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US Presidents Brendon Jenkins [email protected] Layout Easy Medium Hard George Washington (1789-1797) Leader of the Continental Army during the American Revolution Victor at the Battle of Yorktown Put down the Whiskey Rebellion (part of the Watermelon Army) Signed the Pinckney Treaty Target of the Conway Cabal conspiracy (to be replaced by Horatio Gates) Citizen Genet scandal Gave the Neutrality Proclamation

Surrender at Fort Necessity (during expedition under Braddock) Owned the Popes Creek Estate Overcame the Newburgh Conspiracy John Adams (1797-1801) Father of John Quincy Adams President during the XYZ Affair Faced the Quasi War Signed the Alien and Sedition Acts Died on the same day as Thomas Jefferson (July 4, 1836) Advocated for fair trials of British involved in the Boston Massacre Provoked Marbury v. Madison with the appointment of the Midnight Justices

Author of Thoughts on Government - "Politics is the Science of human Happiness -and the Felicity of Societies depends on the Constitutions of Government under which they live." Overcame Fries's Rebellion Commissioned the USS Constitution Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) Main author of the Declaration of Independence Made the Louisiana Purchase Sent the Lewis and Clark expedition Made his home at Monticello Founded the University of Virginia Authorized the creation of West Point

Owned the slave Sally Hemings Faced the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair Faced the Barbary Wars Sent Zebulon Pike to visit newly purchased western lands Signed the Embargo Act (green snapping turtle and O-Grab-Me cartoon)* Act would later be replaced by Nonintercourse Act Wrote Notes on the State of Virginia Authored the (Kentucky) and Virginia Resolutions with James Madison James Madison (1809-1817) author of the Bill of Rights Presidency saw the War of 1812 and passage of the Treaty of Ghent wrote 29 of the Federalist Papers (most famously No. 10 and 52) The White House was burned down during his Presidency

refused to approve the Midnight Justices gave the first State of the Union Address authored the Kentucky and (Virginia) Resolutions with Thomas Jefferson vetoed the Bonus Bill of 1817 just before leaving office passed Macons Bill No. 2 early in his Presidency said factions would be weakened by a large Republic faced off against John Randolph in 1808 election James Monroe (1817-1825) Monroe Doctrine (advised Europe to not interfere with US relations in Latin America) The Clark Memorandum and Roosevelt Corollary expanded his doctrine Lack of partisanship issues triggered the Era of Good Feelings McCulloch v. Maryland

Gained Florida after the Adams-Onis Treaty Passed the Missouri Compromise Reduced arms after Rush-Bagot Treaty Defeated the last Federalist candidate, Rufus King Released Thomas Paine from prison Suppressed Gabriel Prosser's slave revolt in Virginia while governor Wrote A View of the Conduct of the Executive John Quincy Adams (1825-1829) Won the election of 1824 through the corrupt bargain (JQA, Clay, Jackson, Crawford) Signatory of Adams-Onis Treaty

Lawyer in Amistad case Only ex-President to serve in the House of Representatives First American minister to Russia Career fight against the Gag Rule to not allow more slave states in the Union Appointed Richard Rush to Secretary of the Treasury after William Crawford declined it Issued the Report on Weights and Measures Opened the Chesapeake and Ohio Canals Andrew Jackson (1829-1837)

Nickname Old Hickory Namesake of Jacksonian Democracy Lost the 1824 corrupt bargain Nullification Crisis and fight over Tariff of Abominations Cabinet members were known as the kitchen cabinet Overcame the Peggy Eaton Affair Signed the Indian Removal Act (led to the trail of tears) Worchester v Georgia ruling Treaty of Paynes Landing Fought in the Seminole War Opponent of Nicholas Biddle and the Second Bank of the US Defeated the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend Won the Battle of New Orleans Used the Rotation of Office and Spoils System Passed the Force Bill Signed the Specie Circular and sparked the Panic of 1873 Attempted assassination by Richard Laurence Vetoed the Maysville Road Bill

