Click icon to add picture AL-MUSTANSIRIYAH UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ARTS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSLATION FOURTH YEAR CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR MORNING & EVENING Assistant Professor AHMED QADOURY ABED , Ph.D CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 1 WELCOME CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020
2 COURSE OBJECTIVES The basic objectives of this course are: 1- Examining in details the basic structures of English and Arabic. 2 Training students on identifying points of similarity and differences between English and Arabic. 3 Consolidating students use of these points of similarity and difference in their actual process of translating. 4- Shedding some light on errors and difficulties students of translation may encounter when dealing with idiosyncratic features of both English and Arabic. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020
3 COURSE POLICY The following is the policy adopted in instructing this course: 1- Students are introduced to the subject matter by presenting a number of examples in both English and Arabic. 2- Students are basically asked to find out these points common in the examples. 3- The instructor will present the subject matter with his students to classify these found-out points into points of similarity and points of difference. 4-Students are encouraged to find out these contrast that can pose relatively a sort of difficulty in translating. 5- Further examples are also required for actual consolidation of the subject matter. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 4 LECTURE PROCEDURE PPT lecturing The tentative mark distribution is the following: - the first course is of (7) for first monthly exam+ (3) for attendance + (15) for the first central exam.
- the second course is of (7) for second monthly exam+ (3) for a quiz+ (15) for the second central exam. ----------------------------------This makes (50) marks. + (50) for the final exam= 100 Attendance is obligatory. Participation is obligatory. Good behaviour is incredibly considered. Exam papers are typed and signed by the course tutor. Blue/ black fountain pens are the only tool for answering. Pencil answers will be refused. Postponing a monthly exam leads to (- 2) punishment ,i.e., the exam is out of (5) only English is the only language of lecturing and participating. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 5
TEXTBOOKS Khalil (2010) A Contrastive Grammar of English and Arabic. CH 8 SYNTACTIC CONSTRUCTIONS CH 9 CONJUNCTIONS Aziz (1988). A Contrastive Grammar of English and Arabic. CH 11 ADVERBS CH 8 NUMBER, GENDER, CASE CH 19 THE COMPLEX NOUN PHRASE CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 6 CH 8 SYNTACTIC CONSTRUCTIONS
Topics to be covered in this chapter are: PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS RELATIVE CLAUSES INDIRECT SPEECH CONDITIONAL SENTENCES SENTENCE NEGATION EXISTENTIAL SENTENCES Students are expected to (1) identify the ways to translate the phenomenon. (2) identify these points of similarity and difference between English and Arabic CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 7 PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS TYPES OF PASSIVE
1- agentive vs. agentless The glass was broken (by John). The glass was broken with a stone. The letter was mailed yesterday. 2-Get passive 3-Causative passive 4- Pseudopassive 5- Adjectival passive CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 8 GET PASSIVE He got killed in the accident. The door got damaged. He didnt get hurt. They got the car washed. (1)The GET passive is commonly used in informal ,colloquial style. (2) Get passive is more common than Be passive. (3) Unlike BE passive, GET passive occurs only
with verbs that express actions and processes. (4) It is used with get married/ divorced/ washed/ started/ dressed/ engaged/ arrested/ run over. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 9 CAUSATIVE PASSIVE I had my car washed yesterday. I had the oil changed last week. The focus is on what is done and the intention of the subject. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 10 PSEUDOPASSIVE
History is repeated. History repeats itself. A pseudopassive has an intransitive verb but with no passive BE, and the subject refers to the recipient of the action. An agent is implied. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 11 ADJECTIVE PASSIVE The door was broken .(no agent implied) This sentence is ambiguous. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 12
:: : Iv-prepositional phrase : : : v- in MSA ) : This indicates that the formations and structures of passive are different in English and Arabic. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 13 FUNCTIONS OF PASSIVE 1- the passive is used to foreground the object and background the subject.
2-the passive enables the writer to generates agentless sentences. 3-the passive gives prominence to the agent of the active sentence. 4- for discoursal function by packaging information 5-the passive enables the writer to elaborate about the agent. 6-the passive is used to create suspense in speech. 7- the passive is used as a stylistic hook in the sentence. CONTRASTIVE AHMED ABED used in scientific 8- the GRAMMAR... passive isQADOURY mainly 14 02/24/2020 2015 FUNCTIONS IN ARABIC The passive is used when the agent of the action is unknown or when the writer chooses to hide the identity of the agent. Different appellations are used to describe passive: ) -1
-2 -3 -4 ) -5 These eight functions of passive are found in both English and Arabic. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 15 CONSTRAINTS ON THE USE OF PASSIVE IN ENGLISH 1- Sentences with reflexive verbs have no passive: Mary hurt herself/ *Herself was hurt by Mary. 2-The following transitive stative verbs do not passivize: resemble, contain, possess, lack, have, cost, weigh, marry , fit. 3-the following ditransitive verbs do not allow the indirect object to become subject in a passive sentence: mix , pour, fetch, make: He fetched me the report.
