Conducting a Close Read of Text

Conducting a Close Read of Text

Determining the Meanings of Unknown Words & Phrases Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D., CCC/SLP Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 1 Determining the Meanings of Unknown Words & Phrases Objectives (Targets for Informational Text) Participants will determine intended or precise meanings of words, including domain specific/technical (tier 3) terms, distinguishing connotation/denotation and words with multiple meanings (academic-tier 2 words) based on context, word patterns, word relationships, etymology, or use of specialized sources (e.g. dictionary, glossary, digital tools)

Participants will analyze figurative language (euphemism, oxymoron, hyperbole, paradox) or connotative meanings of words and phrases used in context and the impact of these word choices on meaning and tone. Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 2 Unpack the CCSS-High School Standard Its all About the Verbs and the Nouns box Standard Verbs Nouns Step 1: Choose Step 2: a Standard 9Identify the

12 L. 4a verbs Step 3: Identify the nouns Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown or multiple meaning words and phrases based on grade

9-12 reading and content, choosing Bailey and White 2014 flexibly from a range of Determine Clarify Determine Clarify

Choose Meaning of unknown words Meaning of unknown words Multiple meaning words & phrases Multiple meaning words & Skills Necessary

Step 4: Identify the skills needed Knowledge of word meaning strategies How and when to use contextual clues Knowledge of when to

use word meaning strategies Determining the Meaning of Unknown Words & Phrases Essential Questions How is a strategic reader like a detective? How are words like puzzles? Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 4 Determining the Meaning of Unknown Words & Phrases Essential Question

How is problem solving the meaning of a word like solving an equation? Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 5 Determining the Meaning of Unknown Words & Phrases Essential Question How are a dictionary and word meaning strategies the same? Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 6 Determining the Meanings of

Unknown Words & Phrases Metacognition-Thinking about Thinking Conditional Knowledge- When do I need to use context clues? Declarative or Factual Knowledge-What kinds of clues do I need? (FACADES) Procedural Knowledge- How do I look for these clues? (READ Strategy) Blachowicz and Fisher, 2010 and Carol Westby in Handbook of Language and Literacy Development and Disorders, 2006 Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 7 Vocabulary Tools Vocabulary tools allow a

teacher and students to: Lay a reading foundation Scaffold learning Construct meaning Build knowledge Dig deeper Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 8 FACADES Word Meaning Strategy A faade is a disguise. If we look at the first

three letters in the word, faade, they remind us of the word face. Sometimes people hide who they are by disguising their face or feelings. They are said to have put on a faade. Well, thats what authors do with some words when they write. They disguise the meanings of words within the context of what they have written. The prefix con- means with and the Latin Root, tex- means to weave. Most definitions of words are woven within the text. Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 9 FACADES Word Meaning Strategy FACADES is a brain friendly acronym that classifies and describes the many ways that authors define words. This strategy

also helps the reader to problem solve using new words and their context. Each letter of the word FACADES represents or stands for a type of context clue or definition. The use of the acronym helps the reader to remember each type of contextual clue. This is a prerequisite in using context clues to determine the meanings of unknown words. Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 10 FACADES Word Meaning Strategy F is for Formal definition. A formal definition is a description or explanation of a word or thing by its attributes, properties or relations that distinguish it from all other things. The signal words are: is, means, is called, was, were, and are. Formal definitions are

usually found in non-fiction and expository/informational text. Example: abolitionists- In the years before the Civil War, abolitionists were a group of people who tried to bring slavery to an end. Men and women traveled throughout the states speaking against the evils of slavery. Example: abolitionists were a group of people who tried to bring slavery to an end. Formal definition by description. Signal word, were, Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 11 abolitionists were a group of people who tried to bring slavery to an end.

FACADES Word Meaning Strategy A is for Antonym definition. An antonym definition is a word of opposite meaning. The signal words are: instead, although, but, yet, however, rather, despite, either and/or or. Antonym definitions are usually found in realistic fiction, autobiographies, biographies, folktales and/or fantasy genres. Example: obliterate: Instead of politely asking for modest reforms in seating patterns and more courteous behavior from the drivers, why not try to obliterate the segregation laws in court? If judges agreed, the city would have to give up. Once the buses were integrated, there would be no more need for a bus boycott. Antonym definition defined by a word of opposite meaning. Signal word, instead. Obliterate segregation laws instead of asking for modest reforms in seating patterns and courteous behavior form drivers. Obliterate means to get rid of.

Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 12 FACADES Word Meaning Strategy C is for Compare definition. A compare definition represents something as similar. The reader examines the context for likenesses and differences. This definition often uses similes and/or metaphors. The signal words are: like, as, than, or is. Compare definitions are usually found in biographies, memoirs, realistic fiction, poetry, folktales and/or fantasy genres. Example: battleground: Known as the most segregated city in the south, Birmingham seemed the perfect battleground for the war on segregation. A compare definition represents something as similar. The author uses a metaphor and implies a similarity between

Birmingham, known as the most segregated city in the south and a battleground. Birmingham is engaged in a war on segregation and the inference is that it is a battleground. Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 13 FACADES Word Meaning Strategy A is for Apposition definition. An apposition definition usually has a meaning put in parentheses or is set off by commas or a dash. The signal words are: or, that is, is, are, called. Apposition definitions are usually found in fiction and non-fiction text. Example: Constitution: This time they were using the Constitution, the rule book for their country, to achieve justice. Apposition

definition, meaning set off by a comma. Apposition definition, meaning set off by a comma. The constitution is the rule book. Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 14 FACADES Word Meaning Strategy D is for Description definition. A description definition is defined in terms of appearance and attributes. The signal words are usually adjectives. Description definitions are usually found in autobiographies, biographies, realistic and historical fiction, poetry and non-fiction. Example: tactic: Although [Mahatma Ghandi] he wasnt the first to practice principles of nonviolence and civil disobedience, he gained

fame for successfully spreading the tactic among large numbers of people. Description definition is defined in terms of attributes. Signal words are adjectives. Principles of nonviolence; civil disobedience Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 15 FACADES Word Meaning Strategy E is for Example definition. An example definition is defined in terms of function. The signal words are verbs. Example definitions are usually found in autobiographies, biographies, realistic and historical fiction, poetry and non-fiction. Example: tactic: [Ghandi]he gained fame for successfully spreading the tactic among large

numbers of people. .Indians, he said, must refuse to cooperate with the corrupt government. He urged Indians to boycott British products, ignore British customs and refuse to pay taxes. Example definition is defined in terms of function. Signal words are verbs; refuse, boycott and ignore. Tactic must mean a strategy used. Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 16 FACADES Word Meaning Strategy S is for Synonym definitions. Synonym definitions have one or two words with similar meanings. Synonym definitions are usually found in content area subjects social studies, English Language Arts, narrative and expository texts.

Example-commandeered: Then, on a moonlit May night, nine black slaves stole the Confederate commanders gunship as it lay tied a wharf in front of Confederate headquarters in Charleston Harbor and delivered it to the American navyThe daring slaves had commandeered her from under the noses of twenty-one Confederate troops guarding her from just a few feet away. Synonym definitions have words with similar meanings. commandeered and stole have similar meanings. Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 17 FACADES Word Meaning Strategy S is for Structural Analysis definitions. Structural Analysis definitions are defined in terms of an arrangement or relationship of word elements, root word,

prefixes and/or suffixes. Structural Analysis definitions are usually found in content area subjects, science, math, social studies, narrative and expository texts. Example-: dismantle: [14th Amendment] This amendment was used in several important cases during the Civil Rights Era to dismantle legal segregation, including Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Structural Analysis definitions are defined in terms of prefix and/or root words. The prefix dis- means away from and the root man means hand. I infer that the word dismantle means to take apart by hand. Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 18 Vocabulary Bowl His work included delivering the paper,

setting type, and running the printing press. He liked words so much he wrote three stories himself for the paper. Sams favorite part of the job was __________ the news on the telegraph wire. He learned about the Mexican War of 1846-1848 and the world far beyond Hannibal. a) choosing b) reading c) writing d) delivering Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 19 Vocabulary Bowl His work included delivering the paper, setting type, and running the printing press. He liked words so much he wrote three stories himself for the paper. Sams favorite part of the job was __________ the

news on the telegraph wire. He learned about the Mexican War of 1846-1848 and the world far beyond Hannibal. a) choosing b) reading delivering Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 c) writing d) 20 Vocabulary Bowl Learning to be a steamboat pilot was not easy. Sam had to ___________ all the shallow waters and the shifts and changes and dangerous sandbars of the mighty Mississippi. He filled an entire notebook with information he needed to know about the 1200 miles of the river from New Orleans to St. Louis.