1400 lb block of cheese was sent to the White House Martin van Buren (1837-1841) Presidency was shadowed by the effects of the Panic of 1837 Nicknamed the Little Magician Had very cool sideburns Faced the Second Seminole War Faced the Caroline Affair Oversaw the Aroostook War Resigned after the Petticoat Affair Ran in 1848 under the Free Soil party

Led the Albany Regency political machine Criticized in the Gold Spoon Oration Slave rebellion on the Amistad William Henry Harrison (1841) Ran and became the first Whig candidate to win Dies after only 31 days in office from pneumonia He gained national fame for his successes at the Battles of Tippecanoe and Thames (much of his Military career was spent fighting Tecumseh and the anti-expansion Native resistance) Mocked as Granny by his critics Ran the log cabin and hard cider campaign Spent a large amount of time as governor of the Indiana territory Ambassador the Gran Colombia under JQA Frequent opponent of Jefferson to expand slave trade

John Tyler (1841-1845) Yet another whig President Took over after WHWs death Earned him the nickname of His Accidency Annexation of Texas extended All but one of his cabinet members resigned (Daniel Webster stayed) Webster-Ashburton treaty settled a border dispute with Canada USS Princeton explosion Ignored Dorrs Rebellion Elected to the Confederate congress after Presidency Passed the Black tariff James K. Polk (1845-1849)

Mexican-American War took up a majority of Presidency Added states to the Union through the Mexican Cession (regarded as the expansionist president) Nickname was Young Hickory Regarded as a dark horse candidate Used the fifty-four forty or fight campaign slogan in reference to the Oregon territory which he acquired Passed the Walker tariff Sent John Slidell and Nicholas Tryst to negotiate the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Defeated John Bell to win Speaker of the House Oversaw the opening of the US Naval Academy Smithsonian institutes came to fruition First inaugural ceremony to be reported by telegraph

Zachary Taylor (1849-1850) Nickname was Old, rough, and Ready Paved the way for the Compromise of 1850 Won the 1848 election as a war hero over Lewis Cass (huge proponent of popular sovereignty) Huge victory at the Battle of Buena Vista Commanded American forces at the Battle of Palo Alto and Battle of Monterrey (Mexican-American War) Signage of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty Successful at the Battle of Lake Okeechobee Died of a sudden stomach illness Millard Fillmore (1850-1853)

Elevated to the Presidency after Taylors death Able to get the Compromise of 1850 passed (patched some bitterness during an era of Sectionalism) Passed the controversial Fugitive Slave Act Supported by longtime editor of the New York Tribune, Horace Greeley Sent Commodore Matthew Perry and his fleet to open relations with Japan (later laid out the terms to what would become the Treaty of Kanagawa) Third place finish for the Know-Nothing ticket in 1856 Opposed van Burens sub-treasury ideas Franklin Pierce (1853-1857) Did not help the slavery argument and possibly made it worse Most notable passage was the Kansas-Nebraska Act

Repealed the Missouri Compromise and allowed popular sovereignty to decide slavery in territories Saw the drafting of the Ostend Manifesto Saw the Gadsden purchase to make room to finish the South Pacific railroad Recognized William Walkers filibuster government in Nicaragua who would be defeated later On a trip to Washington DC, the train carrying his son and wife crashed (killing his son) James Buchanan (1857-1861) Regarded as the Bachelor President due to not having a first lady Fort Sumter was ill prepared at the start of the Civil War due to disarmament Experienced the Panic of 1857 (similar to Jackson tried to reform rather than relieve) Dred Scott v. Sanford adjourned Faced the Bleeding Kansas issue (fight over the acceptance of slavery and the Lecompton

Constitution) Vetoed the Homestead Act and Morrill land grant acts Brigham Young carried out the Mountain Meadows massacre in Utah and Buchanan responded with force Covode committee was established to look into his bribery allegations Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) Elected in 1860 and became one of the major reasons for Southern Secession President during the Civil War Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theatre (watching Our American Cousin) Issued the Gettysburg Address (Edward Everett have two hour speech prior to) and Emancipation Proclamation Appointed Salmon P. Chase to the Supreme Court

