Communicating For Results

Communicating For Results

Eleventh Edition Communicating For Results 11 Informative Presentations: Plan, Research, Organize, And Deliver 2016 Cengage Learning m n ua k.co G c g o

en rst Kh utte h h/S o T Markopolos: Real-Life Case Madoff Warnings Ignored Read or describe the real-life case. Answer the questions for Ch. 11:(pg. 301) Why didnt the SEC heed Markopoloss warning; was his audience analysis inaccurate? Which pattern of organization should work best? Which delivery method would you recommend for a presentation before a subcommittee?

2016 Cengage Learning 11 Really? When you start a presentation, work backwards. Start with the key message or takeaway that you want to convey. Then imagine that you had to send that message via Twitter . . . . Force yourself to summarize your key points in no more than 140 characters. Based on that focus, then think through what other information youll need as backup and support (Ashkenas, 2012). Ashkenas, R. (2012, January 10). In presentations, learn to say less. HBR Blog Network. Retrieved from http://blogs.hbr.org/ashkenas/2012/01/in-presentations-learn-to-say.html 2016 Cengage Learning Informative

Presentations: Getting Ready Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Test Your Knowledge! In small groups, decide whether each of the following is a myth or fact . . . 1. Myth or Fact: After this class, I wont have to give any presentations during my career. 2. Myth or Fact: Business audiences are basically the same, so there is no need for me to analyze each one separately. 3. Myth or Fact: The best and current research is done on the InternetGoogle and Wikipedia are all I need. 4. Myth or Fact: Picking a topic I already know a lot about and that really interests me, will add to my speaker confidence.

5. Myth or Fact: Instead of planning ahead, the best speakers let audience questions determine the direction to take. 6. Myth or Fact: The best speakers memorize their speeches. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Informative or Persuasive? Dont confuse the two types . . . Informative presentation An oral briefing or report that promotes understanding of an idea or body of related facts. For example: Volunteer opportunities in the Metroplex Potential advantages of a company blog

Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Informative or Persuasive? Dont confuse the two types . . . Informative presentation Persuasive presentation A deliberate attempt to influence opinions, behaviors, and choices. For example, Volunteer work is everyones duty Company blogs should be restricted Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning

Analyzing Listeners Begin by analyzing your audience . . . How many people will be present? Why are they attending? Who are they? Do they know you? Attitude toward you & your topic? Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock Digital Vision/Getty Images What do they know about the topic? 2016 Cengage Learning

Start Listing Topics Look for possible topics, unless topic given to you . . . Brainstorming. . . List as many topics as possible under several general interest categories (such as personal experiences, controversial issues, current events, hobbies & job). Clustering . . . Take a topicsuch as country musicand attach relating speech topics (such as Grammy Awards, Taylor Swift, Blake Shelton, Nashville & new singers). Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning

Pick a Topic That . . . See which possible topic is best. Highlights your knowledge, experience, & abilities. Reflects your interests. Allows you to be creative. Benefits & motivates your audience. Fits assignment. Sample Topics: Figure 11.1, pg. 309. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Narrow Topic Ask yourself three questions about your topic: What do I . . .

Want to accomplish? Want my audience to take away? Want my audience to do with the info? Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Exact Purpose Statement Write your purpose in a simple sentence beginning with . . . After hering my presentation, the audience will Sample: After hearing my presentation, my colleagues will appreciate the benefits the new blog can provide to customers, employees, and company

sales. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Lets Practice! In small groups, complete the following: 1. Begin by asking your professor for any criteria for informative topic selection. 2. Then, list five topics that would make a good informative speech to use in this class. 3. Write each topic as an exact purpose statement beginning with, After hearing my presentation, the audience will . . .. 4. When finished, exchange lists with other groups until you have read all topics. Turn

Turn in: in: Your Your lists lists of of topics topics and and statements statements for for later later use. use. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Informative

Presentations: Researching Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Rough-draft Outline Before researching, prepare a rough-draft outline . . . Introduction Body (Title) I. Main Point A. B. C. II. Main Point A. B.

III. Main Point A. B. C. Conclusion Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock Rough-Draft Rough-Draft Outline: Outline: Why Why use use one? one? ItIt will will direct direct your your

research research and and save save so so much much time time whether whether in in the the library library or or online. online. No No introduction introduction or

or conclusion conclusion needed. needed. 2016 Cengage Learning Why Research? To find new information. To add to personal credibility. To prepare for Q & A. To find content to support main points. Personal Personal knowledge knowledge & & experience: experience: Definitely

Definitely important. important. However, However, citing citing additional additional sources sources shows shows that that you you are are an an objective objective and and informed informed speaker speaker and

and adds adds to to your your credibility. credibility. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning What to Research For? To find new information, authors, ideas. To find novel ways to present info. To find visual materials (charts and photos). To find supports that add interest, clarify, & prove main points (like statistics,

quotations, and examples). Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Where to Research? Internet Electronic databases (like EBSCOhost or CQ Researcher). Printed materials Blogs and tweets Personal interviews Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning

When Researching Online Keep in mind . . . Not all information on web is authoritative Know keywords & where to look Many valuable resources not available online Blogs & tweets are generally opinions; if so, dont present as facts. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Evaluating Internet Sources Ask the following questions . . . Is author qualified?

