Descriptive Epidemiology for Public Health Professionals
DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY for Public Health Professionals Part 1 Ian R.H. Rockett, PhD, MPH Department of Community Medicine West Virginia University School of Medicine Prepared under the auspices of the Southeast Public Health Training Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2005. [email protected]
Learning Objectives 1. To introduce some key historical contributors to the evolution of epidemiology 2. To present basic models of disease and injury 3. To address data sources, classification, and measurement 4. To build a bridge between descriptive and analytic epidemiology Performance Objectives
1. To be sensitive to the history of epidemiology against the background of broad population change 2. To identify mortality and morbidity data sources 3. To calculate basic measures 4. To generate hypotheses from descriptive data POPULATION TRANSITIONS and HISTORY
The Big Population Picture Source: Joseph A. McFalls, Jr. Population: A Lively Introduction. Third edition. Population Bulletin 53(3); 1998: 38. The Demographic Transition The demographic transition framework illustrates population growth in terms of discrepancies and changes in two crude vital rates mortality and fertility
(ignores the third component of growth, migration) Source: Joseph A. McFalls, Jr. Population: A Lively Introduction. Third edition. Population Bulletin 53(3); 1998: 39. Top 10 Causes of Death in the U.S. , 1900 Rank Cause of Death
Source: Ian R.H. Rockett. Population and Health: An Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9. EPIDEMIOLOGY epi upon demos people logos study The scientific study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified
populations, and the application of resulting knowledge to the prevention and control of health problems Epidemiology as a Liberal Art An accessible low-technology science, which incorporates the scientific method, analogic thinking, deductive reasoning, problem solving within constraints, and concern for aesthetic values
David Fraser, New England Journal of Medicine, 316(6); 1987:309-314. Some Epidemiologic History Hippocrates On Airs, Waters, and Places (5th
century BCE) BCE Hippocrates spearheaded a move away from looking to blame demons for disease and injury FAST FORWARD Enter
John Graunt (1629-1674) vocation haberdasher (seller of mens accessories) avocation father/founder of demography and epidemiology Graunt counted rather than considered (Major Greenwood) Among his observations, he noted:
regularity of biological phenomena in the mass that more males are born than females and more males die than females (annually) Partial Translation Ague = Malaria Purples & Spotted Feaver = Meningococcal
Meningitis Kings Evil = Tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck Population Survivorship: Two Populations Age 17th century London, England 2002
United States 0 100 100 6 64
99 16 40 99 26
25 98 36 16 97 10
95 56 6 91 66 3
81 76 1 63 46
Miasmatists Vs Contagionists miasm pathogenic emanation dispersed in the atmosphere (malaria bad air) contagion vehicle of person-toperson disease transmission (forerunner of germ theory) Enter John Snow (1813-1858)
Spot Map of Fatal Cholera Cases in London, 1854 Source: Ian R.H. Rockett. Population and Health: An Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 6. Filippo Pacini, 1812-1883
c. staphylobacillus- clusters. 3. Spirillum- spiral or shaped like a bent rod. III. Microscopic Anatomy of Bacteria. A. Surrounded by a slime layer. 1. Varies in thickness (if thick, called capsule) 2. Functions to protect bacteria from unfavorable conditions.
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