Clinical Practice Guidelines - easl.eu

Clinical Practice Guidelines - easl.eu

Clinical Practice Guidelines HBV About these slides These slides give a comprehensive overview of the EASL clinical practice guidelines on the management of hepatitis B infection The guidelines were published in full in the August 2017 issue of the Journal of Hepatology The full publication can be downloaded from the Clinical Practice Guidelines section of the EASL website Please cite the published article as: European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Please feel free to use, adapt, and share these slides for your own personal use; however, please acknowledge EASL as the source About these slides Definitions of all abbreviations shown in these slides are provided within the slide notes When you see a home symbol like this one: , you can click on this to return to the outline or topics pages, depending on which section you are in These slides are intended for use as an educational resource

and should not be used in isolation to make patient management decisions. All information included should be verified before treating patients or using any therapies described in these materials Please send any feedback to: [email protected] Guideline panel Chair Pietro Lampertico Panel members Kosh Agarwal, Thomas Berg, Maria Buti, Harry LA Janssen, George Papatheodoridis, Fabien Zoulim, Frank Tacke (EASL Governing Board representative) Reviewers Maurizia Brunetto, Henry Chan, Markus Cornberg EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Outline Methods Background Guidelines

The future for HBV EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Grading evidence and recommendations Epidemiology of HBV New nomenclature for chronic phases Key recommendations New biomarkers Future treatments Unresolved issues Methods Grading evidence and recommendations Grading evidence and recommendations Grading is adapted from the GRADE system1 Grade of evidence I Randomized, controlled trials II-1 Controlled trials without randomization II-2 Cohort or case-control analytical studies II-3 Multiple time series, dramatic uncontrolled experiments

III Opinions of respected authorities, descriptive epidemiology Grade of recommendation 1 Strong recommendation: Factors influencing the strength of the recommendation included the quality of the evidence, presumed patient-important outcomes, and cost 2 Weaker recommendation: Variability in preferences and values, or more uncertainty: more likely a weak recommendation is warranted Recommendation is made with less certainty: higher cost or resource consumption 1. Guyatt GH, et al. BMJ 2008:336:9246; EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Background Epidemiology of HBV New nomenclature for chronic phases Epidemiology and public health burden1 Worldwide 250 million chronic HBsAg carriers2,3 686,000 deaths from HBV-related liver disease and HCC in 2013 4 HBsAg prevalence, adults (1949 years), 20053 <2% 24% 57% 8% Not applicable Decreasing prevalence

in some endemic countries, e.g. Taiwan7 Possible reasons: Improved socioeconomic status Vaccination Effective treatments Increasing prevalence in some European countries:5,6 Migration from high endemic countries 1. EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098; 2. Schweitzer A, et al. Lancet 2015;386:154655; 3. Ott JJ, et al. Vaccine 2012;30:22129; 4. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Lancet 2015;385:11771; 5. Coppola N, et al. Euro Surveill 2015;20:30009; 6. Hampel A, et al. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2016;59:57883; 7. Chen C-L, et al. J Hepatol 2015;63:35463. New nomenclature for chronic phases The natural history of chronic HBV infection has been schematically divided into ve phases Chronic hepatitis B HBeAg positive HBeAg negative Phase 1 Phase 2

Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Chronic HBV infection Chronic hepatitis B Chronic HBV infection Chronic hepatitis B Resolved HBV infection HBsAg High High/ intermediate Low Intermediate Negative HBeAg Positive

Positive Negative Negative Negative >107 IU/mL 104107 IU/mL <2,000 IU/mL* >2,000 IU/mL <10 IU/mL Normal Elevated Normal Elevated Normal None/minimal Moderate/ severe None Moderate/ severe

None Chronic HBV infection HBV DNA ALT Liver disease Old terminology Immune tolerant Immune reactive HBeAg negative Inactive carrier HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis *HBV DNA levels can be between 2,000 and 20,000 IU/mL in some patients without signs of chronic hepatitis; Persisitently or intermittently, based on traditional ULN (~40 IU/L). cccDNA can frequently be detected in the liver; Residual HCC risk only if cirrhosis has developed before HBsAg loss. EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 HBsAg negative /anti-HBc positive Phases of chronic HBV infection1 HBeAg Anti-HBe Phase 1 New