Is information objective? Is information accurate? Is information current? Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Too Many Hits? To narrow your search . . . Avoid the Boolean operator OR Use phrases (enclose titles, common phrases, procedures, or names in quotation marks) Add words using + or AND Exclude words or phrases by using or NOT

Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock Searching Searching Google: Google: speaker speaker tips tips == 71,600,000 71,600,000 hits. hits. speaker speaker tips tips == 45,600 45,600 hits. hits. 2016 Cengage Learning

Too Few Hits? To expand your search . . . Avoid s, ing, or ed on search words Change full names to initials and vice versa Check spelling and keywords Use alternative keywords Use wildcards Use fewer search words Connect words with OR Searching Google: Searching Google: public public speakers speakers and and women

women == 44 hits. hits. public public speaker speaker and and women women == 376,000 376,000 hits hits Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Researching Databases Some important commercial databases include . . . Communication & Mass Media Complete in

EBSCOhost includes peer-reviewed journals & communication journals. CQ Researcher and Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center-cover both sides of persuasive topics. Gale Student Resource Centermedical topics. Sirsgreat for sports-related topics. The Military and Government Collection in EBSCOhost includes Vital Speeches of the Day. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Printed Materials Printed materials include . . . Books Magazines/Journals

Newspapers Dictionaries and encyclopedias Other library resources (such as handbooks, Facts on File, and Statistical Abstract). Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Personal Interviews Select & contact interviewee Plan interview using: Introduction Body (with open-ended questions) Conclusion Use results with care

Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Avoiding Plagiarism In small groups, discuss what plagiarism is and how to avoid it . . .: Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Lets Practice! In small groups, complete the following: 1. Review one of the lists of informative topics (your original list or another groups list). 2. Pick your favorite topic from the list. 3. As quickly as possible, make a list of the research needed to give a great speech on this topic (see suggestions on pg. 311).

4. For each needed research item, discuss where to find itbe specific (see suggestions on pp. 311316). 5. When finished, exchange lists with other groups until you have read all research suggestions. Turn Turn in: in: Your Your research research lists lists for for later later use. use. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning

Informative Presentations: Organizing Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Expand Ideas Into Outline Basic outlining rules include . . . Include two or more items per level Capitalize first word in each level Indent each level Use standard numbering Use parallel wording

See Figure 11.5 for informative outline Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Methods of Organization For informative speeches . . . Topical Main points are related ideas, but have no time, spatial, or causal connection. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock

2016 Cengage Learning Methods of Organization For informative speeches . . . Topical Chronological Main points arranged by time (step-by-step, or by date). Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Methods of Organization

For informative speeches . . . Topical Chronological Spatial (Geographic) Main points arranged by location in space (front to back, first to third floor, or north to south). Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Methods of Organization For informative speeches . . . Topical Chronological

Spatial (Geographic) Causal Main points indicate an effectcause or cause-effect relationship. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Lets Practice! In small groups, complete the following: 1. As a class, review the informative topics used for the research activity and pick a single favorite topic. 2. In small groups, decide on three to five main points to use for this informative speech topicwrite them down. 3. To organize your main points, which organization pattern (topical, spatial, chronological, or causal) would be bestwrite it at the top of your list of main points (see patterns on pp.

319321). 4. Exchange lists with other groups to see their choice of main points and organization patternwhich do you like best? Why? Turn Turn in: in: Your Your groups groups main main points points and and pattern pattern choice. choice. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning

11 Awareness Check Persuasive Organization Patterns . . . ___ 1. Purpose: After hearing my briefing, the audience will be aware of the company sales increases in the United States. I. New England sales have increased 10%. II. Midwestern sales have increased 5%. III. West Coast sales have increased 30%. ___ 2. Purpose: After hearing my presentation, the research team will appreciate the guidelines needed for a successful research project. I. Obtain top management support. II. Define research objectives carefully and fully. III. Be realistic when preparing the budget. IV. Be prepared to be flexible. ___ 3. Purpose: After hearing my presentation, employees will realize why the company has decided to restrict employee use of e-mail and noncompany blogs. I. Many employees use e-mail and blogs for social and personal business.

II. Due to decreased employee productivity, the company should restrict when and how employees use e-mail/blogs. Continued on next slide. 2016 Cengage Learning 11 Awareness Check Organization Patterns . . . (cont.) ___ 4. Purpose: After hearing my presentation, the audience will have a better understanding of fashions through the ages: I. Fashion in the 70s was ugly. II. Fashion in the 80s was childish. III. Fashion in the 90s was retro. ___ 5. Purpose: After hearing my report, area realtors will be familiar with the procedures followed by building contractors in locating land for building. I. First, the blueprints for the development are drawn. II. Second, possible sites are selected.

