By Rewa Gonzalez-Granda Inder k0517329 COACHING PHILOSOPHY Aims To understand coaching styles. To understand the factors affecting coaching styles. To understand the different coaching philosophies. How to improve ones philosophy To understand the rules in coaching
Definitions Coaching: The organized provision of assistance to an individual athlete/group of athletes to help them develop and improve the performance of their chosen sport. (Kent, 2005) Philosophy: The pursuit of wisdom helping to answer fundamental questions about what, why and how. (Martens, 2004). Describes a process or method (Hardman & Jones, 2008) Coaching philosophy: A coaches belief and guide to become the best coach
possible (Clarke, 2008). Basic beliefs that guide every day behaviour (Vealey, 2005). Coaching Participation coach: Is considered to be a coach that focuses on the taking part rather than the preparation of a specific sport. Performance coach: Is a coach that focuses on long-term goals preparing athletes for sporting competitions. Cross & Lyle, 2003
Coaching style is defined as a descriptive categorization of the individuals aggregated coaching behaviour Can also be described as a leadership style Could be a useful mechanism for describing and analysing coaching practice or it may be a superficial way of caricaturing the most obvious elements of the coaches behaviour (Cross & Lyle, 2003) Coaching Style continued It reflects the coaches value framework It is an analytical tool
Lyle, 2006 Factors affecting coaching styles Kuklinski (1990), Douge and Hastie (1993) stated that factors affecting coaching styles were: Gender, team/individual sports, age and type of sport The athletes aspirations Abraham and Collins (1998) provided a review of literature of factors affecting coaching styles
and similar findings were seen Cross & Lyle, 2003 Factors affecting coaching style Rogers (2007) did a report on coaches behaviour and found several factors that could influence behaviour: Competitive experience as an athlete Hours of coaching per week Individual/team sports Nevertheless, a better understanding in the relationship between coaches and athletes is needed. A coach can change their style at will, however, there
is little evidence supporting this statement. Coaches behaviour study Research into coaches behaviour and athletes self-talk was studied. 243 subjects had to take the athletes positive and negative self-talk scale, to asses how much they use self-talk (positive or negative) Coaches positive and negative statement scale and Coaching Behaviour Questionnaire. Results state that a coaches behaviour and statements have a direct impact on
athletes self-confidence. Balancing the triad Optimal performance Optimal development Balancing the triad Optimal experience Coaching Philosophy Autocratic coaching style Democratic coaching style
Humanistic approach Autocratic style of coaching Autocratic: Coaching behaviour involving independent decision making and stresses the personal authority of the coach but not the athlete. Lyle, 2006 The Intense style Advantages
Disadvantages Coach supports hard Performers put of by the work demands Coach works hard Emotional outburst from Prepared for any type of
competition The less motivated coach performers are overlooked Lyle, 2006 Democratic style of coaching Democratic: Coaching behaviour allowing high levels of participation by the athlete in decision
making, goals, practice, game tactics and strategies. Cross & Lyle, 2003 The Nice-Guy style Advantages Disadvantages Cohesive team Coach may be seen as weak
Relaxed atmosphere Socially inhibited athletes overlooked Lyle, 2006 Autocratic vs. Democratic AUTOCRATIC DEMOCRATIC Coach makes all decisions Directive and dominating Athletes are able to
approach to interpersonalbehaviour The exchange of knowledge, teaching and learning assumed to be one way The coach determines rules, rewards, standards and applications Lack of personal empathy participate in decision-making
There is an inter-active communication process Athletes values incorporated into goals and evaluation Coach involves athletes in teaching-learning process Flexibility, empathy and support in personal relationships Lyle, 2006 Is an authoritarian or democratic style established by experience and a psychological nature or is it a learned capacity (perhaps through coach education)?
Humanistic approach Are the beliefs and values focusing predominantly on the athletes personal growth through an active engagement in the coaching experience (Cross & Lyle, 2003). Is a person-centred philosophy or ideology that emphasises the empowerment of the individual towards achieve personal goals within a facilitative interpersonal relationship (Lyle, 2006). Humanistic approach It is significant as it is inclined to be used
as an indicator for the evaluation of coaching behaviour (Coakley, 1993). The potential of the humanistic approach is to provide a set of principles to guide coaching practice (Cross & Lyle, 2003) The whole process is used to aid individual athletes growth and development in a positive way. Humanistic approach Hogg (1995) stated that the relationship between the athlete and coach should start as a more directive relationship, gradually sharing relationship and
eventually, independence for the athlete. This increase provides opportunities for personal growth and development. Hoggs model in the evolving relationship between coach and athlete Authoritarian COACH CONTROL 12 years & under early experience
coach dependence Power sharing Humanistic approach COACH/ATHLETE CONTROL 13-15 years developing and collaborating Athlete/coach dependence
16-17 years ATHLETE CONTROL 18 years & over empowerment athlete independence Humanistic approach Cross (1990) describes the humanistic approach
as collaborative and non-manipulative. Cross (1991) characterises suitable behaviour as producing an open and no-blame culture using five specific features: Understand the athletes Adapt to the athletes needs Communicate well Be a motivator Be consistent How to improve own philosophy Know strengths and weaknesses Recognize values and beliefs These two aspect will help the coach to
adapt to their own style How to improve own philosophy Confidence in oneself Help others develop High self-worth Martens, 2004 Coaching and ethics Rules are set to provide a logical framework for coach behaviour. This framework influence the how of
coaching and some elements in a code of ethics are related to coaching philosophies. The sense of right and wrong Cross & Lyle (2003) Coaching and ethics Athletes and coaches have to recognize that codes of ethics are socially determined and reflects on a particular ideology, in addition to legal concerns and matters of human and civil rights. (Cross & Lyle, 2003)
Conclusion To develop a successful philosophy two main factors are needed: Major objectives Your beliefs or principles Get to know ones strengths and weaknesses Understand coaching context better Conclusion Get to know athletes better therefore the coach
can tailor the training to the athletes needs. On the whole, all coaches have some kind of philosophy whether it is natural instinct or formally documented. Coaching is all about helping the athlete to achieve their dreams. References Clark, N. (2008) Coaching Philosophy . Lecture notes
Coakley, J. (1993). Social dimensions of the intensive training and participation in youth sports. Intensive Participation in Childrens Sports (Cahill, B.R. & Pearl, A.J. Editors) Human Kinetics Cross, N. (1990) Insight into coaching philosophy. The Swimming Times. 68(11) 17-19 Cross, N. (1991) Arguments in Favour of a Humanistic Coaching Process. The Swimming Times. 68(11)17-18 Cross, N. & Lyle, J. (2003) The Coaching Process: principles and practice for sport. Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinmann
Jones, C & Hardman, A (2008) Philosophy for Coaching. In: Jones, R., J., Hughes, M, & Kingston, K. (Ed) An Introduction to Sport Coaching: From Science and Theory to Practice. USA: Routledge Kuklinski, B. (1990) Sports Leadership: An Overview. New Zealand Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 23(4):29-39 Lyle, J. (2006). Sports Coaching Concepts: A framework for coaches; behaviour. New York: Routledge
Martens, R. (2004) Successful Coaching. (3rd Edition) USA: Human Kinetics Rogers, W. (2007) Factors that Influence Coaches Use of Sound Coaching Practice. International Journal of Sport Science and Coaching. 2(2) Vealey, R., S. (2005) Coaching for the Inner Edge. USA: Sheridan Books
Zourbanos, N (2007) A preliminary Investigations of Relationship between Athletes Self-Talk and Coaches. International Journal of Sport Science and Coaching. 2(1) 57-66 ANY QUESTIONS?
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