HBeAg-positive 2 nomenclature chronic HBV infection 1. Lok A, et al. J Hepatol 2017;67:84761; 2. EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 HBeAg-positive HBeAg-negative HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B chronic HBV infection chronic hepatitis B Guidelines Key recommendations Topics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Goals of therapy Click on a topic to skip to that section

Endpoints of therapy Indications for treatment Monitoring of patients currently not treated Treatment strategies Definition of response to treatment NA monotherapy PegIFN monotherapy Combination therapy Patients with decompensated cirrhosis Prevention of HBV recurrence after liver transplantation Treatment in special patient groups EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Goals and endpoints of therapy Goals Improve survival and quality of life by preventing disease progression and HCC Prevent mother-to-child transmission, hepatitis B reactivation, and prevent and treat HBV-associated extrahepatic manifestations Recommendations Grade of evidence Main endpoint Induction of long-term suppression of HBV DNA Grade of recommendation I 1 Valuable endpoint Induction of HBeAg loss ( anti-HBe seroconversion) in HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B* II-1

1 Additional endpoint ALT normalization (biochemical response) II-1 1 Optimal endpoint HBsAg loss ( anti-HBs seroconversion) II-1 1 *Often represents a partial immune control of the chronic HBV infection; Achieved in most patients with long-term suppression of HBV replication; Indicates profound suppression of HBV replication and viral protein expression EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Indications for treatment Primarily based on the combination of 3 criteria HBV DNA, serum ALT and severity of liver disease Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation Should be treated

Patients with HBeAg-positive or -negative chronic hepatitis B* I 1 Patients with cirrhosis, any detectable HBV DNA, regardless of ALT level I 1 Patients with HBV DNA >20,000 IU/mL and ALT >2x ULN, regardless of severity of histological lesions II-2 1 III 2 III 2 May be treated Patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection >30 years old, regardless of severity of liver histological lesions

Can be treated Patients with HBeAg-positive or -negative chronic HBV infection and family history of HCC or cirrhosis and extrahepatic manifestations *Defined by HBV DNA >2,000 IU/ml, ALT >ULN and/or at least moderate liver necroinflammation or fibrosis; Defined by persistently normal ALT and high HBV DNA levels; Even if typical treatment indications are not fulfilled EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Monitoring of patients currently not treated Patients with no current indication of antiviral therapy should be monitored Periodical assessments of serum ALT, HBV DNA and non-invasive markers for liver fibrosis Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation Follow-up at least every 36 months HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection, <30 years old II-2 1 Follow-up at least every 612 months HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection and serum HBV DNA <2,000 IU/ml II-2

1 III 1 Follow-up every 3 months for the first year and every 6 months thereafter HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection, serum HBV DNA 2,000 IU/ml EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Algorithm for the management of chronic HBV infection Suspected chronic HBV infection HBsAg positive Chronic HBV infection* (no signs of chronic hepatitis) Chronic hepatitis B cirrhosis* Monitor (includes HBsAg, HBeAg, HBV DNA, ALT, fibrosis assessment) Start antiviral treatment Consider Risk of HCC, risk of HBV reactivation, extrahepatic manifestations, risk of HBV transmission *See new nomenclature slide.

EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive No specialist follow-up but inform patient and general practitioner about the potential risk of HBV reactivation NO YES In case of immunosuppression, start oral antiviral prophylaxis or monitor Current treatment strategies for chronic hepatitis B: main concepts and features Features Route of administration Treatment duration Tolerability PegIFN Subcutaneous injections 48 weeks Low Very rarely persistence of Long-term safety concerns on-treatment AEs Contraindications Many Induction of a long-term immune Strategy control Level of viral suppression Moderate Effect on HBeAg loss

Moderate Effect on HBsAg levels Variable Low for those with sustained Risk of relapse after response 612 months after treatment cessation therapy Early stopping rules Yes Risk of viral resistance No ETV, TDF, TAF Oral Long-term until HBsAg loss* High Probably not None Inhibition of viral replication Universally high Low in first year, moderate over long term Low** Moderate if consolidation treatment provided after HBeAg seroconversion. High for HBeAg-negative disease No Minimal to none *Stopping NAs after some years might be considered in selected cases; Psychiatric, neurological, endocrinological; Uncertainties regarding kidney function, bone diseases for some NAs; Decompensated disease, comorbidities etc.; Dose adjustments in patients with eGFR <50 ml/min are required for all NAs except for TAF (no dose recommendation for TAF in patients with CrCl <15 ml/min who are not receiving haemodialysis); Depending on baseline characteristics; **Slowly increases with treatment time in HBeAg-positive patients (a plateau in serological responses has been observed beyond treatment Year 4), usually very low in HBeAg-negative patients; So far no TDF or TAF resistance development has been detected EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098