Gave the Cooper Union speech House Divided Speech Gave the Peoria Address and debated heavily with Stephen Douglas Offered the Spot Resolutions Signed the Morrill Land Grant Act Pocket-vetoed the Wade-Davis Bill Overcame the Trent Affair Said With malice toward none; with charity for all. Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) First President to have impeachment charges brought against him Violation of the Tenure of Office Act (removal of Edwin Stanton as Secretary of War) Succeeded Hannibal Hamlin as VP under Lincoln

Myers v. US stated that the law was unconstitutional Edmund Ross cast the deciding vote for no impeachment Wife was Eliza Gave the Swing Around the Circle speech Purchase of Alaska by Seward took place under his leadership Shouted I am a Plebeian! during his inaugural address Only former President to serve in the Senate Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877) Successful General during the Civil War (given the nickname Unconditional Surrender) Term was riddled by scandals (Whiskey Ring and Credit Mobilier) His Secretary, Orville Babcock, was indicted for his role in the Whiskey Ring (Benjamin Bristow brought the scandal to light) punished the KKK with the Force Acts Schuyler Colfax and Oakes Ames were indicted in the Credit Mobilier scandal

Fisk and Gould made an attempt to corner the gold market on Black Friday signed the Treaty of Washington to solve the Alabama Claims Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881) His presidency marked the end of Reconstruction and began the era known as the Gilded Age Controversially defeated Samuel Tilden in 1876 via an election committee Opposed by the Stalwarts Congress overrode his veto of the Bland-Allison Act Campaigned on a platform to return to the gold standard Wife was known as Lemonade Lucy for her support of Temperance Appointed John Harlan to the Supreme Court Removal of Chester Arthur from New York Customs Office got flack from Roscoe Conkling

Favored Paraguay in the War of the Triple Alliance James Garfield (1881) Most famously, his death laid out the need for the Pendleton Act (reformed Civil Service by ending the spoils system and requiring entrance exams) Defeated Winfield Scott Hancock through the use of a front-porch campaign Assassinated by Charles Guiteau (shouted I am a Stalwart!) Assassination took place at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station Faced the Star Route scandal Reform the corruption in the US Post Office Served as an attorney in the Ex Parte Milligan case Wrote a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem Wanted a renegotiation of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty without the influence of Britain with a constructed canal

Chester Arthur (1881-1885) Signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act into law Passed the Chinese Exclusion Act Vetoed the Rivers and Harbors Act Robert Todd Lincoln was his only cabinet member to finish the term with him Part of Roscoe Conklings New York Custom House political machine that opposed Tammany Hall Rutherford B. Hayes offered this man the Paris Consulship many times, but he never accepted it Favored the Tariff of 1883 which was nicknamed the Mongrel Tariff Discriminated polygamists through the Edmunds Act Grover Cleveland (1885-1889) (1893-1897)

Put down the Pullman Strike Only president to serve non-consecutive terms His candidacy was backed by a faction of the rival party known as the Mugwumps He was a Bourbon democrat Opposed Sherman Silver Purchase Act to prevent the inevitable Panic of 1893 Attacked in the Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion speech Vetoed a Texas Seed Bill Defeated James Blaine (regarded as the continental liar from the state of Maine) to win his first term Affair with Maria Halpin Put down Coxeys Army Signed the Dawes Act and Interstate Commerce Act Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893)

most notably worked alongside the Billion Dollar Congress passed the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act signed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act two American sailors of the USS Baltimore were stabbed and killed in Chile which was known as the Baltimore Crisis signed the Dependent and Disability Pension Act wanted to annex Hawaii prior to the takeover by Sanford Dole on the rewarding end of the Murchison Letter scandal advised by the Businessman's Cabinet accused of the Blocks of Five voting scandal William McKinley (1897-1901)

