Child psychology - powerpoint world

Child psychology - powerpoint world

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 1 Child Psychology Dr Rachappa M M Pedo - Cods Dvg Definitions (quintessence int.2001; 135p) Psychology --- science dealing with human nature, function and phenomenon of his soul in the main.

Its the study of human mind & its functions Child psychology --- science that deals with the mental power or an interaction between the conscious and subconscious element in a child Emotion --- a feeling or mood manifesting into motor and glandular activity. Behavior --- is any change observed in the functioning of the organism. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 4 Importance of studying child psychology (quintessence

int.2001; Provides information about135p) (JDC 1974;35p) ---child's behavior and psychological growth ---psychological scales for appraising a childs developmental status ---certain norms of behavior and growth for comparative purposes ---understanding of basic psychological processes like learning, motivation, maturation and socialization ---new trends and fads in child care & training Guides psychological growth of children who experience difficulty in adjusting to others.

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 5 In Dentistry (quintessence int.2001; 135p) (JDC 1974;35p) To understand the child & know his problem To deliver treatment effectively To establish effective communication with child and parents To gain confidence of child and parents To teach and motivate them about

importance of primary and preventive care To plan out effective treatment To provide comfortable and treatment Jan 28,satisfactory 2020 Child psychology 6 Theories proposed on Child Psychology Psychodynamic theories -psychosexual theory --- Freud -1905 -psychosocial theory ---Eric Erikson1963 -cognitive theory ---Piaget - 1952 Behavioral theories

-classical conditioning --- Pavlov - 1927 -operant conditioning --- Skinner - 1938 -hierarchy of needs --- Maslow - 1963 -social learning theory --- Bandura 1954 Miscellaneous theories -separation & individualization --- M Mahler -attachment theory --- J Bowlby -childrenese --- H Ginnott Current concepts -information processing -Vygotskys socio-cultural theory -ecological system theory --- U Brofenbrenner Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 7

Psychoanalytical theory Dr. Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 Founder of classic psychoanalysis Oldest of eight children 1887-1897 work on hysterical patients--to develop psychoanalysis Based theory on personal experiences Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 8 Legendary contributions Interpretation of dreams 1900 Topographic model of mind

Instinct or drive theory Stages of psychosexual development Structural theory of mind Theory of anxiety Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 9 Instincts inborn tendencies Libido sexual energy that force by which the sexual instinct is represented in the mind Pleasure principle goal of life gain pleasure and avoid pain Ego instincts nonsexual components

Life & Death instincts accounts for aggressive drive to die or to hurt themselves or others Aggressive drives powerful determinants of peoples actions - sadism Concept of narcissism self love Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 10 THE DRIVING FORCES OF PERSONALITY TWO POWERFUL BIOLOGICAL INSTINCTS: EROS (LIFE) (DEATH)

AND positive, life-sustaining: eating, sex, respiration, THANATOS destructive: aggression, body needs masochism (pleasure from pain & suffering) Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

11 The Structural theory of the mind THE ID basic need -The Demanding Child unorganized instinctual drives pleasure principle. It which brings happiness THE EGO The Traffic Cop consciousness reality principle THE SUPEREGO The Judge moral conscience Ruled by the moral principle Culture and family restrictions Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 12

Superego Perfection principle; Internal censor; Conscience; Ought nots, Should nots; Judgmental. Internalized standards, guilt. Ego Reality principle; Seeks realistic and acceptable ways to satisfy the Id (delaying, planning, modifying impulse); Deliberate, conscious, rational. Id

Pleasure principle; Passions, instincts, emotions, wants; Seeks immediate gratification; Impulsive. Primary, inborn, Jan 28, 2020 unconscious. Child psychology 13 Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 14

Psychosexual stages of Development Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 15 Oral Stage: Birth to 1.5 year Mouth, lips, tongue oral zone Interaction with environment: mother's breast is not only is the source of food represents her love and care and feeling of safety. Satisfy drive of hunger and thirst by breast or bottle Insufficient and forceful feeding----oral fixation If fixated after weaned: Over Dependency

Over Attachment Symptoms of oral fixation---smoking, constant chewing of gums, pens, pencils, nail biting, overeating, drinking, sarcasm ( the biting personality),Excessive optimism and pessimism, demandingness, envy and jealousy. Successful resolution -----trust on others, self reliance and self trust. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 16 Anal Stage: 1.5 - 3 years Neuromuscular Control: control over sphincters attempts to achieve autonomy and independence Toilet training get to impose societal norms