Definitions of response to treatment Responses NA therapy PegIFN therapy Virological (on-treatment) Response: HBV DNA <10 IU/ml Response: HBV DNA <2,000 IU/ml Primary non-response: <1 log10 decrease in HBV DNA after 3 months of therapy Partial response: HBV DNA decreased by >1 log10 but still detectable after 12 months of therapy in compliant patients Breakthrough: confirmed HBV DNA increase of >1 log10 above on-therapy nadir Virological (off-treatment) Sustained response: HBV DNA <2,000 IU/ml for 12 months after end of therapy Serological HBeAg loss and development of anti-HBe* HBsAg loss and development of anti-HBs Biochemical ALT normalization (confirmed by ALT determination at least every 3 months for at least 1 year post-treatment)

Histological Decrease in necroinammatory activity without worsening in brosis compared with pre-treatment histological ndings *Only for HBeAg-positive patients; Based on traditional ULN (~40 IU/L); By 2 points in HAI or Ishaks system EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Virological responses on NA therapy Primary non-response <1 log10 drop after 3 months Partial response >1 log10 drop but detectable after 12 months HBV DNA (log10 IU/mL) 6 5 4 Breakthrough >1 log10 increase above nadir 3 Response HBV DNA PCR undetectable (<10 IU/ml)

2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 . Duration of treatment (months) EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 12 24 NA monotherapy for treatment-nave patients Long-term administration of a potent NA with a high barrier to resistance is the treatment of choice Regardless of severity of liver disease Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation

Treatment of choice Long-term administration of a potent NA with high barrier to resistance (regardless of severity of liver disease) I 1 Preferred regimens ETV, TDF and TAF as monotherapies I 1 NOT recommended LAM, ADV and TBV I 1 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Prevention of resistance should rely on the use of first-line NAs with a high barrier to resistance* Cumulative incidence of HBV resistance to NAs in pivotal trials in NA-nave patients with chronic hepatitis B 80 70 67 1 year 2 years

3 years 4 years 5 years 70 60 49 50 40 30 38 29 24 18 20 11 10 0 17 0 LAM 3 ADV 4 0.2 0.5

TBV 1.2 ETV 0 0 0 0 0 TDF *Evidence level I, grade of recommendation 1; Collation of currently available data not from head-to-head studies; No evidence of resistance has been shown after 8 years of TDF treatment EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 0 0 TAF Indications for selecting ETV or TAF over TDF* In some circumstances ETV or TAF may be a more appropriate treatment choice than TDF Age Bone disease Renal alteration >60 years Chronic steroid use or use of other medications that worsen bone density History of fragility fracture Osteoporosis eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 Albuminuria >30 mg/24 h or moderate dipstick proteinuria Low phosphate (<2.5 mg/dl) Haemodialysis

*TAF should be preferred to ETV in patients with previous exposure to NAs; ETV dose needs to be adjusted if eGFR <50 ml/min; no dose adjustment of TAF is required in adults or adolescents (aged 12 years and 35 kg body weight) with estimated CrCl 15 ml/min or in patients with CrCl <15 ml/min who are receiving haemodialysis EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 TAF vs. TDF for HBV: change in eGFR Median change from baseline in eGFR over 96 weeks TAF 25 mg (n=866) vs. TDF 300 mg (n=432) TAF TDF TAF: -1.2 p<0.001 TDF: -4.8 Agarwal K, et al. J Hepatol 2018;68:67281 TAF vs. TDF for HBV: change in BMD Median change from baseline in BMD over 96 weeks TAF 25 mg (n=866) vs. TDF 300 mg (n=432) Hip TAF TDF Agarwal K, et al. J Hepatol 2018;68:67281 Spine p<0.001 TAF TDF p=0.80 Monitoring patients treated with ETV, TDF or TAF