-* I was fetched the report. 4-some verbs occur only on passive: -He was born in London. -It is rumored that the President will resign. 5- Modals will express different meanings in active and passive: -He cannot do it.(ability) AHMED QADOURY ABED -ItCONTRASTIVE cannotGRAMMAR... be done .(possibility) 2015 02/24/2020 16 CONSTRAINTS ON THE USE OF PASSIVE IN ARABIC Some verbs only occur in passive: (turn purple)
This indicates that both English and Arabic have certain constraints on the use of passive. While Arabic constraints are lexical , English has both lexical and syntactic. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 17 CONCLUDING REMARKS 1- English has two passives :agentive and agentless, Arabic has only agentless. 2- Different types, formations and functions for English and Arabic passive. 3-English passive is marked more than the Arabic
one. Thus , literature has proved more difficulties encountered by Arab (Iraqi) EFL learners. 4- English agentive passive can be rendered into: - an Arabic active sentence -an Arabic passive sentence This poem was written by Shakespeare. ) CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 18 RELATIVE CLAUSES
Relative clauses (RC) are adjectival clauses postmodifying the referent of the head noun. The man who is standing in the corner is your history teacher. Positions of RC 1- Subject (as in the above sentence) 2- Object (The boy (whom) you met is my brother) 3- Indirect object (The boy (whom) you sent the letter to is John) 4- Object of preposition (The boy from whom you received the letter is John) 5- Genitive (The boy whose car is BMW is John) 6- Object of comparison (The boy who(m) Ali is taller than is John) CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 19
TYPES OF RC Three types are found: 1- Restrictive RC to provide information necessary for the identification of the antecedent noun mentioned in the noun clause: The boy standing in the corner is Chinese. I enjoyed the meal which/that/ you made us. 2- Non-Restrictive RC doesnt or define the meaning/reference of the antecedent proper noun mentioned in the main clause: John, who always makes jokes, never comes to class on time. This is Mr. Johnson, who sent the telegram last week. They took Ali to the park , which was very helpful. 3-Free RC are headless ,i.e., they do not refer back to any head noun phrase in the main clause: I will stay where you stay. Whoever designed this project is a genius. Take whichever you like. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 20 DIFFERENT IMPLICATION
Lets examine this pair: 1- My sister who lives in London is leaving for Baghdad tomorrow. 2- My sister,who lives in London,is leaving for Baghdad tomorrow. In sentence (1) the restrictive RC identifies which of my sisters is referred to . It implies that I have other sisters who live somewhere else. In contrast, the non-restrictive RC in (2) implies that I have only one sister. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 21 ANOTHER PROBLEM Lets see the following: 1- He knows (the place) where we are going. 2- I know (the time) when we are going. 3- I know (the reason) why we are going. These three sentences contain optional elements usually appear in translation. This element is a relative adverb, the head NPs can be optionally
deleted. However, if the relative adverb how is used , the head NP must be deleted: -This is how he dresses/danced/played.(head NP deletion) -This is the way he dresses/dances/plays. (relative adverb deletion) CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 22 CHOICE OF RELATIVE PRONOUN 1- in the following RC, that cant replace which since it is preceded by a preposition: The novel for which he won the prize is selling like hot cakes. 2- The relative pronoun cant be omitted when
it functions as subject, in contrast it can be omitted when used as object: The boy who was leaving for London was seen again. The boy (whom) I saw yesterday left for London. 3- whom is used in formal style. It can be replaced by both who or that ,except when preceded by a preposition: The man whom/who/that/ I saw yesterday left for London. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 23 ARABIC RC
They are known as Arabic relative pronoun agrees with antecedent NP in number , gender ,and case (only in dual) and with the resumptive pronoun in number and gender A resumptive pronoun is a pronoun that marks the position of the relativized noun in RC, with exception of subject position: . / / / / .// / . // / / / . / . / . / / .. / In the second ,third and fifth examples the head is deleted. The resumptive pronoun cant be deleted when:
It is preceded by a preposition, as in the fifth example. It is coreferent to an indefinite antecedent, as in the fourth example. The object is an independent accusative pronoun / It is clear that the grammatical function of the relativized noun is assumed by the relative pronoun ,whereas it is assumed by the resumptive pronoun in Arabic CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 24 POSITIONS OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS : There are five positions: 1- Subject: 2-Direct object: 3-Indirect object