-Self-control -Freedom of action Anal fixation anal expulsive personality - unclean anal retentive personality very clean obsessive compulsive neurosis Successful resolution--personal autonomy independence initiative cooperation Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 17 Phallic Stage: 3 5years

Genital area & functions Interaction with environment -- attraction with opposite sex parent and envy and fear of same sex parent Oedipus Complex Electra complex Emerging gender identity Phallic fixation Boys ---anxiety and guilt feelings about sex, fear of castration, narcissism. Girls ---envy and inferiority Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 18

Oedipus Complex -A boys feelings for his mother and rivalries with his father -Psychological defenses against these threatening thoughts and feelings - Resolution - Form personality through identification with father -Diminish fear of castration Castration Anxiety Unconscious fear of loss of genitals Fear of powerful people overcoming them Fear of revenge of the powerful people Electra complex A girls feelings of inferiority and jealousy Turns affections from mother to father Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 19 Latency Period: 5-11 years of age No erogenous zones Time between resolution of Oedipus complex and puberty (superego) Interaction with environment---focus on other aspects of life, mastery of skills -time for learning and adjusting to social environment (school) -same sex friendship, -sports Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 20 Genital Stage - Adolescence (11-13yrs) to Adulthood Divided into preadolescent, early adolescent. middle, late, post adolescent periods Renewed sexual interest and desire, Normal sexual relations, Marriage, Child-rearing Separation from parents, Mature sense of personal identity Social and cultural interactions No fixation Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 21 Limitations of Freuds Work Pessimistic and deterministic approach to personality Pathology based theory Over emphasis to infantile sexuality No controlled studies-poor research Overemphasis on differences between men and women Unconcerned with interpersonal relations, individual identity and adaptation over ones lifetime Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 22 Psychosocial theoryEric H. Erikson Born in 1902 in Frankfurt. Epigenetic principle --- development occurs in sequential, clearly defined stages and each stage must be resolved satisfactorily for development to proceed smoothly If not ---- failure in the form of physical, cognitive, social, or emotional maladjustment Accepted Freud's concepts Concluded that human personality is determined not only by childhood experiences but also from those of adulthood Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 23 Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 24 Stage 1 - Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1yrs) Dependency on mother --Developing trust is the first task of the ego + outcome ---secure attachment with parents and environment The child will let mother out of sight

without anxiety and rage because she has become an inner certainty as well as an outer predictability. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 25 -ve outcome--- inattentive mother maternal deprivation syndrome increased separation anxiety req parents presence The balance of trust with mistrust depends largely on the quality of maternal relationship maternal deprivation

syndrome Both girls are of age 7 yrs Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 26 Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3yrs) Toddler learns to talk, walk, use toilets (control over sphincters) and do things for themselves ---self control, confidence (parents must not overprotective) Reassurance develops confidence

If denied autonomy, the child will turn angry and shamed Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 27 Parental over control---muscular and anal impotencedoubt Shame develops with the child's selfconsciousness. Terrible two And troublesome three Dental visit make him feel more important, let mother be with Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 28 Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6yrs) Initiate motor and intellectual activities, quality of undertaking, planning, and attacking a task for the sake of being active and on the move. Depends on how much freedom child will get & intellectual curiosity is satisfied Play with peers and learn to interact with environment Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

29 Feels guilt over the goals contemplated, feels unable to be independent Develops sibling rivalry The castration complex occurring in this stage is due to the child's erotic fantasies. Dental visit- more curious about dentists office, they will tolerate being separated from mother Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 30 Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority (611yrs) School ---- organized program of learning, ability to work and acquire skills The fundamentals of technology are developed learn the pleasure of work completion and pride of doing well To lose the hope of such "industrious" association may pull the child back to the more isolated, less conscious, inferiority --- if discriminated, compared in schools Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 31 Dental visit easy to treat, try to please dentist and parents Peer group influence Wear appliance regularly Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 32 Stage 5 - Identity vs. Role Confusion (or

"Diffusion") (12-21yrs) Who am I ? --- to answer - healthy resolution of earlier conflicts The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others. Ego identity ( confidence that the inner sameness and continuity) as evidenced in the promise of a career. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 33 Preoccupation with appearance hero worship and ideology

Group identity If not adolescent sink into confusion ,inability to make decision & choices, settle on a school or occupational identity is disturbing. Most orthodontic treatment carried out in this age more conscious about appearance Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 34

Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation (21-40yrs) To love and to work. Involved in intense and long term relations The avoidance of these experiences leads to isolation and self-absorption. Now true genitality can fully develop. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 35 The counterpart of intimacy is distantiation, which is the readiness to isolate and destroy forces and people whose essence seems dangerous to one's own.