III. Third, cost and marketing surveys are conducted for each site. IV. Finally, land is purchased and cleaned. ___ 6. Purpose: After hearing my presentation, the audience will understand the responsibility of society in todays eating disorders: I. Eating disorders are serious. II. Social preoccupation with appearance is responsible for disorders. Check answers at back of book. . 2016 Cengage Learning Prepare Introduction An introduction contains four main steps . . . Capture attention of listeners. Motivate audience to listen. Convince audience you are qualified. Give thesis statement (including purpose and main points).

In In Groups: Groups: List List as as many many attention-getters attention-getters as as possible. possible. See See pg. pg. 322 322 for for suggestions. suggestions. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock

2016 Cengage Learning Prepare Conclusion A conclusion contains two main steps . . . Final summary Memorable closing thought or challenge to refocus attention and leave audience thinking! See MindTap for sample speech focusing on the introduction and conclusion. Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning

Informative Presentations: Delivery Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Practice Your Presentation Practice using speaking notes (if allowed) and visual aids . . . Prepare speaking notes on note cards Practice presentation Practice using visual aids See sample speaking notes in Figure 11.4.

Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Delivery Methods Methods include . . . Extemporaneous speaking Speaking from visuals Speaking from memory Speaking from manuscript Impromptu speaking Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning

Vocal Delivery To improve your vocal variety, vary your . . . Volume loudness & softness of voice Pitch highness & lowness of tones Emphasis stressing a word with your voice Rate fastness and slowness of speech Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning For a Confident Delivery Remember . . . Nervousness is normal If all else fails, fake confidence!

Dont call attention to errors Never apologize Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning Lets Practice! In small groups, complete the following: 1. Using the single favorite topic selected earlier, decide on several possible attention-getters to begin the speechwrite them down. 2. Pick your favorite attention-getter and work on the exact wording to make it the most effective. 3. Select a group member to present your attention-getter to the class (practice it several times with other group members suggesting ways to improve) 4. Each group will present in front of the classwhich do you like

best? Why? Phil Boorman/AgeFotostock 2016 Cengage Learning 11 Polishing Career Skills Informative PresentationsAre You Ready? INSTRUCTIONS: Answer each of the following questions by selecting the number that describes you best: 1 = No 2 = Rarely 3 = Sometimes 4 = Usually 5 = Always ___ 1. Prior to my informative speech, I plan carefully by first analyzing my audience. ___ 2. Next, I answer three important questions: What I want my speech to accomplish; what I want my audience to take away; and what I want the audience to do with my information. I use these answers to narrow my topic. ___ 3. Along with my personal expertise on my topic, I research carefully to find sources and authorities to cite during the speech to add to my credibility and to audience

understanding. ___ 4. I research a variety of Internet sites, databases, printed materials, and personal interviews and make sure that the bulk of my research is currentno older than 5 years unless the topic requires background information. ___ 5. I realize that Wikipedia and many Internet sources are middle- and high-school level and do not represent college-level work. I may start with these sources, but always look for materials that are more reliable, expert, objective, and accurate. ___ 6. I take careful notes on author, date, and name of source while researching to make sure that no accidental plagiarism occurs in my presentation. ___ 7. Because organized material is easier for me and the audience to understand and remember, I use an outline to organize my main points into one of the organization patterns (such as topical or chronological) and add transitions between main points. Continued on next slide. 2016 Cengage Learning 11 Polishing Career Skills

Informative PresentationsAre You Ready? (cont.) PAGE 2: 1 = No 2 = Rarely 3 = Sometimes 4 = Usually 5 = Always ___ 8. I make sure my introduction includes four steps: attention-getter, motivation to listen, my qualifications, and a thesis statement (purpose and main points). ___ 9. My conclusion begins with a summary and ends with a memorable thought. ___10. Prior to my speech, I practice speaking out loud several times in front of friends or family (if possible) and record at least one practice session to see if any changes are needed. ___11. Also prior to my speech, I focus on a 2-minute power pose of confidence and victory suggested by Amy Cuddy (2015). I also mentally go over two or three positive statements such as I enjoy sharing my experience and ideas with classmates and friends. ___12. During my speech, I make direct eye contact with audience members and present a warm and friendly, conversational, yet professional delivery. ___13. During my speech, I give myself permission to make it work if things go

differently from how I initially plannedI remain flexible and aware that there are many roads to success. ___14. After speaking, I give myself the opportunity to celebrate what went well while critically analyzing areas needing some improvement. I look for opportunities to continue developing my skills. See p. 326 for Scoring and Assessment. 2016 Cengage Learning 11 The End 2016 Cengage Learning

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