President during the Spanish American War Assassinated in 1901 at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo by Leon Czolgosz Campaign manager was Mark Hanna who convinced him to run a front-porch campaign Defeated William Jennings Bryan in 1896 Signed the Gold Standard Act Sponsored the Wilson-Gorman Tariff while in Congress USS Maine explosion Wife was Ida Passed the Dingley Tariff Namesake Tariff set a 48% tax on imports Allowed John Hay to pursue an Open Door policy with China Campaigned promising a full dinner pail Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)

Nicknamed Teddy He famously led the Rough Riders during the Spanish-American War (battle of San Juan Hill) He would run on the Bull Moose Third Party ticket Passed the Pure Food and Drug Act Biggest figure in the Trust-busting era Negotiated the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth He was successful in using his bully pulpit to pass the Square Deal Survived an assassination attempt by John Schrank in Milwaukee Issued the Roosevelt Corollary where he laid out his big stick policy Sent the Great White Fleet

Met with Booker T. Washington in the White House Signed the regulatory Elkins and Hepburn Acts Ran on the New Nationalism campaign platform William Howard Taft (1909-1913) Large fella First man to serve as a Supreme Court Justice and President Instituted Dollar Diplomacy with Latin American relations His Secretary of State, Philander Knox, negotiated the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Gave the Winona speech He became the first American Governor-General of the Philippines Fired Gifford Pinchot (Chief of the Forestry Service) due to his disgruntlement with Richard Ballinger Also served as Solicitor General under Harrison

Began as Hamilton County prosecutor and served on the Judicial Bar in Ohio (Taft family is still a powerful family in Ohio even today) Served as the Provisional Governor of Cuba for two weeks Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) Led the US through World War I and issued the 14 Points in the Treaty of Versailles Proposed the League of Nations that the US never joined as a result of pushback from Henry Cabot Lodge Ironically used the slogan he kept us out of war to win re-election just prior to entering World War Served as the President of Princeton University Passed the Clayton Antitrust Act Creation of the Federal Reserve and Federal Trade Commission Ran on the New Freedom platform Sinking of the Lusitania Experienced the raids by Pancho Villa on Columbus, New Mexico

Signed the Keating-Owen Act Passed the Underwood Tariff Created the Creel Commission to spread propaganda about the war effort First President to institute daylight savings time to ration fuel supplies Criticised by John Maynard Keynes (British economist against the League of Nations who wrote The Economic Consequences of the Peace Warren G. Harding (1921-1923) ran on the Return to Normalcy platform as the US exited World War I Presidency was plagued by the Teapot Dome Scandal his nomination was backed by politicians who were said to be in smoke-filled room called the Washington Naval Conference

dealt with a coal miner strike called the Battle of Blair Mountain surrounded by the support of the Ohio Gang gave the 1912 nomination speech of William Howard Taft at the RNC signed the Fordney-McCumber Tariff and the Budget and Accounting Act Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929) Nicknamed Silent Cal Kicked off what was known as the Roaring Twenties Put down the Boston Police Strike (assisted by Edwin Curtis) Huge supporter of Laissez-faire economics Saw the Kellogg-Briand Pact created

Ratified the Washington Naval Treaty Defeated Robert La Follette and John W. Davis in one election His inaugural speech was the first to be broadcast live on radio Signed the Indian Citizenship Act I do not choose to run for President in 1928 Signed a Bonus Bill for veterans as Governor of Massachusetts, yet his veto for a Bonus Bill as President was overridden His inaugural speech was the first to be broadcast live on radio Criticized for his handling of the Great Mississippi Flood Vetoed the McNary-Haugen Bill Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) Began office just prior to the Great Depression Named for many of the shantytowns called Hoovervilles Put down the Bonus Army and their march on Washington Ran on the campaign slogan A Chicken in Every Pot a Car in Every Garage

He led the Belgian Relief Effort during World War I Also led the US Food Administration (advocated for meatless Mondays) Advocate of the Own Your Own Home campaign Created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Signed the Hawley-Smoot Tariff While a miner in Australia he created the Consolidated Zinc company and wrote Principles of Mining (engineer before taking office) Dispatched the Clark Memorandum Signed the Norris-LaGuardia Act to effectively and yellow-dog journalism Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)

