Group & Team Communication Prepared by : Lily Suriani Mohd Ariff & Siti Rokiah Siwok for UHS 2052 students at UTM SKUDAI, MALAYSIA Introduction People seldom work in isolation ( Mullins, 2006). Groups are characteristics of all social situations
( Mullins, 2006). Most of a persons behaviour takes place in groups or teams; thus important to understand group dynamics (Aamodt, 2007) People in groups influence each other in various ways. Groups may develop hierarchies and leaders . Styles of leadership affect groups. Many other factors affect groups. Introduction
Groups are crucial to the functions of work, because through groups: Members can pool their resources (talents , energy etc) Provide professional identities for members Satisfies the human need for social interaction Develop of interpersonal relationships. Etc. ( Riggio, 2009)
Some Definitions of a group Any no. of people interacting with one another, psychologically aware of one another and perceived themselves to be in a group ( Schein, 1988 in Mullins 2006). A group is two or more individuals engaged in social interaction to achieve some goal (Riggio, 2009) A definable membership, group consciousness, shared purpose, interdependence, interaction and ability to act in a unitary manner ( Adair, 1986 in
Mullins 2006) Some Definitions of a group Four criteria must be met (Gordon, 2001 in Aamodt, 2010): Members see themselves as a unit Group must provide rewards to members Members of the group share a common goal Corresponding effects(whatever happens to a member affects every other member).
Some Definitions of a group People who are related by: Perceptions Motivation Goals Organization Interdependence Interaction
6 A group is. A collection of individuals who influence one another, have a common purpose, take on roles, are interdependent and interact with one another. 7
Why do we join groups? 8 Reasons why people join groups Psychological and social needs Achieve goals Information and knowledge Security
Positive social identity Proximity Assignment 9 What are the factors affecting groups? Factors affecting Group Performance
Group Cohesiveness Group homogeneity Stability of membership Isolation External pressure Group size Group status Group ability and
confidence Personality of group members Communication network Culture Group roles Presence of others Individual dominance Groupthink
Factors affecting Group Performance: Cohesiveness Group cohesiveness It is the extent to which group members like and trust each other, committed to accomplish a team goal and share a feeling of group pride ( Beale, Cohen, Burke & McLendon, 2003 in Aamodt, 20010) Cohesiveness is the degree of attraction among group members ( Riggio, 2009)
Cohesiveness Cohesiveness increases member satisfaction, but only increases productivity when it is work-related. Cohesiveness increases when group members have equal status. Cohesiveness increases with increased stability of group membership. Greater similarity of group members increases cohesiveness. The we-they feeling is cohesiveness created by
the existence of a threat to the group. Group Cohesiveness Group Cohesiveness are influenced by many elements: 1. Group homogeneity It is the extent to which members are similar Homogeneous or heterogeneous will lead to the best group performance?
2. Stability of membership The greater the stability, the greater the cohesiveness Thus members who remain for long periods of time are more cohesive and perform better than groups that have high turnover (Bell, 2005 in Aamodt, 2007) Group Cohesiveness 3. Isolation Group that is isolated tends to be highly cohesive
4. External pressure Groups that are pressured by external forces tend to be highly cohesive; which can be explained by the phenomena psychological reactance ( Brehm, 1966 in Aamodt, 2007) 5. Group size Groups are most cohesive and perform best when the size is small. However, not all small group are always the best; also depends on the tasks.
Group cohesiveness: Group Size Smaller is best for cohesiveness Performance depends on task type additive tasks conjunctive tasks disjunctive tasks 16
Group Size and tasks Additive tasks are the those for which the groups performance is equal to the sum of the performances by each group member. Each group members contribution is important. Larger group is better than small group Group Size and tasks
Conjunctive tasks are those for which groups performance depends on the least effective groups member. Smaller groups are best. Disjunctive tasks are those for which the groups performance is based on the most talented group members. Larger groups are better. Examples of Task Types Task Type
Group Activity Additive Typing pool Relay race Bowling team Car washing Problem solving
Brain storming Golf tournament Assembly line Hiking Disjunctive Conjunctive 19
Group Size: variations The additional of a new member to a group has the greatest effect when the group is small. Example: a single great player can turn a poor basketball into a victorious team. The effect of size is also different with different apparatus used. Example: With the use of computers, larger groups appear to perform best and members are most
satisfied ( Dennis, Valacich and Nunamaker, 1990 etc in Aamodt, 2010) Group Cohesiveness 6. Group status The higher the group status, the greater is the cohesiveness; thus a group can be made more cohesive by increasing its status, at least in the eyes of the members.
Cohesiveness and Productivity i. Cohesiveness - the ability of group members to get along, the feeling of loyalty, pride, and commitment of members towards the group. May be viewed as the output of a groups social dimension. ii.