Inability to develop identity---fear a committed relationship The danger at this stage is isolation which can lead to severe character problems. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 36 Stage 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65yrs) Generativity is the concern in establishing and guiding the next generation. Fruitful parenting

Look outside oneself & care for others Simply having or wanting children doesn't achieve Generativity. Adults need children as much as children need adults Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 37 Socially-valued work and disciples are also expressions of Generativity. Creation of living legacy If not --- self concern, isolation absence of intimacy

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 38 Stage 8 - Ego Integrity vs. Despair(>65yrs) Ego integrity is the ego's accumulated assurance of its capacity for order and meaning. It is the sense of satisfaction Despair is a loss of hope producing misanthropy and disgust ---- signified by a fear of one's own death, as well as the loss of self-sufficiency, and of loved partners and friends. Healthy children, Erikson tells us, won't

fear life if their elders have integrity enough not to fear death. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 39 Cognitive development Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Gen Dent 2000, 74p Genetic epistemology study of acquisition, modification & abstract ideas and abilities. Intelligence is the ability to adapt to the environment Cognitive development occurs in a series of stages ---epigenesis

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 40 Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 41 Cognitive organization or adaptation occurs through 1. assimilation 2. accommodation

Assimilation -- people take in new experiences through their own system of knowledge, a process comparable to eating and digesting food, which then becomes part of life. cognitive structures -- a classification for sensations and perception Ex. All flying objects are birds Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 42 Differentiation occurs by accommodation ---- occurs when the child changes his or her cognitive structure or mental category

to better represent the environment. When corrected by someone categorize separate groups of flying objects as birds, bees, aero plane etc. Intelligence develops as interplay between assimilation and accommodation Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 43 Stages of cognitive development Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

44 Sensorimotor stage 0-2yrs develops rudimentary concepts of objects - objects in the environment are permanent; do not disappear when the child is not looking at them. Simple modes of thought that are the foundation of language development Communication between a child at this stage and an adult is extremely limited because of the childs simple concepts and lack of language capabilities. Little ability to interpret sensory data and a limited ability to project forward or backward in time. Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 45 Preoperational stage 2-7yrs Good language development capacity to form mental symbols represent things and events not present, children learn to use words to symbolize these absent objects. understand the world in the way they sense it through 5 primary senses. Concepts - not seen, heard, smelt, tasted or felt ex. Time and health are difficult for these children to grasp Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 46 Egocentrism -- child is incapable of assuming another persons point of view, make them feel more important Centering giving mirror to observe Animism -- investing inanimate objects with life. symbolic fantasy, play and language Animism can be used to the dental teams advantage by giving dental instruments and equipment life like names and qualities. Constructivism child acquires reality by touching, exploring, observing---TSD Cognitive equilibrium answer to questions asked, Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 47 Conservation Reversibility Conservation of Length (6-7 years) Conservation of Liquids Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 48

Conservation of area Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 49 Stage of concrete operations -7-11yrs Good answering capacity Decline of egocentrism Decline of animism Much more like adults but not Easy to treat Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

50 Period of formal operations 11yrs & above Good communication skill (abstract concepts & reasoning) Should be treated as adult Concept of imaginary audience constantly on stage Personal fable uniqueness makes a patient ignore threats to health Easy to treat if interested Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

51 Behavioral learning theories quintessence int.2001: 32: 135p Learning :--Relatively permanent change in the behavior that occurs as a result of experience modifying behavior Behavior is the result of an interaction between innate or instincts and learning after birth Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 52

Classical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov (quintessence int.2001; 135p) (JDC 1974;35p) Classical conditioning operates by a simple process of association of one stimulus with other--learning by association Experiment--Presentation of food to a hungry dog Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