Said the only thing we have to fear is fear itself and called the attack on Pearl Harbor,a date which will live in infamy Created the New Deal (Blue Eagle Symbol) programs to help the US reform and recover from the causes and effects of the Great Depression Only President to hold 4 terms in office Gave the Fireside Chats Signed the Wagner Act His NIRA was deemed Unconstitutional in the Schechter Poultry Corp. v. US case (sick chicken case) Tried to create a court-packing scheme Began Japanese internment with executive order 9066 US v. Butler deemed the AAA unconstitutional Survived the Business Plot Gave the Arsenal of Democracy speech Frances Perkins was the first female cabinet member

Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) He gave the order to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki The Chicago Tribune printed papers claiming that Thomas Dewey had defeated him in the 1948 election He ran on the fair deal program Vetoed the Taft-Hartley Act although he was overridden He faced the Do-Nothing Congress His secretary of State was the namesake of the Marshall Plan Removed Douglas MacArthur as General of the Army during the Korean War (replaced by Matthew Ridgway) Aid was given to Turkey and Greece and was known as the Truman Doctrine

Rose to power from the Pendergast political machine His Presidential library is located in Independence, Missouri Seizure of steel mills was deemed unconstitutional in Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961) He was the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces and also led the invasion at Normandy Championed the Interstate Highway System Called the National Guard to Central High School in Little Rock to force integration Oversaw Operation Ajax which overthrew Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh Overthrew Jacobo Arbenz in Operation PBSUCCESS Warned about the military-industrial complex in his farewell speech Also gave the Atoms for Peace speech In his Chance for Peace speech he stated that humanity was hanging on a cross of iron John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

Sadly, he is most well-known for being shot by Lee Harvey Oswald First Roman Catholic President Promised a man on the moon by the end of the decade Famous Nixon-Kennedy debates were the first to be aired on live television Authorized the Bay of Pigs invasion Presided over the Cuban Missile Crisis Founded the Peace Corps Ran on the New Frontier campaign front Used the Alabama National guard to displace George Wallace from the schoolhouse door Said Ich bin ein Berliner in an attempt to show support for people of Berlin

Formed the Alliance for Progress His cabinet was made up of men known as the Whiz Kids Signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Used the Alabama National guard to displace George Wallace from the schoolhouse door Wrote Profiles in Courage Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Became president after the assassination of John F. Kennedy (appointed the members of the Warren Commission) Signed the Civil Rights Act Signed the Voting Rights Act Enacted the Great Society plan to attack the War of Poverty Appointed Thurgood Marshall to the Supreme Court Voice was used in the Daisy Ad against Barry Goldwater Saw the passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (Turner Joy)

Created the department of Housing and Urban Development Known for giving The Treatment as a senator Gave the Let Us Continue speech Signed the Public Broadcasting Act Defeated Coke Stevenson for his Senate seat Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Indicted for the Watergate scandal and forced his resignation Signed the Clean Air Act Created the EPA First president to visit the People's Republic of China Gave the Checkers Speech

Participated in the Kitchen Debates with Nikita Khrushchev Oversaw the Kent State Massacre (protest over the Vietnam War) Signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty Later experienced the Hard Hat Riots (also protest over the Vietnam War) Attacked Helen Douglas during a senate race referring to her as The Pink Lady Forced to accept the Stennis Compromise Gerald Ford (1974-1977) Shortly after taking office he pardoned Nixon His campaign platform was to Whip Inflation Now Survived an assassination attempt by Squeaky Fromme Experienced the Mayaguez disaster where 41 marries were killed by member of the Khmer Rouge President during the fall of Saigon and the entire state of Vietnam was being dominated by the

North Served as a member of the Warren Commission In a presidential debate he stated that there is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe Experienced the Mayaguez disaster Signed the Helsinki Accords for the US Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Peanut farmer from Georgia Negotiated the Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt Launched the failed Operation Eagle Claw to save the victims of the Iranian Hostage Crisis Created the Departments of Energy and Education Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