Productivity - the output from a groups task dimension. To the extent that a group accomplishes its task, it is productive. Cohesiveness and Productivity iii. iv.
Cohesiveness and productivity arecharacteristics that describe to some degree the success of the group process in every group. In every group, both cohesiveness and productivity exist in some amount. That is, a groups productivity or cohesiveness should each be visualized as some point along the continuum. For example, in terms of cohesiveness a group may be low, moderately low, moderately high, high, and so forth.
Cohesiveness and Productivity Common sense would dictate a direct relationship between cohesiveness and productivity-that is the more cohesive a group is, the more productive it is likely to be. And this dictum is true-up to a point.
As a group raises its level of cohesiveness, the more likely it is to raise its level of productivity. Conversely, the more productive the group, the greater the likelihood it will be more cohesive. However, the relationship breaks down toward the upper end of the two continuums. Cohesiveness and Productivity
Extremely cohesive groups are more likely to have moderate to low productivity. Although the productivity of highly cohesive groups probably doesnt sink to the level of groups that are extremely low in cohesiveness, such groups are not nearly as likely to be as productive as groups with moderately high cohesiveness. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
COHESIVENESS AND PRODUCTIVITY 1. The group may have been together so long that its original purpose-its task-has suffered simply because the members enjoy each others company too much. 2. A group which is highly cohesive but has low productivity has a great deal of reserve productivity. That is, the group is capable of much more productivity but simply does not expend the effort to be productive. Hence,
its productivity lies dormant or in reserve. Exhibit 155 The Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1527 Factors affecting Group Performance
Group ability and confidence Groups with high-ability members outperform groups with low-ability members Groups whose members believe that their team can be successful perform better than those whose members are not confident. Personality of group members Groups with members who score high in openness and emotional stability will perform better that groups
whose members do not have these characteristics ( Bell, 2005 in Aamodt, 2007) Factors affecting Group Performance Communication network Communication network affects groups performance The best network depends on the situation and the goals of the group. A good leader must choose the best
communication network which facilitates the achievement of the groups goals. Factors Affecting Group Performance: Group Roles Roles are patterns of behavior that are adapted based on expectations about the functions of a position in a group. Role expectations are beliefs concerning the responsibilities and requirements of a
particular role. Role differentiation is the process by which group members learn to perform various roles. (Riggio, 2009) Factors Affecting Group Performance: Group Roles Early researchers (Benne and Sheats, 1948 cited in ) identified three categories of work
roles in groups. Group task roles are related to getting the job done (e.g., leader, evaluator). Group building and maintenance roles deal with maintaining personal relationships among members (e.g., encourager, compromiser). Self-centered roles involve satisfying personal rather than group goals (e.g., recognition seeker, aggressor).
Group Task Roles Coordinator Initiator-contributor Orienter Information seeker Evaluator/critic Information giver Energizer Opinion seeker
Recorder Opinion giver Tester of agreements Elaborator Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 32
Group Building and Maintenance Roles Encourager Harmonizer Compromiser Gatekeeper Standard setter Follower Feeling expresser Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
Help seeker Withdrawer Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 34 More elaboration on roles Riggio, 2009, page 310
Riggio, 2009 page 310 Factors Affecting Group Performance: Presence of Others Social Facilitation and Inhibition mere presence of others comparison of performance evaluation apprehension distraction
Social Loafing effort wont be noticed free-rider theory sucker-effect theory 38 Factors affecting Group Performance :Individual Dominance By the group leader
If the leader has an accurate solution to a problem in the group, then the group performs at high level. By a group member 39 Factors affecting Group Performance: Groupthink
Groupthink is a syndrome characterized by a concurrence-seeking tendency that overrides the ability of a cohesive group to make critical decisions. Factors affecting Group Performance: Groupthink Can occur when the group : is cohesive is insulated from outsiders
believes it is infallible it is morally superior is under pressure to conform has a leader who promotes a favorite solution has gatekeepers who keep information from members Aamodt, 2010 41
Riggio, 2009, page 334 Culture and its effect on groups Individualistic assumptions vs Collective Assumptions Individualist Assumptions Individuals make better decisions
Leaders should do the planning Individuals should be rewarded Competition is good Working individually is the best way to reach goals Groups are a waste of time 45 Collectivist Assumptions
Groups decision supersedes individual decisions Group should do the planning Rewards should be shared by the group Teamwork is more important than competition Group is the best way to reach goals Commitment to group is strong when group reaches consensus 46
Types and Purpose of Small Groups What is a small group? 1. A small group is a collection of individuals, few enough in number so all member may communicate with relative ease and function both senders and receivers. 2. The ideal number is 5-7 people ( Sieler and Beal,
2011) Generally, a small group consists of approximately 5-12 people. The important point to keep in mind is that each member should be able to function both as sender and receiver with relative ease. If the group gets larger than 12 members, this becomes difficult. What are the characteristics of
small groups? Interdependence Commitment Cohesiveness Group size Group Norms Group culture 49
Types and Purposes of Small Groups There are two types of groups: 1. Primary Groups 2. Secondary Groups 50 Primary Groups: Social Focus Socialization
Catharsis 51 Secondary Groups: Task Focus Decision making Problem solving Committees Leaning, Information Sharing
Therapy, Personal Growth 52 Groups or Teams? 53 Groups or teams?