4-Object of preposition 5- Genitive As indirect object, the relative pronoun is : deleted when it preceded by / : / : Both English and Arabic have the same positions for the RC. 25
02/24/2020 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 TYPES OF RC In Arabic we have two types of RC depending the grammatical definiteness of the head NP: 1- Syndetic (definite): : 2- Asyndetic (indefinite): :
Also we have free (or headless) RC: English and Arabic have different types of RC, even free RC or headless RC is in both CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 26 MSA Arabic allows the conversion of verbal RC into participial phrases: I visited the city whose houses have been destroyed. . . ) . :
. ) . : Also sentential relativization is rendered by a special construction: John has resigned ,which surprised us all. . / . :) CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 27 CONTRASTS In addition to those mentioned above , the following can also be seen: 1- In English, the relative pronoun appears whether the antecedent is definite or indefinite. In contrast, in Arabic, the relative pronoun is used only if the antecedent is definite. 2- Instances of reduced RC are there in English where the relative pronoun and BE are deleted. In contrast, in Arabic, this is not possible. 3- English allows the possibility of deleting the relative pronoun when functions as
object, whereas this is not possible in Arabic. 4-CONTRASTIVE English allows preposition fronting (i.e., a GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 28 INDIRECT SPEECH Direct speech is a direct quotation of the speakers speech. Quotation marks are used. Verbs like said, told, etc. ,are used preceded by a comma: I will resign, said John. John said that he would resign.
Indirect or reported speech triggers shifts in tense, pronouns, demonstratives, time and place adverbials word order and sentence types. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 29 ARABIC INDIRECT SPEECH Arabic indirect speech does not trigger tense backshift: . . / ) The past tense is represented by using ) and still the main verb in the future, since no coincidence between the two verbs in one sentence( or no
sequence).English has such sequence. The time adverbial can be retained or changed into .English enforces the second alternative. Three differences between English and Arabic,what are these? CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 30 ARABIC INDIRECT SPEECH Since Arabic has no auxiliaries, the word order of the sentence does not change: . : Two differences are there? 1- no change in sentence word order 2- a change in sentence type
CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 31 ARABIC INDIRECT SPEECH The demonstratives change from the near forms to the distant forms: / . ) : . . / ) English and Arabic are similar? CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015
02/24/2020 32 CONTRAST The major differences between English and Arabic are related to triggering backshifts shifts in tense and word order. Can you find more ! CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 33 CONDITIONAL SENTENCE
It is a type of subordinate or adverbial clauses, consists of two clauses :main clause (Apodosis) and conditional clause (Protasis). The latter sets the condition, whereas the former contains the consequential statement whose fulfillment depends on the fulfillment of the proposition expressed in the conditional clause. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 34 TYPES English has two types: 1. Real/possible 2. Unreal/impossible But according to the sequence of verb forms in the two clauses, three types can be stated: 1-Real condition If John leaves early, he will catch the 8 oclock train. 2-Unreal condition in the present
If John left early, he would catch the 8 oclock train. 3-Unreal condition in the past If John had left early, he would have caught the 8 oclock train. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 35 OTHER TYPES 1- English has conditionals without if: Had John left early, he would catch the 8 oclock train. (subject-auxiliary inversion). 2- English has the following: If we boil water ,it vaporizes.(factual condition)
If I want something, I buy it. If you see Marry ,please tell her about the meeting.(predictive condition) Please feel free to call me should you have any questions about the project. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 36 ARABIC CONDITIONALS Arabic conditionals consist of two parts : 1. ( conditional clause) 2. / ( main clause) Normally the conditional clause precedes the main clause. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 37 ARABIC CONDITIONAL PARTICLES
Arabic has three particles: / These three particles determine the type of condition expressed. The first two occur in fulfillable conditions ,while the third in unfulfillable conditions. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 38 FULFILLABLE CONDITION / expresses possible condition. The verb of the conditional clause is in the perfect / or imperfect .