Gave up control of the Panama Canal (signed treaty with Omar Trujillo) Began the SALT II Three Mile Island disaster took place during his presidency Won nomination over Ted Kennedy in 1980 in light of the Chappaquiddick incident Evacuated the Neighborhood of Love Canal and established the Love Canal Superfund Gave the Malaise speech (compared the ongoing energy crisis to the moral equivalent of war) He has since joined the ELDERS organization to do humanitarian work worldwide Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) Former California Governor and Movie star turned President Man behind Reaganomics that was mocked as voodoo economics by George H.W. Bush Told Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall

Ran the Morning Again in America and Bear in the Woods ads Launched Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada Appointed the Tower Commission which cleared him of a role in the Iran-Contra affair Proposed the Strategic Defense Initiative Survived an assassination attempt by John Hinckley Jr (Press Secretary was James Brady was wounded and paralyzed) Launched Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada Put down a strike of Air traffic control workers Came to prominence with the A time for choosing speech Violated the Boland amendment to funnel weapons to the Contras to fight the Sandinistas in Nicaragua Signed the Goldwater-Nichols Act George H. W. Bush (1989-1993) Famously stated read my lips, no new taxes Led the US through the First Gulf War Initiated and created NAFTA

Overthrew Manuel Noriega in Operation Just Cause Signed the Americans With Disabilities Act Ran the Willie Horton ad criticising the granting of weekend passes to Willie Horton Signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty Compared community service organizations to a thousand points of light Overcame the Zapata Petroleum scandal William Bill Clinton (1993-2001) previously served as Governor of Arkansas affair with Monica Lewinsky he would later be impeached in 1998

also endured the Whitewater (investigated by Kenneth Starr) Travelgate scandal started the don't ask, don't tell policy signed the Family and Medical Leave Act passed the Brady Bill Paula Jones also brought suit for sexual harassment while Governor of Arkansas pardoned his half-brother Roger used the slogan It's the economy, stupid! during his campaign negotiated the peace accords for the Bosnian War in Dayton, Ohio created the wet foot/dry foot policy towards Cuban immigrants George W. Bush (2001-2009)

He very skeptically won the 2000 election which came down to a few votes in the State of Florida President during the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks Ordered the invasion of Afghanistan He then declared his War on Terror Faced the Recession in 2007 Oversaw Hurricane Katrina Created the Department of Homeland Security Ordered Operation Enduring Freedom Passed the No Child Left Behind Act One time a co-owner of the Texas Rangers Advised by Karl Rove Created the PEPFAR AIDS relief program Barack Obama (2009-2017)

Used the campaign slogans of Hope Change and Yes we can Former Illinois senator Signed the Affordable Care Act University of Chicago grad Signed the Dodd-Frank Act Repealed Don't ask, Don't tell Increased involvement in the Afghan war while completely removing troops from Iraq Assassinated Osama bin Laden (Operation Neptune Spear) Advocated for same-sex and urged the Supreme Court to strike down US v. Windsor, Obergefell v. Hodges ruled during his term Dealt with the Sandy Hook Shooting, San Bernardino, and a slew over other gun violence incidents NASA space shuttle program was ended Tried to close Guantanamo Bay in first 100 Days but congress failed to appropriate funds ACA upheld as a tax in NFB v. Sebelius Reopened relations with Cuba

Donald J. Trump (2017-) former businessman, TV producer, Real Estate agent, and Steak salesmen turned president he defeated 16 candidates in the Republican Primary to win the nomination fifth President to win the White House despite losing the popular vote he is most notably in the news for his handling of the firing FBI director James Comey withdrew from both the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Paris Climate Agreement undid much of the work to reestablish relations with Cuba under Obama he also has signed an executive order to ban immigrants from Muslim countries that has had many ups and downs on Constitutionality many also question many of the cabinet heads he selected Time magazine's Person of the Year in 2016 reopened the Keystone and Dakota Access pipelines Chose Neil Gorsuch to fill Antonin Scalias seat on the court

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