Controlling Air Pollution

Controlling Air Pollution

Give printed notes to highlight for feedback Fuels 3/1/20 The diagram shows a catalytic converter, which is found on cars. Look at the diagram and on Post Its write down: What it does? How does it help? Can you see any disadvantages of a catalytic converter?

Write down anything that you know about the pollutants. Write your name on the Post It Controlling Air Pollution Objective: To know the problems of using fossil fuels and the alternative fuels available Success Criteria State why alkanes make good fuels (grade D) Describe how carbon monoxide, oxides of

nitrogen and oxides of sulfur form in an internal combustion engine (grade C) Evaluate the use of biofuels as an alternative to using fossil fuels (grade A) Explain how a catalytic converter decreases carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide emissions from internal combustion engines (grade A) The Internal Combustion Engine

In addition to carbon dioxide, the modern engine emits three main groups of atmospheric pollutants: Carbon monoxide Oxides of nitrogen Oxides of sulfur Unburnt hydrocarbons

Group Activity Work in your groups Each of you will be given a topic Use the resources you have (e.g. text book, revision guide) to research the topic You must include information covered by the specification After you will tell the rest of your group about your topic

Group Activity Now you need to tell each other about your topic. While you are listening to the rest of your group you need to look at the printed notes you have been given and highlight anything that is said. Add any other useful information that you are taught. Also check the specification. You also need to think of a question to ask the person teaching you the topic. These will be asked at the end once everyone has had a chance to teach the topic.

After we will review this as a class. Carbon Monoxide

Created by the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. In the UK it comes mostly from traffic pollution. It takes one month for atmospheric CO to be oxidised to CO2 Poisonous combines irreversibly with haemoglobin. The blood therefore can carry less oxygen leading to: Reduced dexterity

Disturbed vision Tiredness Inability to perform complex tasks. Oxides of Nitrogen In the hot engine some nitrogen from the air is oxidised to:

Nitrogen oxide (NO) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitrogen dioxide contributes to the formation of low-level ozone.

Most nitrogen dioxide is converted to nitric acid acid rain. Nitrogen oxides are also respiratory irritants effecting asthmatics. Unburnt Hydrocarbons Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released in vehicle exhaust gases. Especially benzene and buta-1,3diene.

Found in petrol Human carcinogens Unburnt hydrocarbons also react with NO2 to form low-level ozone.

Energy provided by sunlight Controlling Air Pollution Objective: To know the problems of using fossil fuels and the alternative fuels available Success Criteria State why alkanes make good fuels (grade D) Describe how carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur form in an internal combustion engine (grade C) Evaluate the use of biofuels as an alternative

to using fossil fuels (grade A) Explain how a catalytic converter decreases carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide emissions from internal combustion engines (grade A) How can we reduce the pollutants? Catalytic Convertors Since 1993 every new petrol car in

the EU has had a catalytic convertor. It is a platinum/rhodium/palladium catalyst on a honeycomb mesh. The mesh can have the surface area of 2 football pitches!

Hot gases pass over the catalyst and are converted into less-harmful products. Catalytic Convertors It is a platinum/rhodium/palladium catalyst on a honeycomb mesh. Hot gases pass over the catalyst and are converted into less-harmful products.

Oxidation Catalyst Fitted to diesel engines to decrease emissions of carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons. Usually combined with a filter system, they also remove particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. Decrease CO 2CO(g) +O2(g) CO2(g)

Reduce unburnt hydrocarbons C12H26(l) + 18.5 O2(g) 12 CO2(g) + 13H2O(l) Three-way catalyst Fitted to petrol engines. Removes CO and oxides of nitrogen: 2CO(g) + 2NO(g) 2CO2(g) + N2(g)

Can you see a problem with this? Levels of Emissions Emissions (g.km-1) CO Unburnt hydrocarbons NO2

No catalyst 5.99 1.67 1.04 With catalyst

0.61 0.07 0.04 Controlling Air Pollution Objective: To know the problems of using fossil fuels and the alternative fuels available Success Criteria State why alkanes make good fuels (grade D) Describe how carbon monoxide, oxides of

nitrogen and oxides of sulfur form in an internal combustion engine (grade C) Evaluate the use of biofuels as an alternative to using fossil fuels (grade A) Explain how a catalytic converter decreases carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide emissions from internal combustion engines (grade A) Biofuels Biofuels are fuels made from living matter

They are carbon neutral However they use up a lot of land Controlling Air Pollution Objective: To know the problems of using fossil fuels and the alternative fuels available Success Criteria State why alkanes make good fuels (grade D) Describe how carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur form in an

internal combustion engine (grade C) Evaluate the use of biofuels as an alternative to using fossil fuels (grade A) Explain how a catalytic converter decreases carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide emissions from internal combustion engines (grade A) Complete the questions hydrocarbons as fuels and alternative fuels

Plenary Answer the following exam questions on white boards Grade C Exam questions Grade D Exam questions

Grade D Exam questions Exam Questions Grade C Controlling Air Pollution Objective: To know the problems of using fossil fuels and the alternative fuels available Success Criteria

State why alkanes make good fuels (grade D) Describe how carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur form in an internal combustion engine (grade C) Evaluate the use of biofuels as an alternative to using fossil fuels (grade A) Explain how a catalytic converter decreases carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide emissions from internal combustion engines (grade A)

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