53 Three steps ---conditioning ---stimulus generalization ---extinction 1. Neutral stimulus (NS) 2. Unconditional stimulus (US) 3.Unconditional response (UR) 4. Conditional stimulus (CS) 5. Conditional response (CR) Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 54

Step 1: Before conditioning Step 2: Conditioning process Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 55 Step 3: After conditioning Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 56

Stimulus generalization Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 57 Extinction Before extinction Extinction process After extinction Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 58 First visit white coat (neutral stimulus) pain of injection (unconditioned stimulus) pain of injection (unconditioned stimulus) fear and crying (response)

Second visit sight of white coat (conditioned stimulus) pain of injection (unconditioned stimulus) Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology pain of injection (uncond. stimulus) fear and crying (response) 59 Conditioned by previous physician visit

Generalization of dental clinic and physicians office Reinforcement --- repeated experiences Extinction----if not repeated, occurs by discrimination Discrimination----opposite of generalization Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 60 OPERANT CONDITIONING: B.F SKINNER JDC 1974, 31P, QUINTESSENCE INT.2001; 135P) Complicated theory Related to trial and error

learning A person or animal attempts to solve a problem by trying different actions until one proves successful. Instrumental conditioning Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 61 The basic principles: 1.operant behaviors are voluntary 2. the consequence of a behavior is in itself a stimulus that can affect future behavior.

3.Teach new behaviors behavior shaping Procedure of reinforcing the several gradients of a behavior pattern or Building a response by reinforcing its components in a step by step manner Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 62 STIMULUS RESPONSE CONSEQUENCE

Classical conditioning - a stimulus leads to a response Operant conditioning - a response becomes a further stimulus. A reinforcer is not necessarily a reward nor is a punisher necessarily painful Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 63

Four basic types of operant conditioning: Positive reinforcement---if a pleasant consequence follows a response Ex. reward for co-operation Negative reinforcement---withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus after a response Ex. Stopping treatment if crying Omission (time out)---removal of a pleasant stimulus after a particular response Ex. Taking out of favorite toy Punishment ---when an unpleasant stimulus is presented after a response Ex. Sending mother out of operatory Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 64 -1 & 2 are more suitable for dental office 1. Positive Reinforcers --immediate Unlearned reinforcers are food, candy toys Token reinforcer for habit therapy Activity which the child likes (permission to leave the dental chair) Social reinforcer (giving attention, praise, smiling, ) non verbal communicationduring treatment 2. Negative reinforcers Halting treatment bcoz of behavioral resistance is likely to reinforce undesirable behavior Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 65 3 & 4 should be used sparingly with some caution (aversive learning) Punishers -Voice control, HOME, time out are mild forms of punishments -Physical restraints Other approaches Contingent distraction Contingent escape Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 66 Authoritative dentist - have clear, consistent rules & being warm & supportive -child dentist interaction eye to eye contact -clear instructions in firm voice -reinforce co-op. behavior -engage parents in establishing rules -informed consents-to gain trust & confidence One should ask the child whether he is ready for the treatment, given choice to select the tooth to be restored Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 67 Social learning theory Albert Bandura According to him behavior is acquired through observation and imitation. Importance of observing and modeling the behaviors Famous Babo doll experiment General principles - observing behavior of others outcomes of others - learning occurs without change in behavior - cognition play a role in learning

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 68 Scope and applications--to understand aggression and psychological disorders --Behavior modeling and modifications Eg. Ads. about tooth paste & brush -modeling a mode of behavior management Factors influencingrole model and characteristics childs psychological ability environmental factors.. secondary Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 69 Observational learning or modeling Four processes 1. Attention one should perceive & attend to significant features of modeled behavior Retention coding the information into long term memory

Motor reproduction observer must learn and posses the physical capabilities of the modeled behavior Motivation or reinforcements positive reinforcements such as rewards (consequences) 2. 3. 4. Types of reinforces -a model -third person -imitated behavior itself -consequences of models behavior Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 70 Behaviors learnt through modeling at home in schools surroundings Parents , friends prior experiences have positive or negative outcome Reciprocal implications - new behaviors - frequency of previously learned behaviors - encourage previously forbidden behaviors - increases frequency of similar behaviors Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 71 Applications in dentistry Make him/her observe other person showing desired behavior (live or audiovisual)/ models One should explain the procedure to the child Allowed to imitate the desired behavior Reinforce the same Open areas with several chairs Children have never been good