Periodical monitoring and long-term surveillance is required in patients treated with an NA with a high barrier to resistance Recommendations (monitoring) Grade of evidence ALT and serum HBV DNA* All patients treated with NAs Grade of recommendation I 1 Renal monitoring Patients at risk of renal disease treated with any NA All patients treated with TDF, regardless of renal risk II-2 1 Switch to ETV or TAF Should be considered in patients on TDF at risk of development of and/or with underlying renal or bone disease II-2/I 1 HCC surveillance recommended All patients under effective long-term NA therapy II-2

1 HCC surveillance mandatory All patients with cirrhosis or with moderate or high HCC risk scores at the onset of NA therapy II-2 1 Recommendations (long-term surveillance) *Liver function tests should be performed every 34 months during the first year and every 6 months thereafter. Serum HBV DNA should be determined every 34 months during the first year and every 612 months thereafter; Including at least eGFR and serum phosphate levels. Frequency of renal monitoring can be every 3 months during the first year and every 6 months thereafter, if no deterioration. Closer renal monitoring is required in patients who develop CrCl <60 ml/min or serum phosphate levels <2 mg/dl; Depending on previous LAM exposure EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Discontinuation of NA treatment Long-term therapy with NAs is usually required HBV eradication is not usually achieved Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation NAs should be discontinued After confirmed HBsAg loss ( anti-HBs seroconversion) II-2 1 NAs can be discontinued

In HBeAg-positive patients, without cirrhosis, who achieve stable HBeAg seroconversion and undetectable HBV DNA and complete 12 months of consolidation therapy Close post-NA monitoring is warranted II-2 2 NAs may be discontinued In selected HBeAg-negative patients, without cirrhosis, who achieve long-term (3 years) virological suppression, if close post-NA monitoring can be guaranteed II-2 2 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Management of patients with NA failure Compliance with therapy should be checked in all cases of treatment failure* Management of treatment failure should be based on cross-resistance data Cross-resistance data for the most frequent NA-resistant HBV variants: HBV variant LAM TBV ETV ADV

TDF/TAF Wild-type S S S S S M204V R S I I S M204I R R I I S

L180M + M204V R R I I S A181T/V I I S R I N236T S S S R I L180M + M204V/I I169T

V173L M250V R R R S S L180M + M204V/I T184G S202I/G R R R S S *Evidence level II-1, grade of recommendation 1; Evidence level II-2, grade of recommendation 1; Amino acid substitution proles. Level of susceptibility is given for each drug: S (sensitive), I (intermediate/reduced susceptibility), R (resistant); In vitro data for tenofovir, in vivo data for TDF, no clinical data for TAF EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Management of patients with NA failure Treatment should be adapted as soon as virological failure under NAs is confirmed* Resistance pattern

Recommended rescue strategies LAM resistance Switch to TDF or TAF TBV resistance Switch to TDF or TAF ETV resistance Switch to TDF or TAF ADV resistance If LAM-nave: switch to ETV or TDF or TAF If LAM-resistant: switch to TDF or TAF If HBV DNA plateaus: add ETV or switch to ETV TDF or TAF resistance If LAM-nave: switch to ETV If LAM-resistant: add ETV Multidrug resistance Switch to ETV + TDF or TAF combination *Evidence level II-1, grade of recommendation 1; Especially in patients with ADV-resistant mutations (rA181T/V and/or rN236T) and high viral load, the response to TDF (TAF) can be protracted; Not seen clinically so far; do genotyping and phenotyping in an expert laboratory to determine the cross-resistance profile; The long-term safety of these combinations is unknown EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 PegIFN monotherapy

Only patients with milder disease should generally be considered for treatment with PegIFN Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation PegIFN can be considered as an initial treatment option for patients with mild-to-moderate HBeAg-positive or -negative chronic hepatitis B I 2 The standard duration of PegIFN therapy is 48 weeks I 1 II-1 2 Extension of PegIFN therapy beyond Week 48 may be beneficial in selected HBeAg-negative patients with chronic hepatitis B EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Monitoring patients treated with PegIFN Patients treated with PegIFN require ongoing monitoring during treatment and after virological response Recommendations

Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation Periodical assessments of at least full blood count, ALT, TSH, serum HBV DNA and HBsAg levels All patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with PegIFN I/II-2 1 Periodical assessments of HBeAg and anti-HBe HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with PegIFN I 1 Long-term follow-up Patients with a virological response after PegIFN therapy (risk of relapse) II-2 1 Surveillance for HCC Patients with sustained responses after PegIFN therapy and high baseline HCC risk (even if they achieve HBsAg loss) III 1 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098