There are some distinctions between group involvement and team involvement. A team is a special form of group, characterized by close-knit relationships among people with different and complementary abilities, and by a strong sense of identity( Sieler and Beall, 2011) Teams Similar to groups, teams also involve
interaction, interdependence, common goals, personality, commitment, cohesiveness and rules. Teams Teams differ from groups in three ways: 1. Teams are more likely to consists of people with diverse abilities. Example: a surgical team and a football team. 2. Usually develop more interdependence.
3. Have high degree of group identity and are more likely to identify themselves as a team members rather than as individuals who happen to be on a team. More descriptions of teams What is a Team? Donnellon (1996) Identification
Interdependence Power differentiation Social distance Conflict management tactics Negotiation process 58 Teams and Teamwork
(Riggio, 2009 ) A team is an interdependent group of workers with complementary skills working toward shared goals. Teams are most appropriate for complex tasks, complex decision-making, or creative tasks. Teams are also appropriate when the situation is variable, requiring the team to adapt to changing external conditions.
Self-managing work teams have complete responsibility for whole work tasks. (Riggio, 2009, page 338) All teams are groups, but not all groups are teams How Teams Develop Tuckman (1965) Theory
Forming Team members get to know one another Everyone is on their good behavior Group clarifies its mission Storming Disagreement and frustration set in Norming Group members work at easing tension
Acceptance of team leader Performing Goals get accomplished 62 Types of Teams Project Teams Work Teams
Focus Group Parallel Teams Management Teams 63 Project Teams Exists in almost every type of organization. Consists of variety of individuals who get
together to solve problems or make decisions. In project teams, the individuals are usually specially assigned to coordinate the successful completion of an assigned task. Example: a student affairs administrator or a campus police detective. Usually work under a dateline and work fast. Work Teams Exists in almost every type of organization.
Consists of variety of individuals who get together to solve problems or make decisions. Is a group of people who are responsible for the entire work process or segment of the process that delivers a product or service to an internal or external customer. Usually are subdivisions of a larger group; can exist for an indefinite period of time or until a specific project is completed.
Work teams Work teams can also serve many purposes, including solving problems, making decisions, socializing and learning. Groups and Teams Although there are distinctions between groups and teams, the differences are not dramatic. Exist on a continuum, some have more
characteristics of a group, while others resemble more of a team. (Sieler and Beall, 2011, page 414) Work Team : Focus Group Focus group is a special form of work team. Usually consists of a manageable number of participants plus a facilitator or leader The goal for the formation of the team is to find
out what the members think about specific ideas, issues or people. Information obtained will be analysed and used for decision making. Exhibit 1511 Characteristics of Effective Teams 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 1569 Characteristics of Effective Teams Have a clear understanding ofAre theirunified goals.in their commitment to team goals. Have competent members with relevant technical and
Have good communication interpersonal skills. systems. Exhibit high mutual trust in the character and integrity of Possess effective their members. negotiating skills Have appropriate leadership Have both internally and
externally supportive environments 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1570 Other influences.. Other Influences on Groups and
Teams Technology Creativity Leadership Gender Conflict and Conflict Management Technology: Virtual Groups Newsgroups form via the Internet Teleconferencing connects groups by
phone. Videoconferencing connects groups via television. Interactive computer conferencing connects groups via computers. 73 Creativity
Creativity Creativity is a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts Creativity is the ability to produce novel and useful ideas. These ideas must be new and appropriate for the group /organization. Creativity is important to groups or organization for: Growth Improvement
Development Creativity Ways to promote more creative thinking Brain storming /group discussion & activities Diversity Cross functional training Training Creativity may be stifled by
Time constraint Organizations lack of openness Creativity There are several levels of creativity: emergent innovative inventive productive expressive.