listeners to elders, but they never fail to imitate them Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 72 HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Abraham Harold Maslow was born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York He established Hierarchy of needs by observing basic needs of individuals. He believed that violence exists to fulfill the basic needs Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 73 Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 74 Physiological Needs - basic needs air, water, food, sleep, sex, etc.When not satisfied - feel sickness, irritation, pain, discomfort, These feelings motivate us to alleviate them as soon as possible to establish homeostasis. Once they are alleviated, we may think about

other things Safety needs stability & constancy in a chaotic world. Ex security of home & family Love & belonging needs we need to be needed. Loving and caring partners, children, friends, society Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 75 If these needs are not fulfilled deficit needs Esteem needs self esteem by mastery of tasks

-- respect from others The negative version of these needs is low self-esteem and inferiority complexes. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 76 Self actualization The need for self-actualization is "the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming." People who have everything can maximize their potential. They can seek

knowledge, peace, esthetic experiences, self-fulfillment, oneness with God, etc. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 77 They are reality centered, problem centered, respect self and others accompanied with strong ethics. only 2% of people Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

78 Separation and Individualization Margaret Mahler Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 79 Normal Autistic Phase - Birth to 1 month maintain physiological homeostasis outside the womb -monadic system. The infant is unable to differentiate between himself and the outside world.

Emotional needs are largely physical in nature gratification of those needs by the mother as occurring as if by magic Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 80 Normal Symbiotic Phase 1-5 months This phase begins with an increased sensitivity and awareness to external stimuli on the part of the infant. task of this phase is the formation of the motherinfant bond and outside world dyadic system Specific smiling response to primary caretaker Basic trust towards care taker Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 81 Subphase I: Differentiation 5-10 months Begins with increasing exploration of mother, face in particular, skin as well. Fascinated by inanimate objects that mother is wearing - jewelry, hair, glasses. "checking back" behavior, or "comparative scanning" Stranger anxiety Emotional wellbeing until mothers presence Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 82 Subphase II: Practicing 10-16 months This phase begins when the baby can physically leave the mother - crawling or climbing & upright locomotion. Separation anxiety engage in action until mother is in sight Emotional refueling Psychological birth or hatching The infant begins to show intense interest in inanimate objects, examining them with mouth and hands. Mother serves as home base for all exploration

and development. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 83 Subphase III: Rapprochement - 16 to 24 mnths begins to appreciate himself as a separate being, mother's absence is accompanied by a sense of loss of the "ideal sense of self Social interaction Tries to actively engage mother wooing Ambitendency rejection as well clinging to mother

Subphase IV: Consolidation and Object Constancy 24-36 months The child develops increased comfort with mother's absence because he knows she will return (object constancy). Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 84 Attachment Theory John Bowlby

Attachment Emotional tone b/w children and their caregivers Seeking & clinging to care giver Phase I (Birth -8-12weeks) Discriminate by olfactory & auditory stimuli Any person in vicinity, infant will Jan 28, 2020

Orient to that person Have tracking movements of the eyes Grasp & reach Smile Babble Stop crying on hearing voice / seeeing face Child psychology 85 Phase II(8-12wks to 6mnths) Continuation of phase I Marked relation to mother Phase III (6mnths to 2yrs) Attachment to mother Greeting her on her return Using mother as base from which to explore

Treating strangers with caution, alarm, withdrawal Phase IV(24mnths beyond) Mother is seen as independent Object permanence Insight into mothers feelings & motives Observes mothers behavior & influences on it Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 86 Infants tend to attach to one person monotropic Usually to stronger, wiser and able to reduce anxiety & stress Attachment - security Skin to skin, eye contact, voice

Signal indicator Infants signs of distress that elicit a behavioral response in the mother Crying (hunger, anger, pain) Smiling Cooing Looking Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 87 Fear stimuli indicator attachment

signal relieve anxiety mothers care Mothers proximity ---- security Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 88 Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

89 Disorders of attachment Psychosocial dwarfism Separation anxiety disorder Avoidant personality Depressive disorder Academic problem borderline intelligence

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 90 Childrenese Dr.Haim Ginnot Acknowledge the childs experience Children are equal in dignity Praise Give children choices, offer options Children need to be liked Acknowledging correctness Children need to be liked

