Communities and Biomes - RCAS

Communities and Biomes - RCAS

Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Part 1 Ecosystem: interactions among populations in a community Consists

of: A community of organisms The soil, water, and weather Energy

Succession: changes over time Primary succession gradual growth of an ecosystem over a long period of time. Example: Hawaii. Rock -> Lichen -> moss -> grass -> shrub -> tree -> vines

Succession: changes over time Pioneer species first species in an area

Succession: changes over time Climax community shows little or no change over time Secondary succession (previously supported vegetation) sequence of life after natural disasters (examples: Forest fires, glaciers, avalanches, flood, hurricane, tsunami, tornadoes). 1988 forest fire in

Yellowstone Natl Park Chapters 3-4 Communities and Biomes / Population Part 2 Biome - a major ecosystem that shares the

same type of climate and has similar life forms. 1. Salt water 2. Freshwater

3. Estuary (mix of salt and fresh water) 4.

Terrestrial (dry land) CLIMATOGRAM Measures two things: Average Temperature

Average Precipitation Tundra (Alpine and Arctic) Permafrost - permanently frozen ground Plants - short roots; fast growing; perennials.

Animals have thick fur / body fat / coloration. Taiga / Coniferous Forest Conifers - cone-bearing trees / bending branches / needles as leaves. Animals also have thick fur / body fat.

Temperate / Deciduous Forest Broad - leaved trees lose their leaves yearly. Some birds migrate. Tropical Rain Forest Arboreal - tree-dwelling animals Trees / Plants: 1. Canopy 2. Understory 3. Ground

Desert Most desert animals are nocturnal. Estivation - sleeping during hot days. Plants have waxy leaves / spines. Grasslands (Savanna and Temperate)

What are Steppes? Most animals have good vision and speed. Plants have underground stems / survive fires. Aquatic Biomes Freshwater Ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands.

Marine Oceans, coral reefs, estuaries. Population Dynamics Exponential Growth - as a population gets larger, it also grows faster.

Carrying capacity - the maximum number of organisms that an environment can support. Limiting factors: Factors that affect an organisms ability to survive. Density

dependent factors: Disease Competition Parasites Food & water

Space Density independent factors (abiotic factors): Temperature Storms Floods Drought

Habitat disruption (logging, burning, draining swamps, moving in exotic species) Demography - human population growth Immigration - moving in

Emigration - moving out Natality - birth rate Fatality - death rate

Growth rate

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