Predictors of PegIFN response and stopping rules HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B* Genotype A B C D Week 12 Stop if HBsAg No decline >20,000 IU/ml >20,000 IU/ml No decline Week 24 Stop if HBsAg >20,000 IU/ml >20,000 IU/ml >20,000 IU/ml >20,000 IU/ml

HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (genotype D) HBsAg levels Any decline No decline Week 12 >2 log10 decline <2 log10 decline HBV DNA levels Continue *Evidence level II-2, grade of recommendation 2; Evidence level II-2, grade of recommendation 1 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Continue Stop Combination therapy Combination therapy is generally not recommended Recommendations (NA plus NA) Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation NOT recommended De novo combination therapy of two NAs with a high barrier to resistance (ETV, TDF, TAF) I 1

Drug switch or combination may be considered In treatment-adherent patients with incomplete HBV suppression reaching a plateau during ETV or TDF/TAF long-term therapy III 2 Recommendations (NA plus PegIFN) NOT recommended De novo combination of NA and PegIFN I 1 Short-term pretreatment with an NA before PegIFN in treatment-nave HBeAg-positive patients II 1 Adding PegIFN or switching to PegIFN in patients with long-term HBV DNA suppression on NA therapy II 1 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098

Patients with decompensated cirrhosis Patients with decompensated cirrhosis should be referred for liver transplantation and treated with NAs as early as possible Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation Immediate treatment with an NA with a high barrier to resistance, irrespective of the level of HBV replication Assessment for liver transplantation II-1 1 PegIFN is contraindicated II-1 1 Patients should be closely monitored for tolerability of the drugs and the development of rare side effects like lactic acidosis or kidney dysfunction II-2 1

EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Preventing HBV recurrence after liver transplantation All patients who are candidates for liver transplantation should be treated with NAs to achieve undetectable HBV DNA Reduce the risk of graft infection Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation All patients on the transplant waiting list with HBV-related liver disease should be treated with an NA II 1 After liver transplantation combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and a potent NA is recommended for the prevention of HBV recurrence II-1 1 Patients with a low risk of recurrence can discontinue HBIG but need continued monoprophylaxis with a potent NA II-1 2 HBsAg-negative patients receiving livers from donors with evidence of past HBV infection (anti-HBc positive) are at risk of HBV

recurrence and should receive antiviral prophylaxis with an NA II-2 1 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Special patient groups: HCV co-infection HCV co-infection accelerates liver disease progression and increases the risk of HCC in patients with chronic HBV infection All patients with chronic HBV infection should be screened for HCV and other blood-borne viruses Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation Treatment of HCV with DAAs may cause reactivation of HBV. Patients fulfilling the standard criteria for HBV treatment should receive NA treatment II 1 HBsAg-positive patients undergoing DAA therapy should be considered for concomitant NA prophylaxis until 12 weeks after completion of DAA treatment, and monitored closely II-2 2 HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive patients undergoing DAA

therapy should be monitored and tested for HBV reactivation in case of ALT elevation II 1 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Special patient groups: HIV or HDV co-infection The risk of fibrosis progression, cirrhosis and HCC is greater in patients also infected with HDV or HIV Recommendations (HIV) Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation All HIV-positive patients with HBV co-infection should start antiretroviral therapy (ART) irrespective of CD4 cell count II-2 1 I (TDF) II-1 (TAF) 1 I 1 In HDV/HBV co-infected patients with ongoing HBV DNA replication, NA therapy should be considered

II-2 1 PegIFN treatment can be continued until Week 48 irrespective of on-treatment virological response if well tolerated II-2 2 HIV/HBV co-infected patients should be treated with a TDF- or TAF-based ART regimen Recommendations (HDV) PegIFN for at least 48 weeks is the current treatment of choice in HDV/HBV co-infected patients with compensated liver disease EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Special patient groups: acute hepatitis B Preventing the risk of acute or subacute liver failure is the main treatment goal Treating to improve quality of life and reducing risk of chronicity are also relevant treatment goals Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation More than 95% of adults with acute HBV hepatitis do not require specific treatment II-2