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 91 Theory of information processing Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 92 Vygotskys socio-cultural theory Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 93 Ecological systems theory Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 94 Environmental factors influencing child Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 95 Environmental factors influencing child Parents & Home influence Mother influence Father influence Educational Institute School life Child teacher Peer group Function of peer group Function of play Jan 28, 2020

Child psychology 96 Mother attitude Over protectiveness Excessive contact of the parent and child Prolongation of dependence Not able to built other interest Low level of ego strength,low level of frustration Lose confidence Excessive sensitive to criticism Overprotective overindulgent Aggressive, demanding, display temper tantrums Obstinate, stubborn, spoilt Try to dominate over dentist

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 97 Under affectionate Well behaved, well adjusted Shy Rejecting mother physical violence or verbal ridicule

Jan 28, 2020 Impair growth Sense of security- loss Inc sense of helplessness Undermines his self-esteem Bed-wetting, feeding diff, nailbitting Anti-social behavior - aggression, cruelty, stealing Child psychology 98 Acceptance Resourceful, cooperative, self-reliant Well adjusted in social situation Sense of responsibility

Dominating Child- honest, polite, shy, self-conscious, submissive Feels Inadequate, inferior, inhibited Not able to built up- proper peer relationship Submissive Every wish fulfilled boss over Disobedient & irresponsible Aggressive, antagonist & careless Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 99 Father influence

Socialization effect of father Influence on childs social growth Father determines mothers attitude towards home Constitutes the court of highest appeal Interacts direct & affectionate manneroff school hours Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 100 Effect of school life Attitudes, behavior pattern of cooperation, Initiative, fair play, social maturity, selfreliance, honesty School life : complex combination of diff

factors good/bad School lab in which he makes many of his experimental approaches to social living Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 101 Role of Teacher Key role social climate attitude, prejudices, personal-social values are translated into behavior pattern which become potent influence on childs behavior

Teacher primary source of approval & disapproval in classroom- good / bad Appreciation good self confidence Punishment shame disappointment Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 102 Function of peer group Young infant perceives others as disturber of his relationship with his mother or father Other children lifeless, later alive playmateslimiting the partnership to period of time needed to perform a particular task 2 - 3 yrs share things shift from solitary, independent play to parallel activity

Peer group develop & practice skills of cooperation & competition, autonomy, independence & leadership, followership Social interaction & social acceptance by peer constitute a very imp stage in development of child from dependence to autonomy Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 103 Function of play Play intermediary step in the development of thought Play for child is a process in which different solution are tried out in controlled action in

the world play before executed in modified form in the world at large. Essential occupation of child Pleasure, motivates child exploration, sense of well being Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 104 Emotional development Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

105 Emotional development Emotion is a state of mental excitement characterized by physiological, behavioral changes and alterations of feelings The pleasant-integrative emotions: Psychophysiological states which tend to to accompany moderate muscular tension and verbal reports of pleasure eg: joy, elation, affection, delight, Mild anxiety and apprehension The socially disintegrative emotions: Psychophysiological states which tend to accompany extreme muscular tension, heightened smooth musculature response, and verbal reports of displeasure eg: the strong emotions of fear, extreme anxiety, anger, jealousy

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 106 Physiological aspects of emotional behavior: - emergency patterns (Cannon) - The hypothalumus and sympathetic portion of autonomic nervous system plays a major role - pulse rate, BP, Respiration - Peristalsis and salivation Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

107 - Starts with an undifferentiated emotion of excitement - Delight: Relaxation, smiling in response to satisfying situation - Distress:in response to disturbing stimuli marked by muscular tension, crying, and checked breathing - At 6 months distress differentiates into fear, disgust and anger - At 12 months delight

differentiates into elation and affection - At 18 months, jealousy has been differentiated from distressful stem and affection has been further differentiated into positive responses to adults and children Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 108 Fear A reaction to a known danger(augmenting the

fight or flight response) - An unpleasant emotion or effect consisting of psychophysiological changes in response to realistic threat or danger to ones own experience - Girls have more fears than boys Reasons:- An inherent timidity in girls - Girls are encouraged to display fear - Fear increases from infancy to young childhood Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 109 Development of fear:

a. At birth: - primary response, newborn is unaware of the stimulus - With age he starts becoming aware of fear, can fight or flight - Sometimes, the smells and sounds of equipment or even the appearance of dentist with glasses and mask may be frightening Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 110 b. Preschooler: - Fear of animals or being left alone or abandoned