The main clause has prefixed to the verb ,if is not in the perfect / . .. / (.. . / / / . ) / CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 expresses probability. The verb of the conditional clause must be in the perfect / . The main clause has prefixed to the
verb, if is not in the perfect / . .. .. .. 02/24/2020 39 UNFULFILLABLE CONDITIONALS They are known conditionals. is used as contrary-to-fact
.. If he came ,I would tell him about the accident. If he had come ,I would have told him about the accident. The two verbs in the Arabic sentence are in / . It is clear that fulfillable conditionals correspond to the English real and unreal conditions in the present. The unfulfillable conditionals ,on the other hand, correspond to the English unreal conditions in the past . CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 40 CONTRASTS
Both English and Arabic classify their conditional sentences into real and unreal depending on the possibility ,probability ,or impossibility of fulfilling the proposition. English uses one conditional particle if ,whereas Arabic uses three , / . In Arabic the use of different conditional particles determines the type of the sentences whereas English ones are determined by verb forms. English conditional clauses can precede or follow the main clause ,whereas in Arabic ,conditional clause typically precedes the main clause. In the third type ,English uses past participle ,whereas Arabic uses the perfect. Unlike Arabic, English can have conditionals
without if . There is an agreement in tense between the two verbs in the English two clauses (main and conditional), whereas no such agreement exists in Arabic conditionals. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 41 NEGATION English negation can be realized by : Not Never ,nobody, no ,nothing , etc. Semi-negatives like scarcely, rarely, hardly, little ,few How to make a negative sentence? CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 42
TYPES Three types of negation 1- Clausal Negation: I havent seen her. 2- Local Negation: They live not far from here. 3- Affixal Negation: That is untrue. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 43 SCOPE OF NEGATION
The scope of negation refers to the effect of negative items on the part of the clause that follows them. Compare : She didnt type some of the reports. Vs She didnt type any of the reports. In the first sentence, she typed some reports, but not all indicating that some reports were not typed. In the second sentence, she didnt type any reports some all are still not typed. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 44 ARABIC NEGATION Four negative particles: /
Their use is governed by the tense /aspect of the verb they negate . CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 45 It is used to negate : - a verb in a verbal sentence ( . : ) / ( . / / : ) / * / - a noun phrase in an equational sentence . .
46 02/24/2020 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 / negates the verb in the imperfect jussive. / . ( )1 / / / / / negates the verb and the negation extends to the moment of speaking ,implying that action may happen in the future /
47 02/24/2020 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 , this negative particle negates: Like )A verb in a verbal sentence (imperfect / . / / . . / . A noun phrase in an equational sentence .
. . 5 48 02/24/2020 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 This negative particle negates imperfect verbs in the subjunctive mood and expresses an emphatic future negation / / . / ( )24/ . . . / ( )55/
49 02/24/2020 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 This defective verb is one of . It typically / the auxiliary verb negates an equational sentence. It is marked for person, number , and gender if there is no explicit subject
It brings the existence of a proposition to the hearers attention It has nonreferential there or it CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 51 THERE- CONSTRUCTIONS This type of sentences has two subjects (1)there and (2) the NP that follows the verb There is called grammatical subject The NP is the notional subject It has a textual function: to move the indefinite NP to the position following the verb ,for end focus . CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015
02/24/2020 52 THERE-CONSTRUCTIONS indefinite NP indefinite NP +L comp predicate comp relative clause There + copula + indefinite NP+nonfinite cl NP + infinitive L comp There + intransitive verb +indefinite NP CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015
02/24/2020 53 INTRANSITIVE VERBS A limited number of intransitive verbs can occur in existential sentences: Verbs of existence :exist, stand, lie, dwell Verbs of motion or direction: go, come, fly, walk Verbs denoting that something is developing or happening: happen, arise, occur, emerge, appear, take place CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 54
IT-CONSTRUCTIONS This empty it occurs in sentences denoting time, distance, weather ,and temperature: Its ten oclock. Its 50 miles to Basrah. Its snowing. It has a syntactic function in clefting to highlight a particular sentence constituent or extrapose a clausal subject: It is a letter that John wrote. It is a pleasant meeting you. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 55 HAVE-CONSTRUCTION
I have a brother working in London. We have five books missing from the library. Instead of My brother works in London. Five books are missing from the library. CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 56 ARABIC EXISTENTIAL SENTENCES Arabic uses a prepositional phrase and an adverb of place to form
existential sentences: . / . / . / . )MSA( / CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015 02/24/2020 57 WE DID IT BE READY FOR CH9 CONJUNCTIO NS CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR... AHMED QADOURY ABED 2015
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