1 Only patients with severe acute hepatitis B, characterized by coagulopathy or protracted course, should be treated with NAs and considered for liver transplantation II-2 1 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Special patient groups: pregnant women Management may depend on severity of liver disease and timing of a future pregnancy Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation Screening for HBsAg in the first trimester is strongly recommended I 1 In women of childbearing age without advanced fibrosis planning a pregnancy in the near future, it may be prudent to delay therapy until the child is born II-2 2 In pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B and advanced fibrosis

or cirrhosis, therapy with TDF is recommended II-2 1 In pregnant women already on NA therapy, TDF should be continued while ETV or other NA should be switched to TDF II-2 1 In all pregnant women with HBV DNA >200,000 IU/ml or HBsAg >4 log10 IU/ml, antiviral prophylaxis with TDF should start at Week 2428 of gestation and continue for up to 12 weeks after delivery I 1 Breast feeding is not contraindicated in HBsAg-positive untreated women or those on TDF-based treatment or prophylaxis III 2 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Special patient groups: children Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation

In children, the course of the disease is generally mild, and most children do not meet standard treatment indications. Thus, treatment should be considered with caution II-3 1 In children or adolescents who meet treatment criteria, ETV, TDF, TAF, and PegIFN can be used II-2 2 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Special patient groups: healthcare workers Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation HBV infection alone should not disqualify infected persons from the practice or study of surgery, dentistry, medicine, or allied health fields III 1 Healthcare workers performing exposure-prone procedures with serum HBV DNA >200 IU/ml may be treated with NAs to reduce transmission risk II-2

2 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Special patient groups: patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation All candidates for chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy should be tested for HBV markers prior to immunosuppression I 1 All HBsAg-positive patients should receive ETV, TDF, or TAF as treatment or prophylaxis II-2 1 HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive subjects should receive anti-HBV prophylaxis if they are at high risk of HBV reactivation II-2 1 EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098

Special patient groups: patients undergoing dialysis and renal transplant Recommendations Grade of evidence Grade of recommendation All dialysis and renal transplant recipients should be screened for HBV markers II-2 1 HBsAg-positive dialysis patients who require treatment should receive ETV or TAF II-2 1 All HBsAg-positive renal transplant recipients should receive ETV or TAF as prophylaxis or treatment II-2 1 III 1 HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive subjects should be monitored for HBV infection after renal transplantation

EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Special patient groups: patients with extrahepatic manifestations Some extrahepatic manifestations can be associated with HBV infection Vasculitis, skin manifestations (purpura), polyarteritis nodosa, arthralgias, peripheral neuropathy and glomerulonephritis HBsAg-positive patients with extrahepatic manifestations and active HBV replication may respond to antiviral therapy PegIFN can worsen some immune-mediated extrahepatic manifestations Recommendations Grade of evidence Patients with replicative HBV infection and extrahepatic manifestations should receive antiviral treatment with NAs PegIFN should not be administered in patients with immune-related extrahepatic manifestations EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 Grade of recommendation II-2 1 III 1 The future for HBV

New biomarkers Future treatments Unresolved issues The future for HBV management New biomarkers cccDNA limited by need for liver biopsy, will be important in clinical trials HBcrAg composite biomarker, utility still under evaluation HBV RNA strong correlation with intrahepatic cccDNA, possible utility in predicting viral rebound after discontinuation of NAs Future treatment options for HBV Several novel direct-acting antivirals and immunotherapeutic agents are in preclinical and early clinical development Combinations of antiviral and immune modulatory therapy, targeting multiple steps in the HBV lifecycle, will likely be needed to achieve an HBV cure Future treatment options for HDV Several candidates are under evaluation in clinical trials, mainly in combination with PegIFN and/or NAs Whenever possible, enrolment in these clinical trials of new agents should be considered, either as a rescue of PegIFN or in treatment-nave patients EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098 New concepts for antiviral drugs targeting HBV Durantel D, Zoulim F. J Hepatol 2016;64:S11731 Unresolved issues and unmet needs

When to start antiviral therapy in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection Stopping rules for HBeAg-negative patients treated with an NA Retreatment criteria after NA discontinuation How to accelerate HBsAg decline in long-term NA-treated patients Better baseline or on-treatment predictors of sustained response in patients treated with PegIFN Definition of the residual risk of HCC in patients on long-term NA therapy and impact on surveillance Requirement for new treatments with finite duration and high cure rates Novel endpoints to define a cure of HBV infection Biomarkers for the cure of infection and for the cure of liver disease EASL CPG HBV. J Hepatol 2017;67:37098

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