- More apprehensive about failures, learns to fear his prestige c. Early schooler: - Fear of the dark, staying alone, shows fear of supernatural powers like ghosts and witches, imaginary objects and situations fear of war, spies, beggars etc d. Late schooler: - Fear of bodily injury - Fear of failure, not being liked, competition, fear of punishment - fear of crowds and heights Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 111

Fear of Dental situation: - report a history of traumatic dental experience - unfavorable family attitudes a.Innate fear (without stimuli or previous experience) - Depends on the vulnerability of the individual b.Subjective fear: Fears transmitted to the individual - Family experiences, peer, information media c.Objective fear: Fears due to events, objects and specific conditioning. Previous experience(dental trauma) or generalization(medical experience) Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 112

Fear evoking dental stimuli - Anaesthetic administration locally by injection - Extraction - Sound of drill Factors causing dental fear - Fear of pain or its anticipation - a lack of trust or fear of betrayal - fear of loss of control - fear of the unknown - fear of intrusion Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 113

Response to fear: 1. Intellectual level: child is ready to accept the situation and face the difficulties to achieve results and benefits 2. Emotional level: shows the fight or flight response 3. Hedonic level: reflected as self-centeredness , thereby accepting what is comfortable and rejecting what is not without too much concern for the outcome Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 114 Prevention of fear

Environmental control: - small children should be verbally prepared for the sudden onset of unusual stimuli Increasing the childs adequacy for meeting difficult adjustment circumstances - Parental support when the child is embarking on new endeavors like entrance to school, the first visit to hospital Freedom of child movement: - Permitting the child to approach or withdraw from a new situation Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 115

Jealousy is a fairly usual emotional reaction among children to actual, supposed, or threatened loss of parental affection - Loss of affection involved is that of mother Characteristics: - Direct attack on brother or sister to a rather complete type of social withdrawal - Regress to more infantile level of adjustment in their toilet, sleep, and dressing routine Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 116

Factors associated with jealousy: - New born baby in the family - Increased amount of maternal attention towards the new born - Children in large family Preventing the development of jealousy: - Take some time each day to spend exclusively with older child - Be consistent in disciplinary action - Avoid nagging the child with continuous donts - Avoid making comparisons that are unfavorable to the older child - Attempt to settle interparental tensions outside the childs presence Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

117 Anxiety - is an emotion similar to fear but arising without any objective source of danger - Is a reaction to unknown danger - State of unpleasant feeling combined with an associated feeling of impending doom or danger from within rather than from without - Present by the third year of life - Typically centers around routines, parent-child and child-child relationships Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology

118 - - Frequency of anxiety responses increased with age Greatest number of anxiety responses were made to pictures showing child-child relation Anxiety during early preschool is constructive , mild form of anxiety facilitates learning and problem solving Anxiety in the form of worries occur in 5th or 6th grade pupils

Family and school problems , school progress and personal adequacy Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 119 Psychological disorders in children Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 120

Psychological disorders in children DEPRESSION aged six to 12, however, one in 10 suffer from the illness of depression. These children cannot escape their feelings of sadness for long periods of time. symptoms

sadness hopelessness feelings of worthlessness excessive guilt change in appetite loss of interest in activities recurring thoughts of death or suicide loss of energy helplessness fatigue low self-esteem inability to concentrate change in sleep patterns

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 121 Some key behaviors-: a sudden drop in school performance inability to sit still, fidgeting, pacing, wringing hands pulling or rubbing the hair, skin, clothing or other objects; in contrast: slowed body movements, monotonous speech or muteness outbursts of shouting or complaining or unexplained irritability

crying expression of fear or anxiety aggression, refusal to cooperate, antisocial behavior use of alcohol or other drugs complaints of aching arms, when no cause can be found Jan 28, 2020 legs or stomach, Child psychology 122 Attention-Deficit Disorders (ADD) has difficulty finishing any activity that requires concentration at home, school or play; shifts from

one activity to another. doesn't seem to listen to anything said to him or her. acts before thinking, is excessively active and runs or climbs nearly all the time; often is very restless even during sleep. requires close and constant supervision, frequently calls out in class, and has serious difficulty waiting his of her turn in games or groups. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 123

