hours) Introducing purpose and outline of activity Inviting an experienced member of a SAR team or emergency response services to attend the activity and share relevant experience with the participants and allowing participants to share their own experience if they are so inclined Reviewing protocols and procedures for dealing with deceased person(s) Reviewing signs of psychological stress that may be experienced by team members and tools and resources available to help address

Presenting approaches that can be used by TLs to minimize exposure of team members to deceased person(s) as appropriate Debriefing activity re. learning outcomes, lessons learned and application to search environment Field Exercise Planning Annex 1 Field Exercises In planning field exercises, consider: Determining if field exercise is intended to achieve specific learning outcomes or to integrate learning related to multiple competencies Making best use of resource intensive field exercises/simulations by incorporating multiple learning outcomes or addressing training needs for various roles (searchers, team leaders, search managers) as appropriate Defining clear learning outcomes and communicating these at onset of exercise

Ensuring that enough time is scheduled for proper debriefing of exercise by participants and by trainers Ensuring that simulation scenarios are realistic Using field exercises to encourage interoperability with other GSAR teams and/or tasking agencies Using field exercise to test new capacity, equipment or protocols Questions

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