Conjunctions, Interjections, Punctuation, & Capitalization The functional and technical aspects of writing! Conjunctions A conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence. A coordinating conjunction is used to connect similar words or groups of words.
The most common coordinating conjunctions are: Coordinating Conjunctions Typically connect words that have the same use in a sentence. These words may be nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. Examples: Do you think he was a greater inventor or statesman? (nouns) He also bought and ran the school newspaper. (verbs)
She worked repeatedly but consistently to study electricity. (adverbs) The TV show was successful and entertaining. Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions can also connect prepositional phrases. I will either go to the movies or to the mall. Coordinating conjunctions can connect independent clauses or dependent clauses. ***When a conjunction joins independent clauses, a comma MUST be used before the conjunction.
He did not have much formal schooling, but he managed to educate himself. (independent clauses). She was patriotic and because she was willing, she served her country in many ways. (dependent clauses) Correlative Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that connect similar words or groups of words. neither ~ nor whether ~ or
either ~ or both ~ and not only ~ but also Correlative Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions Examples: Either ~ or Ill either walk or jog home.
Neither ~ nor Neither you nor I have blue eyes. Not only do I like ELA, but I also like science class. Not only ~ but also Leah earned an A in both math and religion. Both ~ and Whether ~ or
We need to decide whether to leave or to stay. Interjections!!!!!!! Interjections are words that express sudden excitement or strong feeling. Wow! We won! Ouch! That pan is hot! Yes! I got an A!
Some interjections are followed by commas, and indicate a mild feeling instead or a strong one. Ouch! Well, I better get started. Oh, how I dread Mondays. He yelled an interjection when the nurse gave him an injection! Capitalization Use a capital letter for the following
rules: The first word in a sentence The pronoun I The first word of a direct quotation Mr. Lewis said, This girl is a hero. The first word of every line of most poems and songs. Capitalization Capitalizing Proper Nouns and Proper Adjectives
Proper Noun: names a particular person, place, or thing. EX: John, Katie, St. Amelia School, Christmas Proper Adjective: adjective formed from a proper noun. EX. American, Christian, Chinese, Capitalization Capitalizing First Words & Titles The first word of a sentence is ALWAYS capitalized. Capitalize titles used with names of persons and abbreviations standing for those titles
EX. Dr. Smith, Captain Hook, Mr. Metzler Do not capitalize titles that are used as common nouns EX. We are going to the doctor today. Capitalization Capitalize the following titles when used before names, or when used alone to refer to the current holder of the position: The President The Vice President
Queen Elizabeth II The Pope Capitalization Capitalizing First Words & Titles Capitalize words such as mother, father, aunt, and uncle when these words are used as names. . EX. Mother, can I go to the store? EX. We visited Aunt Michelle in Florida. If the words mother, father, aunt, uncle, etc. are preceded by a possessive (our, my, your, his, her) or the words a or the, then these words are NOT used as names and SHOULD NOT be capitalized. EX. My mother is baking cookies.
Capitalization Directions and Sections Capitalize names of sections of the USA, but not the directions of the compass. EX. Cowboys lived in the wild West. EX. My house is west of Katies house, but east of Johns house. Capitalization Capitalizing Months, Days, and Holidays Capitalize the names of months, days, and holidays, but NOT the names of seasons EX. January, September, Monday, Friday winter, spring, summer, fall
Capitalize Many Abbreviations Capitalize the abbreviations B.C. and A.D., as well as A.M. and P.M. Capitalization Capitalize the first word of a DIRECT Quotation Example: Susan asked, Do you like candy? When a quotation is interrupted, it is called a DIVIDED quotation. DO NOT capitalize the first word of the second part of a divided quotation unless it starts a new sentence. Example: Absolutely, replied Mary, and Capitalization Capitalize only the first word in each line of an outline.
EX. I. Modern poetry A. Elements of Poetry 1. Rhythm and meter 2. Sound devices Capitalization Capitalization in Greetings and Closing of Letters In the greeting of a letter, capitalize all the important words. EX. Dear Mr. Jones, Dear Sir, To Whom It May
Concern In the closing of the letter, capitalize only the first word. EX. Yours truly, Sincerely, Capitalization Capitalizing Titles Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all important words in titles. DO NOT capitalize the, of, a, an unless it is the first word in the title. You will also not want to capitalize any coordinating conjunctions or prepositions of more than one word.
EX. The Cat in the Hat, The Pledge of Allegiance, Gone with the Wind, To Kill a Mockingbird Punctuation Using End Marks (Periods, Question Marks, & Exclamation Points) Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence EX. I like movies. Use a question mark at the end of an interrogative sentence EX. Do you like movies?
