Community-Acquired Pneumonia Clinical Decision Support ...

Community-Acquired Pneumonia Clinical Decision Support ...

Community-Acquired Pneumonia Clinical Decision Support Training Emergency Department Setting Disclaimers and Acknowledgements This project was funded under contract/grant number HHSP233201500023I from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors and do not reflect the official position of AHRQ or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The findings and conclusions in this document are those of the author(s), who are responsible for its content, and do not necessarily represent the views of AHRQ. No statement in this report should be construed as an official position of AHRQ or of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This document is in the public domain and may be used and reprinted without permission except

those copyrighted materials that are clearly noted in the document. Further reproduction of those copyrighted materials is prohibited without the specific permission of copyright holders. Note: under the Social Security Act [42 USC 1320b-10 (a)(2)(B)], reprinting or distribution of AHRQ or other HHS materials for a fee is prohibited without prior specific, written authorization. Table of Contents Context Background on Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Infectious Diseases Society of America/American

Thoracic Society Guidelines on Management of CAP Site of Care Decision CURB-65 Criteria for 30-Day Mortality Demonstration BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Community-Acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the 8 leading cause of death in the U.S.a

6 million cases of CAP reported annually a High incidence among adults 65+ b CAP is among the top most commonly missed diagnoses a: FastStats: Pneumonia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_02.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2017. b: Stupka, J., Mortensen, E., Anzueto, A., et. al. Community-acquired pneumonia in elderly patients. Aging Health. 2009;5 (6): 763-774. PMID: 21721597. th IDSA/ATS Consensus Guidelines on Management of CAP in Adults

Almost all of the major decisions regarding management of CAP, including diagnostic and treatment issues, revolve around the initial assessment of severity. c The initial management decision after diagnosis is to determine the appropriate site of care. c Outpatient Hospitalization on a medical unit Admission to ICU c: Mandell, L., Wunderink, R., Anzueto, A., et. al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007; 44, S27-S72.

http://www.thoracic.org/statements/resources/mtpi/idsaats-cap.pdf. Severity of Illness Scores Can be used to identify patients with CAP who may be candidates for outpatient treatment. d Strong recommendation (most patients should receive this intervention). Level I evidence (high) Evidence from well conducted, randomized controlled trials. d: Mandell, L., Wunderink, R., Anzueto, A., et. al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007; 44,

S27-S72. http://www.thoracic.org/statements/resources/mtpi/idsaats-cap.pdf. Site of Care Cost of inpatient care of pneumonia is up to 25 times greater than outpatient care. e Those treated in the outpatient setting are able to resume normal activity sooner. e 80% of patients prefer outpatient therapy. e Hospitalization increases risk of thromboembolic events and superinfection by more virulent or resistant hospital

bacteria. e e: Mandell, L., Wunderink, R., Anzueto, A., et. al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007; 44, S27-S72. http://www.thoracic.org/statements/resources/mtpi/idsaats-cap.pdf. CURB-65 Criteria for 30-Day Mortality The CURB-65 test provides a severity of illness score.f It requires five data elements commonly collected for patients presenting with symptoms consistent with pneumonia: Element Confusion Specifications Based on specific test or disorientation to person, place, or

time Uremia Respiratory rate Low Blood Pressure BUN >20 mg/dL 30 Systolic < 90 mm Hg or diastolic 60 Age 65+ f: Mandell, L., Wunderink, R., Anzueto, A., et. al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007; 44, S27-S72. http://www.thoracic.org/statements/resources/mtpi/idsaats-cap.pdf.

CURB-65 Scores Predict 30-Day Mortality Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 30-Day Mortality 0.7% 2.1% 9.2% 14.5% 40%

57% Management Treat as outpatient Treat as outpatient Admit to wards ICU ICU ICU CURB-65 CDS Tool Automatically extracts data from EHR (age, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and BUN when available) and calculates score Advisory appears after chest X-ray imaging results are

available Provides option to add 1 to score if patient is found to be confused Displays patient-specific 30-day mortality and guidelinerecommended site of care Records CURB-65 score in EHR and the clinicians decision regarding disposition Important Notes from the IDSA/ATS Guideline Objective criteria or scores should always be supplemented with physician determination of subjective factors, including the ability to safely and reliably take oral medication and the availability of

outpatient support resources. i Strong recommendation Level II evidence For patients with CURB-65 scores 2, more intensive treatment i.e., hospitalization or, where appropriate and available, intensive in-home health care servicesis usually warranted. i Moderate recommendation (Even if a majority would follow the recommended management, many practitioners may not) Level III evidence (evidence from case studies and expert opinion) i: Mandell, L., Wunderink, R., Anzueto, A., et. al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus

guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007; 44, S27-S72. http://www.thoracic.org/statements/resources/mtpi/idsaats-cap.pdf. CAP CDS alert for the ED setting using CURB-65 DEMONSTRATION Demonstration of the CAP CDS Alert Tool After the chest x-ray is marked as Complete by the radiology technician, the pneumonia advisory will be triggered as an interruptive alert if the patient is over 18 and comes in with one of the chief complaints listed below: Chief Complaints Cough

Respiratory difficulties Respiratory distress Breathing problem Shortness of breath Demonstration of the CAP CDS Alert (cont.) Review CURB-65 score and recommendation. Demonstration of the CAP CDS Alert (cont.)

Review CURB-65 criteria. Data for the criteria come from: Criteria Data Source Confusion Recorded by nurse in flow sheet BUN

Last in 24 hours Respiratory rate Last respiratory rate in vitals section Blood pressure Last blood pressure in vitals section Age As recorded in chart, based on DOB listed

Demonstration of the CAP CDS Alert (cont.) Click hyperlink for more details, including CURB-65 scores with associated mortality rates and guidelines. Demonstration of the CAP CDS Alert (cont.) Make site of care decision and indicate agreement or disagreement with the site of care recommendation.

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