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Chapter 10 Organizational and Household Decision Making CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon 10-1 Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should understand why:

1. Marketers often need to understand consumers behavior rather than a consumers behavior. 2. Companies as well as individuals make purchase decisions. 3. Our traditional notions about families are outdated. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-2 Chapter Objectives (continued)

4. Many important demographic dimensions of a 5. population relate to family and household structure. Members of a family unit play different roles and have different amounts of influence when the family makes purchase decisions. 6. Children learn over time what and how to consume. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

10-3 Learning Objective 1 Marketers often need to understand consumers behavior rather than a consumers behavior. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-4 Roles In Collective Decision Making Initiator

Gatekeeper Influencer Buyer User Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-5 For Reflection Assume that you are a sales representative for a large company that markets laptop computers. List all the people that may be involved in the decision making.

Try to match all the people to their possible decision roles as outlined on the previous slide. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-6 Learning Objective 2 Companies as well as individuals make purchase decisions. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

10-7 Organizational Decision Making Organizational buyers: purchase goods and services on behalf of companies for use in the process of manufacturing, distribution, or resale. Business-to-business (B2B) marketers: specialize in meeting needs of organizations such as corporations, government agencies, hospitals, and retailers.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-8 Compared to Consumer Decision Making, Organizational Decision Making Involves many people Requires precise, technical specifications Is based on past experience and careful weighing of alternatives May require risky decisions Involves substantial dollar volume

Places more emphasis on personal selling Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-9 What Influences Organizational Buyers? Internal stimuli

External stimuli Cultural factors Type of purchase Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-10 Table 10.1 Types of Organizational Buying Decisions Buyclass theory: organizational buying decisions divided into three types, ranging from most to least complex:

Buying Situation Extent of Effort Risk Buyers Involved Straight rebuy Habitual decision making Low

Automatic reorder Modified rebuy Limited problem solving Low to moderate One or a few New task

Extensive problem solving High Many Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-11 For Reflection Summarize the buyclass model of

purchasing. How do decisions differ within each class? Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-12 Learning Objective 3 Our traditional notions about families are outdated. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

10-13 For Reflection How does the changing nature of the family affect marketing mix decisions marketers make to target families and family members? Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-14 Learning Objective 4

Many important demographic dimensions of a population relate to family and household structure. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-15 The Modern Family Changes in family structure Changes in concept of household (any occupied housing unit)

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-16 Family Size Depends on educational level, availability of birth control, and religion Women want smaller families The rate of voluntary childlessness is rising, making DINKs a valuable market segment

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-17 Sandwich Generation Sandwich generation: adults who care for their parents as well as their own children Boomerang kids: adult children who return to live with their parents Spend less on household items and more on

entertainment Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-18 Nonhuman Family Members Pets are treated like family members Pet-smart marketing strategies: Name-brand pet products Lavish kennel clubs Pet accessories

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-19 Family Life Cycle Factors that determine how couples spend money: Whether they have children Whether both spouses work Family life cycle (FLC) concept combines trends

in income and family composition with change in demands placed on income Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-20 Variables Affecting FLC Age Marital Status Children in the Home Ages of Children in the Home Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

10-21 For Reflection For the following products, discuss how having children or not might affect the choices a couple makes. What do such variations mean for marketers? Groceries Cars Vacations Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

10-22 Learning Objective 5 Members of a family unit play different roles and have different amounts of influence when the family makes purchase decisions. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-23

Household Decisions Consensual Purchase Decisions Accommodative Purchase Decisions Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-24 Resolving Decision Conflicts in Families Interpersonal need

Product involvement and utility Responsibility Power Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-25 Who Makes Key Decisions in the Family? Autonomic decision: one family member

chooses a product Syncretic decision: involve both partners Used for cars, vacations, homes, appliances, furniture, home electronics, interior design, phone service As education increases, so does syncretic decision making Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-26 Factors Affecting Decision-Making

Patterns Among Couples Sex-role stereotypes Spousal Resources Experience Socioeconomic Status Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-27 Heuristics in Joint Decision Making Synoptic ideal: the couple takes a common view and act as joint decision makers

Heuristics simplify decision making: Salient, objective dimensions Task specialization Concessions based on intensity of each spouses preferences Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-28 For Reflection What exposure have you had to family decisions made in your own family? Can

you see the patterns discussed in the chapter in those decisions? Give an example. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-29 Learning Objective 6 Children learn over time what and how to consume. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

10-30 Children as Decision Makers Primary market: kids spend their own money Influence market: parents buy what their kids tell them to buy (parental yielding) Future market: kids grow up quickly and purchase items that normally adults purchase (e.g., photographic equipment, cell phones)

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-31 Consumer Socialization Consumer socialization is the process by which young people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes relevant to their functioning in the marketplace Childrens purchasing behavior is influenced by

Parents, family, and teachers Television and toys Culture Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-32 Figure 10.2 Five Stages of Consumer Development Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-33

Parental Styles for Socializing Children Authoritarian Neglecting Indulgent Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-34 Cognitive Development

Limited: Below age 6, children do not use storage and retrieval strategies Cued: Between ages 6 and 10, children use these strategies, but only when prompted Strategic: Children ages 10 and older spontaneously employ storage and retrieval strategies Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-35

For Reflection How do the stages of cognitive development relate to a childs ability to comprehend marketing messages? How can marketing messages be adapted to meet the appropriate stage of cognitive development? Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-36

Chapter Summary The purchase decisions made by many may differ from those made by individuals. Buying for ones self is different than buying for ones company. Our traditional notions of family are outdated. Family members play different roles and

varying levels of influence. Children learn over time how to consume. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10-37

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