Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Part 1 Ecosystem: interactions among populations in a community Consists
of: A community of organisms The soil, water, and weather Energy
Succession: changes over time Primary succession gradual growth of an ecosystem over a long period of time. Example: Hawaii. Rock -> Lichen -> moss -> grass -> shrub -> tree -> vines
Succession: changes over time Pioneer species first species in an area
Succession: changes over time Climax community shows little or no change over time Secondary succession (previously supported vegetation) sequence of life after natural disasters (examples: Forest fires, glaciers, avalanches, flood, hurricane, tsunami, tornadoes). 1988 forest fire in
Yellowstone Natl Park Chapters 3-4 Communities and Biomes / Population Part 2 Biome - a major ecosystem that shares the
same type of climate and has similar life forms. 1. Salt water 2. Freshwater
3. Estuary (mix of salt and fresh water) 4.
Terrestrial (dry land) CLIMATOGRAM Measures two things: Average Temperature
Average Precipitation Tundra (Alpine and Arctic) Permafrost - permanently frozen ground Plants - short roots; fast growing; perennials.
Animals have thick fur / body fat / coloration. Taiga / Coniferous Forest Conifers - cone-bearing trees / bending branches / needles as leaves. Animals also have thick fur / body fat.
Temperate / Deciduous Forest Broad - leaved trees lose their leaves yearly. Some birds migrate. Tropical Rain Forest Arboreal - tree-dwelling animals Trees / Plants: 1. Canopy 2. Understory 3. Ground
Desert Most desert animals are nocturnal. Estivation - sleeping during hot days. Plants have waxy leaves / spines. Grasslands (Savanna and Temperate)
What are Steppes? Most animals have good vision and speed. Plants have underground stems / survive fires. Aquatic Biomes Freshwater Ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands.
Marine Oceans, coral reefs, estuaries. Population Dynamics Exponential Growth - as a population gets larger, it also grows faster.
Carrying capacity - the maximum number of organisms that an environment can support. Limiting factors: Factors that affect an organisms ability to survive. Density
dependent factors: Disease Competition Parasites Food & water
Space Density independent factors (abiotic factors): Temperature Storms Floods Drought
Habitat disruption (logging, burning, draining swamps, moving in exotic species) Demography - human population growth Immigration - moving in
Emigration - moving out Natality - birth rate Fatality - death rate
Diode - AC Performance. Vd = 0.6 V for Forward Current. Open Circuit for Reverse Current. Reverse Recovery Characteristic - a measure of the time it takes to 'turn off' the current during trnasition from forward bias to reverse bias
CMAS Science and Social Studies Content Standards Roster (Page 2) PGC and GLE performance. Header includes the points possible and the average percentage for state, district, and school. PGC and GLE number is the same as on the SPR.
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