a) observe b) memorize c) navigate d) sail Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 21 Vocabulary Bowl Learning to be a steamboat pilot was not easy. Sam had to ___________ all the shallow waters and the shifts and changes and dangerous sandbars of the mighty Mississippi. He filled an entire notebook with information he needed to know about the 1200 miles of the river from New Orleans to St. Louis. a) observe b) memorize d) sail Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14

c) navigate 22 Vocabulary Bowl Once a boat came, roaring close on wings of foam and we were filled with joy. ___1__ not for long. Thieves! ___2___ moved through us like a bad wind in a storm. a) So d) But b) Still a) Relief b)Excitement Elation Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 c)Thus

c) Fear d) 23 Vocabulary Bowl Once a boat came, roaring close on wings of foam and we were filled with joy. ___1__ not for long. Thieves! ___2___ moved through us like a bad wind in a storm. a) So d) But b) Still a) Relief b)Excitement Elation Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14

c)Thus c) Fear d) 24 Vocabulary Bowl Peace is certainly what Martin had on his mind as he stood next to the marble statue of President Abraham Lincoln, where he spent most of the afternoon helping other speakers put the final touches on their speeches, and shaking hands with people who had come, too, to make their voices heard. As a preacher, my brother knew how to _____________ a crowd. He knew one of the best ways to get folks to listen was to present them with a good gospel singer. a) influence b) excite c) draw d) maintain

Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 25 Vocabulary Bowl Peace is certainly what Martin had on his mind as he stood next to the marble statue of President Abraham Lincoln, where he spent most of the afternoon helping other speakers put the final touches on their speeches, and shaking hands with people who had come, too, to make their voices heard. As a preacher, my brother knew how to _____________ a crowd. He knew one of the best ways to get folks to listen was to present them with a good gospel singer. a) influence maintain

Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 b) excite c) draw d) 26 Vocabulary Bowl Whales are hard to study. Big whales cant be kept in zoos or parks. And theyre hard to watch under water. But scientists are learning about whales anyway. One discovery is that the fluke, or tail, of each whale has its own special pattern. The pattern is just like a fingerprint. Scientists can tell which whale is which by looking at their flukes. By ___________ photographs of whale flukes, scientists are learning how whales travel and live. a) comparing b) hanging c) taking d) showing Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14

27 Vocabulary Bowl Whales are hard to study. Big whales cant be kept in zoos or parks. And theyre hard to watch under water. But scientists are learning about whales anyway. One discovery is that the fluke, or tail, of each whale has its own special pattern. The pattern is just like a fingerprint. Scientists can tell which whale is which by looking at their flukes. By ___________ photographs of whale flukes, scientists are learning how whales travel and live. a) comparing showing b) hanging c) taking d)

Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 28 Vocabulary Bowl Whales use echolocation to find out whats around them. They can find out how deep the water is, how close the nearest whale is, or how big a boat is. They even use echolocation to _________their food. Whales ears are just two tiny holes in their skin, but they can hear sounds 1,000 miles away! a) hear b) locate c) smell d) taste Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 29 Vocabulary Bowl

Whales use echolocation to find out whats around them. They can find out how deep the water is, how close the nearest whale is, or how big a boat is. They even use echolocation to _________their food. Whales ears are just two tiny holes in their skin, but they can hear sounds 1,000 miles away! a) hear b) locate Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 c) smell d) taste 30 Vocabulary Bowl Baleen whales migrate, or __________ when the seasons change. In the summer they migrate north to find food. In the winter they migrate

south so their calves can be born in warm, safe waters. Calves dont have much blubber, so they need to be in warm water. a) hibernate b) swim c) travel d) sleep Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 31 Vocabulary Bowl Baleen whales migrate, or __________ when the seasons change. In the summer they migrate north to find food. In the winter they migrate south so their calves can be born in warm, safe waters. Calves dont have much blubber, so they need to be in warm water.

a) hibernate b) swim c) travel sleep Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 d) 32 Vocabulary Bowl Different kinds of stars lead different lives. Some stars have a lot more gas fuel in them than others. These really massive stars dont die quietly, by cooling down. _1__they blow up in a great flash of light. Stars that _2__ like this are called supernovas. a) But Because b ) And

a) cool shine b) glow Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 c) Instead d) c) explode d) 33 Vocabulary Bowl Different kinds of stars lead different lives. Some stars have a lot more gas fuel in them than others. These really massive stars dont die quietly, by cooling down. _1__they blow up in a great flash of light. Stars that _2__ like this are

called supernovas. a) But Because b ) And a) cool d) shine b) glow Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 c) Instead d) c) explode 34