Emergent Creativity Involves bringing forth a principle or idea that is entirely new to humankind, and that has farreaching effects on how we perceive reality. Einstein and Newton come immediately to mind, which explains why such a level may not be attainable for most of us. Innovative creativity With innovative creativity, individuals build on
their knowledge of whatever field they are in, climbing on the shoulders of their predecessors, to reach even higher levels of new understanding and ideas. Inventive and Productive Creativity Inventive creativity finds new uses for existing concepts and parts Productive creativity is the description given when someone develops objects or ideas that
are new to him or her, but not necessarily to other people. Quite often, this may be a developmental stage for those who will, if they do not get discouraged, move on to inventive or innovative creativity. Expressive Creativity Expresses feelings and ideas but does not need any particular skill or originality. Example: Parents place drawings on
refrigerators or family notice-boards after young children have excitedly brought their latest art effort home from school. Leader & Leadership 82 Leader & Leadership An influence process that includes any behavior
that helps clarify a groups purpose or guides the group to achieve its goals. A leader is a person who is assigned or selected, or emerges from a group, to guide or provide direction towards reaching the groups goal ( Sieler and Beall, 2011 page 431) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
83 Who would you identify as a great leader? Why? What characteristics or behaviors typify great leaders? 84 Leading a Group
Functions: Initiate Organize Maintain effective interaction Ensure member satisfaction Facilitate understanding Stimulate creativity and critical thinking 85
Leadership Styles and Behaviours Research suggests that leaders can be described as either: (1) Task-oriented (2) Relationship-oriented Task-oriented leaders lead by initiating structure Relationship-oriented leaders lead by
Leadership can also be classified according to the extent power is given to the group members. Theoretically, there are three different styles: 1. 2. 3. Autocratic: Keep control Democratic: Share control Laissez-Faire: Give up control
Leadership Styles: A Comparison Autocratic Keeps control Sets policy and makes all decisions Defines and assigns tasks
Democratic Shares control Involves group in policies and decisions Allows members to divide work Laissez-Faire
Gives up control Allows group to make policies and decisions Avoids participation 89 Leadership and Gender Differences
90 Leadership and Gender Differences Research examines two dimensions: 1. Task accomplishment versus maintenance of interpersonal relationships 2. Participative (democratic) versus
directive (autocratic) leadership style 91 Challenges being in a group Disadvantages of Small Groups Groupthink Time consuming Varying communication style
Unfair workloads and social loafing Pressure to fail Grouphate Phenomenon Disadvantages of Small Groups Going along to get along: groupthink - too much cohesion leads to conformity and blind loyalty Time consuming: problem solving takes longer
Varying communication styles: not all members can contribute equally Unfair workloads: social loafing is common Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 94 Disadvantages of Small Groups Pressure to fail - May not reach potential
because of weak members Grouphate phenomenon - Negative group experiences or poor communication skills inhibit some members 95 Ways to Reduce Groupthink Assign a devils advocate Prevent leaders from expressing their
opinions first Give everyone the opportunity to speak Encourage different viewpoints Use technology for problem solving Invite experts to review the conclusions 96 How is problem solving conducted in groups?
97 Problem Solving and Decision Making Determining the problem Discussing the problem Applying reflective thinking Brainstorming Reaching group consensus
Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 98 A Problem-Solving Model (Dewey) Definition of problem Analysis of problem Suggestions of solutions Selection of best solution
Putting best into operation Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 99 Brainstorming 1. Dont criticize any idea 2. Encourage creativity 3. Seek quantity of ideas
4. Improve/add to suggestions of others 5. Record all ideas 6. Evaluate ideas 7. Allow enough time 8. Make brainstorming a group strategy Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 100 How do we deal with conflict in
groups? 101 Major styles in Responding to Conflicts 1. Avoiding style 2. Forcing style 3. Accommodating 4. Collaborating style
5. Compromising style (Wilmont and Hocker, 2007 in Aamodt 2010) Ethical Behavior in Groups 103 Ethical Behavior in Groups Group members: State their opinions/perspectives
Share all legitimate information that benefits the group Show honesty and integrity Keep confidential information confidential Use information ethically Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 104
Most of us participate in smallgroup communication on a regular basis. Becoming effective group communicators helps us in social and task group settings. 105 References: Seiler, W. J and Beall, M. L 2011). Communication. Making Connections (8th ed). Boston: Pearson
Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson. Aamodt, M.G (2010). Industrial and organizational psychology. An applied approach (6th ed) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Mullins, L.J. ( 2006). Essentials of Organisational Behaviour. England: Prentice Hall Riggio, R. E. ( 2009). Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology (5th ed). New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Corvette, B. A. B( 2006). Conflict Management. A Practical Guide to Developing Negotiation Strategies.
New Jersey: Pearson Some useful websites http://www.practical-management-skills.co m/conflict-in-the-workplace.html http://sourcesofinsight.com/conflict-manag ement-styles-at-a-glance/ http://www.workplaceissues.com/ arconflict.htm
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