Use an exclamation point at the end of an exclamatory sentence or interjection, to express a strong emotion or reaction. Yes! I love movies! Use a period at the end of an imperative sentence (Imperials are kings and queens they can give orders) Do not eat candy before your dinner. Punctuation Using Commas Commas are used to separate ideas in compound sentences.
Use a comma before the conjunction in a compound sentence (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet). EX. It was a long day, but we learned many things. Commas are used after each item in a series except the last one. EX. I like red, orange, blue, and green crayons. Use commas to set off parts of dates, addresses, and geographic names. Punctuation Using Commas
Commas are used to set off introductory elements, interrupters, nouns of direct address, and appositives. Introductory elements: Yes, rain is the forecast again. Carrying my umbrella, I am ready for the day. Interrupters: It could, however, clear up tomorrow. Nouns of direct address: John, will you go with me? Appositives: Mrs. Larson, my favorite teacher, is in room 3. **Appositives positively identify the preceding noun in
Punctuation Using Commas Commas separate 2 independent clauses when placed before a conjunction Independent Clause: part of a sentence that has both a subject and a predicate, and it can stand on its own as a complete sentence. EX. I baked a cake, and then I ate it. (Correct) EX. I baked a cake, and ate it. (Incorrect) If there is no conjunction, there should not be a Punctuation
; Using Semi Colons ; Used to separate independent clauses in compound sentences as a substitute for a comma and a conjunction (Ex. ,and) EX. Mary went to the store, and she bought the necessary groceries. Mary went to the store; she bought the necessary groceries. Punctuation ; Using Semi Colons ;
Used to join two separate sentences into one sentence, as long as the two sentences are closely related. EX. Fishing is a sport. It can also be a job. Fishing is a sport; it can also be a job. Punctuation ; Using Semi Colons ; used to separate independent clauses in compound sentences joined by conjunctive adverbs
however therefore consequently nevertheless nonetheless still otherwise finally furthermore
Mary went to the store; therefore, she bought the necessary groceries. EX. Punctuation ; Using Semi Colons ; used to separate phrases and clauses that contain internal punctuation (commas) EX. My three favorite sandwiches are bacon, lettuce, and tomato; turkey, ham, and swiss; and
peanut butter and jelly. Punctuation : Using Colons : Used to introduce or draw attention to information that follows. Used to introduce a list of things. EX. Here are the supplies I need: pencils, paper, and ruler. Used after a greeting in a business letter
EX. To Whom It May Concern: - Colons are NEVER used after a verb! Punctuation - Using Hyphens Used to divide a word at the end of a line when writing. NEVER divide a one-syllable word! EX. The religion les-son began today Used a hyphen in compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine, and in fractions.
EX. Two-thirds majority EX. Thirty-five Punctuation - Using Hyphens Used to separate parts of some compound terms. EX. His all-encompassing devotion to the cause was recognized when he was promoted at work. Punctuation
- Using Hyphens Some compound terms are hyphenated only when they act as adjectives before the nouns they modify. Other compound terms, such as mother-in-law, brighteyed, and self-respect are always hyphenated. Check a dictionary if you are unsure! AAAWWUBBIS AS ALTHOUGH AFTER WHILE WHEN UNLESS BECAUSE BEFORE
IF SINCE AAAWWUBBIS If AAAWWUBBIS clause comes first, it is followed by comma. If AAAWWUBBIS clause comes after independent clause, there is no comma. I studied. (DEP. Clause) Clause) I ate a snack. (Both IND. Clauses) (IND. Clause) AS I studied, I ate a snack.
studied. (IND. Clause) (DEP. I ate a snack as I AAAWWUBBIS ALTHOUGH I studied, I ate a snack. AFTER I studied, I ate a snack. I ate a snack after I studied. WHILE I studied, I ate a snack. I ate a snack while I studied. WHEN I studied, I ate a snack.
I ate a snack when I studied. UNLESS I study, I will fail. I will fail unless I study. Because I studied, I earned an A. I earned an A because I studied. Before I studied, I played basketball. I played basketball before Comma Splice Review a run-on sentence that does have a comma, but it is missing a coordinating conjunction Coordinating Conjunctions and but for
nor or so yet Comma Splice Practice 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I went to the zoo, I saw many animals. I like broccoli, I dont like carrots. I studied for the test, I earned good
grades. When I did my homework, I ate a snack. Keep your locker clean, you will feel organized. I love hamburgers, but not hot dogs. During our visit, we enjoyed going to the park and the museum. I enjoyed a large Slurpee, it gave me a brain freeze!
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