Vocabulary Bowl I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been _____________ during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. a) spoken b) written c) heard d) transcribed Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 35 Vocabulary Bowl I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have

bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been _____________ during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. a) spoken transcribed Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 b) written c) heard d) 36 Vocabulary Bowl On this day we gather because we have chosen hope over fear, _________ of purpose over conflict and discord. The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our

better history; to carry forward the precious gift, the noble idea passed on from generation to generation: that God-given promise that all are equal, all are free, and all deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness. a) sense b) unity c) mission d) vision Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 37 Vocabulary Bowl On this day we gather because we have chosen hope over fear, _________ of purpose over conflict and discord. The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our better history; to carry forward the precious gift, the noble idea passed on from generation to generation: that God-given promise that all

are equal, all are free, and all deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness. a) sense b) unity Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 c) mission d) vision 38 Vocabulary Bowl Our journey has never been one of shortcuts or settling for less. It has not been the path for the fainthearted-for those who prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasure of riches and fame. ________, it has been the risk takers, the doers, the makers of things a) Although b) Therefore c) Finally d) Rather

Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 39 Vocabulary Bowl Our journey has never been one of shortcuts or settling for less. It has not been the path for the fainthearted-for those who prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasure of riches and fame. ________, it has been the risk takers, the doers, the makers of things a) Although b) Therefore c) Finally d) Rather Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 40

Vocabulary Bowl Our journey has never been one of shortcuts or settling for less. It has been the path for the fainthearted-for those who prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasure of riches and fame. Rather, it has been the risk takers, the doers, the makers of things-some celebrated, but more often men and women_________ in their labor-who have carried us up the long, rugged path towards prosperity and freedom. a) obscure b) working c) faithful d) dedicated Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 41 Vocabulary Bowl Our journey has never been one of shortcuts or settling for less. It has been the path for the

fainthearted-for those who prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasure of riches and fame. Rather, it has been the risk takers, the doers, the makers of things-some celebrated, but more often men and women_________ in their labor-who have carried us up the long, rugged path towards prosperity and freedom. a) obscure dedicated Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 b) working c) faithful d) 42 Vocabulary Bowl Our challenges may be new. The instruments with which we meet them may be new. __1__ those __2__ upon which our success depends-honesty and

hard work, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism-these things are old. These things are true. a) Therefore b) Because Consequently d) But c) a) dreams b) values c) goals d) laws Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 43 Vocabulary Bowl Our challenges may be new. The instruments with which we meet them may be new. __1__ those __2__ upon which our success depends-honesty and

hard work, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism-these things are old. These things are true. a) Therefore b) Because Consequently d) But a) dreams b) values Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 c) c) goals d) laws 44 Vocabulary Bowl We know that our patchwork heritage is a ___________ not a weakness. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews

and Hindus and nonbelievers. We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from every end of this earth. a) diversity b) strength c) foundation d) tradition Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 45 Vocabulary Bowl We know that our patchwork heritage is a ___________ not a weakness. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus and nonbelievers. We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from every end of this earth. a) diversity b) strength d) tradition Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14

c) foundation 46 Vocabulary Bowl Time and again these men and women struggled and sacrificed and worked till their hands were raw so that we might live a better life. They saw America as bigger than the sum of our individual ambitions, greater than all the differences of birth or wealth or faction. This is the journey we continue today. Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of ___________ America. For everywhere we look, there is work to be done. a) remaking b) saving c) studying d) loving Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14

47 Vocabulary Bowl Time and again these men and women struggled and sacrificed and worked till their hands were raw so that we might live a better life. They saw America as bigger than the sum of our individual ambitions, greater than all the differences of birth or wealth or faction. This is the journey we continue today. Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of ___________ America. For everywhere we look, there is work to be done. a) remaking b) saving c) studying d) loving Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14

48 Vocabulary Bowl It was at the Alexandria Museum that ____________ and grammar were invented by Aristophanes. Before this, one word ran into the next with no spaces between them. There were no question marks, periods, or exclamation points either. Reading was hard! a) paragraphs b) parentheses c) punctuation d) passages Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 49 Vocabulary Bowl It was at the Alexandria Museum that