Anxiety Children have fears that adults often don't understand. At certain ages children seem to have more fears than at others. Nearly all children develop fears of the dark, monsters, witches, or other fantasy images. Over time, these normal fears fade. But when they persist or when they begin to interfere with a child's normal daily routine, he or she may need the attention of a mental health professional. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 124

Simple Phobias overwhelming fears of specific objects such as an animal, or situations such as being in the dark, for which there is no logical explanation. These are very common among young children. these fears go away without treatment. However, a child deserves professional attention if he or she is so afraid of dogs, for example, that he or she is terrorstricken when going outside regardless of whether a dog is nearby. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 125

Separation Anxiety Disorder diagnosed when children develop intense anxiety, even to the point of panic, as a result of being separated from a parent or other loved one. appears suddenly in a child who has shown no previous signs of a problem. interferes with children's normal activities. refuse to leave the house alone, visit or sleep at a friend's house, go to camp or go on errands. At home, they may cling to their parents or "shadow" them by following closely on their heels. Often, they complain of stomachaches, headaches, nausea and vomiting. They may have heart palpitations and feel dizzy and faint. trouble falling asleep and may try to sleep in their parents' bed. If barred, they may sleep on the floor outside the parents' bedroom. When they are separated from a parent, they become

preoccupied with morbid fears that harm will come to them, or that they will never be reunited. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 126 Conduct Disorder Children who have demonstrated at least three of the following behaviors over six months should be evaluated for possible conduct disorder: Steals--without confrontation as in forgery, and/or by using physical force as in muggings, armed robbery, purse-snatching or extortion. Consistently lies other than to avoid physical or sexual abuse.

Deliberately sets fires. Is often truant from school or, for older patients, is absent from work. Has broken into someone's home, office or car. Deliberately destroys the property of others. Has been physically cruel to animals and/or to humans. Has forced someone into sexual activity with him or her. Has used a weapon in more than one fight. Often starts fights. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 127 Pervasive Developmental Disorder

intellectual skills; responses to sights, sounds, smells and other senses; and the ability to understand language or to talk. Youngsters may assume strange postures or perform unusual movements. They may have bizarre patterns of eating, drinking or sleeping. AUTISM -infants, don't cuddle and may even stiffen and resist affection. -don't look at their caregivers and may react to all adults with the same indifference. -tenaciously to a specific individual. fail to develop normal relationships with anyone, not even their parents. -They may not seek comfort even if they are hurt or ill, -fail to develop friendships and generally they prefer to play alone. -cannot communicate -repetitive body movements such as twisting or flicking their hands, flapping

their arms or banging their heads. -environment is changed. -following rigid routines in precise detail. Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 128 Summary Infancy 0-1.5yrs Oral phase Basic trust vs. basic mistrust -Careful introduction to dental office -Dentist must be confident and

experienced Early childhood 1.5-3yrs Anal phase Autonomy vs. shame and doubt -Requires an introductory visit ( fear of unknown ) -Attained treatment maturity -Able to sit still for 10-20 min -Understands simple instructions and explanations for TSD -Praise the childs abilities -Non-verbal communication -Indicators of discomfort (some control

over situation) -Parent may remain near Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 129 Late childhood 35yrs Phallic stage Initiative vs. guilt -Able to Concentrate for 30 min -Understands instructions and explanations for TSD -Praise the childs abilities & appearance

-Non-verbal communication -Parent may remain near-Indicators of discomfort (some control over situation) Early school age 5-12yrs Latency Industry vs. inferiority Realistic view of treatment Explain the procedure Reassure Indicators of discomfort (some control over situation) Adolescence

12-and above Genital stage Identity vs. role confusion Motivation Peer influence Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 130 Conclusion References

Fundamentals of pediatric dentistry-III ed. Mathewson RJ Contemporary orthodontics III ed. Proffit WR Pediatric dentistry Barber TK Child psychology Thompson GG Pediatric dental medicine Forrester DJ Pediatric dentistry scientific foundation Stewart et al Pedodontics a clinical approach Koch G et al Behavior management Ripa Ped dent 1990;12;79p Ped dent 1997;19;8p Ped dent 1999;21;102p DCNA 1995; 39 ;789p, 771p Ped dent 1999;21;463p, 470 Ped dent 1994; 15; 13p quintessence int.2001; 135p Internet database

Jan 28, 2020 Child psychology 132 Times of India 16th Dec 07

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