____________ and grammar were invented by Aristophanes. Before this, one word ran into the next with no spaces between them. There were no question marks, periods, or exclamation points either. Reading was hard! a) paragraphs b) parentheses c) punctuation d) passages Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 50 Vocabulary Bowl Despite the comparative comfort of their lives as house slaves, Lydia always reminded Robert of the harsh conditions of her early existence. She instilled in him a longing for freedom and made sure that Robert never

forgot the uniqueness of his conditionShe took him to Beaufort Armory, where slaves were _________. Robert saw families divided and watched black people being bought and sold like animals. a) auctioned b) traded c) whipped d) displayed Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 51 Vocabulary Bowl Despite the comparative comfort of their lives as house slaves, Lydia always reminded Robert of the harsh conditions of her early existence. She instilled in him a longing for freedom and made sure that Robert never forgot the uniqueness of his conditionShe took him to Beaufort Armory, where slaves

were _________. Robert saw families divided and watched black people being bought and sold like animals. a) auctioned displayed Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 b) traded c) whipped d) 52 Vocabulary Bowl Although illiterate, he learned to understand maps and charts. He studied the locations of channels, bars and reefs, and bays and inlets from Charleston to Savannah, Georgia, and memorized the currents and tides so that he had _________ all the elements of

sailing. a) maintained b) mastered c) monitored d) managed Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 53 Vocabulary Bowl Although illiterate, he learned to understand maps and charts. He studied the locations of channels, bars and reefs, and bays and inlets from Charleston to Savannah, Georgia, and memorized the currents and tides so that he had _________ all the elements of sailing. a) maintained b) mastered d) managed Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14

c) monitored 54 Vocabulary Bowl The trees around the ranch began to wilt. The sun baked the farm rock hard. A drought was choking the life out of Arizona. Without _______for the crops, the Chavez family couldnt make money to pay its bills. a) fertilizer b) dirt c) water d) tools Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 55 Vocabulary Bowl The trees around the ranch began to

wilt. The sun baked the farm rock hard. A drought was choking the life out of Arizona. Without _______for the crops, the Chavez family couldnt make money to pay its bills. a) fertilizer b) dirt c) water Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 d) tools 56 Vocabulary Bowl Eratosthenes began his research, unrolling scroll upon scroll, looking for bits and pieces of information that would help him answer his questions. He soon realized that the information he was

looking for was ___________ all over the place-in math scrolls, scrolls about people, and scrolls about history. a) assembled b) contained c) scattered d) unrolled Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 57 Vocabulary Bowl Eratosthenes began his research, unrolling scroll upon scroll, looking for bits and pieces of information that would help him answer his questions. He soon realized that the information he was looking for was ___________ all over the place-in math scrolls, scrolls about people, and scrolls about history. a) assembled b) contained c) scattered

d) unrolled Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 58 Vocabulary Bowl Benjamin borrowed a pocket watch from a merchant traveler. He ________ its many parts carefully. He _________ how each wheel and geared worked. He memorized every detail of the watch. Then he went home and made a drawing of the clocks workings. a) listed b) drew c) studied d) checked Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 59

Vocabulary Bowl Benjamin borrowed a pocket watch from a merchant traveler. He ________ its many parts carefully. He _________ how each wheel and geared worked. He memorized every detail of the watch. Then he went home and made a drawing of the clocks workings. a) listed b) drew c) studied checked Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 d) 60 Vocabulary Bowl It would take Eratosthenes many years. Much of the information about the earth that Eratosthenes wanted to include was

mathematical and could never be found in scrolls or by talking to people from other lands. Eratosthenes had to figure out methods of knowing, of measuring, of describing. And, more than anything, he wanted to _____________ the circumference of the earth. a) calculate b) document c) navigate d) estimate Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 61 Vocabulary Bowl It would take Eratosthenes many years. Much of the information about the earth that Eratosthenes wanted to include was mathematical and could never be found in scrolls or by talking to people from other

lands. Eratosthenes had to figure out methods of knowing, of measuring, of describing. And, more than anything, he wanted to _____________ the circumference of the earth. a) calculate Beryl Irene Bailey, Ed.D. 6-26-14 b) draw c) navigate d) estimate 62

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